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Index: L

L flag (Linux routing table): 2.4. The Routing Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
label field (inittab file): 5.2.1.1. Understanding /etc/inittab (TCP/IP Network Administration)
labeled form of SNMP output: 7.2.1.5. snmptranslate (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
labeling
cables: 3.1.2. Maintaining Existing Cabling (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
interfaces in mrtg graphs: 8.4.1.1. mrtg configuration file (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
label makers: 3.1.2. Maintaining Existing Cabling (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
map devices: 6.5.1.1. Drawing maps with tkined (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
labeling the system: 27.5.2. Labeling and Diagramming Your System (Building Internet Firewalls)
labels, domain name (see domain name labels)
labels, in graphs: 9.2.2. OpenView Graphing (Essential SNMP)
9.2.2. OpenView Graphing (Essential SNMP)
9.2.2. OpenView Graphing (Essential SNMP)
13.3. Graphing Other Objects (Essential SNMP)
laboratory networks: 6.7.1. Laboratory Networks (Building Internet Firewalls)
lame delegations: 7.6.2.1. BIND 4.9 and 8 statistics (DNS and Bind)
8.3. Registering Name Servers (DNS and Bind)
10.1.4.2. doc, dnswalk, and lamers (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
troubleshooting and: 14.3.10. Incorrect Subdomain Delegation (DNS and Bind)
lame server message: 7.6.1. Common Syslog Messages (DNS and Bind)
lame-servers category: 7.5.3.1. BIND 8 categories (DNS and Bind)
lame TTL: 10.12.4. TTLs (DNS and Bind)
lame-ttl option (named): C.2.5. The options Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lamers DNS tool: 10.1.4.2. doc, dnswalk, and lamers (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
A.4. Sources for Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
LAN-oriented service: 10.6. Selecting Services Provided by a Bastion Host (Building Internet Firewalls)
LANalyzer tool: 5.8. Microsoft Windows (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
LanguagePriority directive (httpd.conf file): 11.3.6. Defining File Types (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LanMan format: 21.2. Passwords (Building Internet Firewalls)
LanManager: 17.4. File Sharing for Microsoft Networks (Building Internet Firewalls)
LANs
DNS and: 1.5. Must I Use DNS? (DNS and Bind)
mapping tools and: 6.5. Mapping or Diagramming (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
network management and: 6.1.3. Selecting a Product (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
ping results and: 3.3.2.2. Interpreting results (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
traffic and: 8.1.2. Capacity Planning (DNS and Bind)
virtual LANs: 5.7.2. Protecting Yourself (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
6.5. Mapping or Diagramming (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
laptop computers, as troubleshooting tool: 13.2. Diagnostic Tools (TCP/IP Network Administration)
large packets: 3.3.3.3. Ping of Death (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
last command, security and: 12.4.2.2. Checking login activity (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Network Research Group: A.2. Generic Sources (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Layer 2 Transport Protocol (L2TP): 14.12. Layer 2 Transport Protocol (L2TP) (Building Internet Firewalls)
layering rewalls: 3.2. Defense in Depth (Building Internet Firewalls)
layers
data link: 1.2. Physical and data link layers (Managing NFS and NIS)
network: 1.3. Network layer (Managing NFS and NIS)
network protocols: 1.1. Networking overview (Managing NFS and NIS)
OSI Model: 1.2. A Data Communications Model (TCP/IP Network Administration)
stacks: 1.1. Networking overview (Managing NFS and NIS)
TCP/IP models: 1.3. TCP/IP Protocol Architecture (TCP/IP Network Administration)
see also ISO: 1.2. Physical and data link layers (Managing NFS and NIS)
lcladdr parameter
gated bgp statement: B.8.4. The bgp Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
gated egp statement: B.8.5. The egp Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lcp-echo-failure option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lcp-echo-interval option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LCP (Link Control Protocol): 6.2.1. The Serial Protocols (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lcp-max-configure option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lcp-max-failure option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lcp-max-terminate option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lcp-restart option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol): 2.7. Naming and Directory Services (Building Internet Firewalls)
20.5. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) (Building Internet Firewalls)
2.2.5. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) (Managing NFS and NIS)
ldap (sendmail K command value): E.4.5. The sendmail K Command (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LDAPROUTE_DOMAIN macro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LDAPROUTE_DOMAIN_FILEmacro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
leaf nodes: 2.3.1. Naming OIDs (Essential SNMP)
learning periods for polling: 9.2.4. Castle Rock's SNMPc (Essential SNMP)
leases, DHCP: 3.6.2. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (TCP/IP Network Administration)
least privilege principle: 3.1. Least Privilege (Building Internet Firewalls)
24.1.4.1. Least privilege (Building Internet Firewalls)
24.2.4.1. Least privilege (Building Internet Firewalls)
least privilege, running BIND with: 11.2.4. Running BIND with Least Privilege (DNS and Bind)
legal issues
documentation of incidents: 27.1.8. Document the Incident (Building Internet Firewalls)
pursuing intruders: 27.3. Pursuing and Capturing the Intruder (Building Internet Firewalls)
security responsibilities: 25.2.3. External Factors That Influence Security Policies (Building Internet Firewalls)
ssh tool: 11.1.3. ssh (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
use of network tools: 1.3.2.3. Legal and ethical considerations (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Leinen, Simon: 10.2.7. Monitoring Traps with Perl (Essential SNMP)
E. SNMP Support for Perl (Essential SNMP)
lengths
of cables: 3.1.3.2. Cable testers (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
of packets: 5.4.2.4.3. Packet characteristics. (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
level parameter (gated): B.8.3. The isis Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
levels of security: F.1.4. SNMPv3 Textual Conventions (Essential SNMP)
F.2.2.2. Simplifying commands by setting defaults (Essential SNMP)
levels of service, ISP: 4.2.3.4. Other related tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
levels of usage, variations in: 8.1. What, When, and Where (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
levels, stacks: 1.1. Networking overview (Managing NFS and NIS)
lib/modules directory: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
libpcap library: 5.4. tcpdump (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
5.5.3. tcpflow (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
8.3.1. ntop (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
13.5.3. Capture filters (Managing NFS and NIS)
libpng library: 13.1. Using MRTG (Essential SNMP)
libwrap (see TCP-wrappers)
licensing: 1.3.1. Documentation (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
6.1.1. Characteristics of Management Software (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
A.3. Licenses (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
excess objects and: 6.1.2. The netmon Process (Essential SNMP)
OpenView NNM: 6.1. HP's OpenView Network Node Manager (Essential SNMP)
SNMPc: 6.2. Castle Rock's SNMPc Enterprise Edition (Essential SNMP)
SSH1, SSH2, and OpenSSH: 1.5. History of SSH (SSH, The Secure Shell)
lifetime parameter (gated): B.8.9. The routerdiscovery Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
light debugging, compile-time configuration: 4.1.5.14. Debug output (SSH, The Secure Shell)
lights on interfaces: 3.1.3.1. Link lights (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (see LDAP)
limit directive: E.2.11.1. limit transfers-in (DNS and Bind)
limit datasize: 10.12.2.1. Changing the data segment size limit (DNS and Bind)
E.2.11.3. limit datasize (DNS and Bind)
limit stacksize: 10.12.2.2. Changing the stack size limit (DNS and Bind)
limit transfers-in: 10.12.1.2. Limiting the total number of zone transfers requested (DNS and Bind)
E.2.11.1. limit transfers-in (DNS and Bind)
limit transfers-per-ns: 10.12.1.1. Limiting transfers requested per name server (DNS and Bind)
E.2.11.1. limit transfers-in (DNS and Bind)
E.2.11.2. limit transfers-per-ns (DNS and Bind)
limited broadcast addresses: 3.6.2.1. How DHCP works (TCP/IP Network Administration)
limited use protocols: 1.1.2. Protocol Standards (TCP/IP Network Administration)
limiting
access: 7.3.3.2. Advanced configuration (Essential SNMP)
(see also access)
to agents: 7.3.6.2. Advanced configuration (Essential SNMP)
to the MIB tree: 7.3.3.2. Advanced configuration (Essential SNMP)
to NMSs: 7.3.4.2. Creating a configuration by hand (Essential SNMP)
alarms in SNMPc: 9.2.4. Castle Rock's SNMPc (Essential SNMP)
types of traps sent (Cisco): 7.3.6.2. Advanced configuration (Essential SNMP)
line mode (tcpdump): 5.4.1. Using tcpdump (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Line Printer (LP), configuring: 9.2.2. Line Printer Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
line printer spooling, Kerberos V5: 12.5.5.1. Kerberos V5 (Managing NFS and NIS)
Linelimit field (sendmail): 10.5.8. Defining Mailers (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lines, maximum speed of: A. Using Input and Output Octets (Essential SNMP)
Link Control Protocol (LCP): 6.2.1. The Serial Protocols (TCP/IP Network Administration)
link-level traffic
addresses for hosts: 3.3.3. Problems with ping (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
fixing performance: 12.2.2.2. Bottleneck analysis (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
header information: 5.4.2.3. Controlling what's displayed (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
links as bottlenecks: 12.2.2.2. Bottleneck analysis (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
RMON and: 8.5. RMON (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
link lights: 3.1.3.1. Link lights (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
link operations, RPC procedures, NFS: 7.2.1. NFS RPC procedures (Managing NFS and NIS)
Link-State Advertisement (LSA): 7.4.3. Open Shortest Path First (TCP/IP Network Administration)
link-state database (OSPF): 7.4.3. Open Shortest Path First (TCP/IP Network Administration)
link-state protocols: 7.4.3. Open Shortest Path First (TCP/IP Network Administration)
linkDown notification or trap (SNMPv2): 2.6.6. SNMP Traps (Essential SNMP)
2.6.7. SNMP Notification (Essential SNMP)
10.1. Understanding Traps (Essential SNMP)
disconnecting ports and: 10.3.5. Forcing Your Hardware to Generate Traps (Essential SNMP)
Event Categories and: 10.3.5. Forcing Your Hardware to Generate Traps (Essential SNMP)
objects in: 10.3.4. Sending Traps with Net-SNMP (Essential SNMP)
responses to: 10.2. Receiving Traps (Essential SNMP)
linkname option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
linkUp notification or trap (SNMPv2): 2.6.6. SNMP Traps (Essential SNMP)
Linux (see also Unix)
11.2.1.1. syslog Linux example (Building Internet Firewalls)
bastion host: 11. Unix and Linux Bastion Hosts (Building Internet Firewalls)
BIND 8/9, compiling and installing on: C. Compiling and Installing BIND on Linux (DNS and Bind)
broadcast addresses, setting: 6.1.5. Setting the Broadcast Address (TCP/IP Network Administration)
commands
depmod: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
dmesg: 6.1.1. The Interface Name (TCP/IP Network Administration)
insmod: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lsmod: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
modprob: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
rmmod: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
configuration programs: 2.2.2. Configuration Programs (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
configuring resolvers for: 6.4.7. Linux (DNS and Bind)
Debian Linux: 2.2.4. Startup Files and Scripts (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
A.1.4. FreeBSD Ports (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
domain names: 9.1.2.2. The /etc/exports file (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Ethernet promiscuous mode, enabling and disabling: 6.1.6.3. Promiscuous mode (TCP/IP Network Administration)
filesystem type, specifying: 9.1.3.1. The mount command (TCP/IP Network Administration)
fstab files: 9.1.3.2. The vfstab and fstab files (TCP/IP Network Administration)
ifcfg-eth0 file: 6.1.4. Assigning a Subnet Mask (TCP/IP Network Administration)
interface configuration files: 6.1.3. Assigning an Address (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Internet services on: 11.3.1. How Are Services Managed Under Unix? (Building Internet Firewalls)
11.3.3. Which Services Should You Leave Enabled? (Building Internet Firewalls)
disabling: 11.3.2. Disabling Services Under Unix (Building Internet Firewalls)
11.3.4. Specific Unix Services to Disable (Building Internet Firewalls)
installing and modifying: 11.4. Installing and Modifying Services (Building Internet Firewalls)
ipchains: 8.9.1. Linux ipchains and Masquerading (Building Internet Firewalls)
compared to ipfilter: 8.9.3. Comparing ipfilter and ipchains (Building Internet Firewalls)
using: 8.9.1.6. Using ipchains (including masquerading) (Building Internet Firewalls)
ipfilter: 8.9.2. ipfilter (Building Internet Firewalls)
example: 8.5. Conventions for Packet Filtering Rules (Building Internet Firewalls)
kernel configuration: 5.1. Kernel Configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
5.1.3. Linux Kernel Configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Ethernet: 5.1.3. Linux Kernel Configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
help: 5.1.3. Linux Kernel Configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
options: 5.1.3. Linux Kernel Configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
loadable modules: 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
machine
configuring: 11.5. Reconfiguring for Production (Building Internet Firewalls)
securing: 11.2. Securing Unix (Building Internet Firewalls)
masquerading: 8.9.1.3. Masquerading (Building Internet Firewalls)
minicom: 6.3.7. Troubleshooting Serial Connections (TCP/IP Network Administration)
mount options: 9.1.3.2. The vfstab and fstab files (TCP/IP Network Administration)
named.conf file, caching-only servers: 8.3.1.1. A caching-only server configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
NET SNMP: 7.2.1. NET SNMP (UCD SNMP) (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
netfilter: 8.9.4. Linux netfilter (Building Internet Firewalls)
netstat -in command output: 6.1.1. The Interface Name (TCP/IP Network Administration)
network interfaces, checking status: 6.1.2. Checking the Interface with ifconfig (TCP/IP Network Administration)
network management tools: 6.1.2. Discovery and Mapping Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
NFS, exports file: 9.1.2.2. The /etc/exports file (TCP/IP Network Administration)
NIS domains: 9.4. Network Information Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
NIS server, initializing: 9.4. Network Information Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
packages: A.1.3. Red Hat Package Manager (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
point-to-point connections, defining: 6.1.6.6. Point-to-point (TCP/IP Network Administration)
printcap configuration tool: 9.2.1.1. The printcap file (TCP/IP Network Administration)
rc.local script: 5.2.1.1. Understanding /etc/inittab (TCP/IP Network Administration)
rc.sysinit script: 5.2.1.1. Understanding /etc/inittab (TCP/IP Network Administration)
recompiling kernel: 2.2.3. Kernel (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
routing cache, examining: 2.4. The Routing Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
routing metric, changing: 6.1.6.4. Metric (TCP/IP Network Administration)
routing tables: 2.4. The Routing Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
adding routes: 7.3.1. Adding Static Routes (TCP/IP Network Administration)
runlevels: 5.2.1. Startup Runlevels (TCP/IP Network Administration)
sendmail startup script: 10.2. Running sendmail as a Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
serial ports, troubleshooting: 6.3.7. Troubleshooting Serial Connections (TCP/IP Network Administration)
smb.config file, location: 9.3.1. Configuring a Samba Server (TCP/IP Network Administration)
startup and shutdown scripts: 2.2.4. Startup Files and Scripts (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
snmptrap hooks in programs: 10.3.6. Using Hooks with Your Programs (Essential SNMP)
static routing, adding to startup scripts: 7.3.1.1. Installing static routes at startup (TCP/IP Network Administration)
syslog example: 11.2.1.1. syslog Linux example (Building Internet Firewalls)
SystemEDGE: 5.1. SNMP Agents (Essential SNMP)
7.3.5. Concord SystemEDGE Agent for Unix and NT (Essential SNMP)
traffic results with netstat: 4.2.4. Traffic Measurements with netstat (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Linux Documentation Project: A.1.3. The Linux Documentation Project (Building Internet Firewalls)
Linux Router Project: A.1.4. The Linux Router Project (Building Internet Firewalls)
linuxconf command (Linux): 2.2.2. Configuration Programs (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
listen-on option (named): C.2.5. The options Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
listen-on substatement: 10.15.1. Configuring the IPv4 Transport (DNS and Bind)
listen-on-v6 substatement: 10.15.2. Configuring the IPv6 Transport (DNS and Bind)
Listen option (multi-homed servers): 11.3.10. Multi-Homed Server Options (TCP/IP Network Administration)
ListenAddress: 5.4.3.1. Port number and network interface (SSH, The Secure Shell)
recommended setting: 10.3.2. /etc/sshd_config (SSH, The Secure Shell)
"listening" on an interface: an interface (SSH, The Secure Shell) 9.2.4.3. Listening on ("binding")
listening port numbers: 9.2.7. The Listening Port Number (SSH, The Secure Shell)
listening side, SSH sessions: 9.2.3.2. Local versus remote forwarding: the distinction (SSH, The Secure Shell)
listing
all devices on paths: 4.1.2. Complications with traceroute (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
domain machines: 10.1.4.1. nslookup and dig (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
filesystems: 12.5. Disk-Space Checker (Essential SNMP)
interfaces: 8.2. Retrieving Multiple MIB Values (Essential SNMP)
8.3.1.1. Interactive mode (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
managed objects: 1.4. The Structure of Management Information and MIBS (Essential SNMP)
name servers: 10.1.4.1. nslookup and dig (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
open files on systems: 2.1.4. lsof (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
packages: A.1.2. Solaris Packages (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
port numbers: 12.6. Port Monitor (Essential SNMP)
ranked processes: 2.1.2. top (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
routing tables: 2.1.3. netstat (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
running processes: 2.1.1. ps (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
search directories for MIB files: C.2. Common Command-Line Arguments (Essential SNMP)
trap types: 7.3.6. Cisco Devices (Essential SNMP)
10. Traps (Essential SNMP)
10.3.5. Forcing Your Hardware to Generate Traps (Essential SNMP)
lists of software tools: A.2. Generic Sources (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Livingston routers: 8.5. Conventions for Packet Filtering Rules (Building Internet Firewalls)
LMRepl service: 22.6.3. Windows NT Directory Replication (Building Internet Firewalls)
lo0 (loopback interface, Unix): 9.2.4.2. Access control and the loopback address (SSH, The Secure Shell)
load averages, graphing: 13. MRTG (Essential SNMP)
load category: 7.5.3.1. BIND 8 categories (DNS and Bind)
load distribution (see round robin load distribution)
load generators: 9.1.2. Load Generators (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
hardware generators: 9.1.2.2. MGEN (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
MGEN tools: 9.1.2.2. MGEN (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Microsoft Windows: 9.3. Microsoft Windows (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
ping tools: 3.3.2.3. Options (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
spray tool: 9.1.2.1. spray (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
load printers parameter (smb.config file): 9.3.1. Configuring a Samba Server (TCP/IP Network Administration)
loaded message: 7.6.1. Common Syslog Messages (DNS and Bind)
loadhosts utility (NNM): 6.1.2. The netmon Process (Essential SNMP)
loading MIBs: 7.2.1.2. Configuration and options (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
7.2.3.2. SNMP traps (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
LoadModule directive (httpd.conf file): 11.3.1. Loading Dynamic Shared Objects (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOC records: 16.6.4. Location (DNS and Bind)
local addresses, looking up
with nslookup: 4.7.3.3. Look up a local address (DNS and Bind)
troubleshooting problems with: 14.7.1. Local Name Can't Be Looked Up (DNS and Bind)
local area networks (see LANs)
3.3.2.2. Interpreting results (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
local computer, securing: 2.5. The SSH Agent (SSH, The Secure Shell)
local domain name: 6.1.1. The Local Domain Name (DNS and Bind)
local files
appended: 3.3.1. Working with the maps (Managing NFS and NIS)
map integration: 3.3.4. Integrating NIS maps with local files (Managing NFS and NIS)
NIS: 3.2.2. Installing the NIS master server (Managing NFS and NIS)
local forwarding: 9.2.1. Local Forwarding (SSH, The Secure Shell)
9.2.3.2. Local versus remote forwarding: the distinction (SSH, The Secure Shell)
IMAP server, connection path to: 9.2.1. Local Forwarding (SSH, The Secure Shell)
local hosts in ntop results: 8.3.1.1. Interactive mode (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Local Information (generic-linux.cf section): 10.4.2. General sendmail.cf Structure (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Local Internet Registry (organizational type): 4.2.1.1. Obtaining an official network address (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOCAL keyword (security): 12.5.1.1. tcpd access control files (TCP/IP Network Administration)
local mailer: 10.5.8. Defining Mailers (TCP/IP Network Administration)
local name server: 6.2.2. Local Name Server (DNS and Bind)
12.5.3. Switching Name Servers (DNS and Bind)
local names, looking up
with nslookup: 4.7.3.2. Look up a local domain name (DNS and Bind)
troubleshooting problems with: 14.7.1. Local Name Can't Be Looked Up (DNS and Bind)
local network interface: 17.1.1. Local network interface (Managing NFS and NIS)
local newsgroups: 2.3.2. Usenet News (Building Internet Firewalls)
local option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
local password files: 3.3.1. Working with the maps (Managing NFS and NIS)
Local Registration Files (LRF): 6.1.2. The netmon Process (Essential SNMP)
local traffic: 8.3.1.2. Web mode (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
8.3.1.2. Web mode (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
localas parameter
gated bgp statement: B.8.4. The bgp Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
gated egp statement: B.8.5. The egp Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOCAL_CONFIG macro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOCALDOMAIN environment variable: 8.2.1. The Resolver Configuration File (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOCALDOMAIN environment variable, setting local domain name with: 6.1.1. The Local Domain Name (DNS and Bind)
LOCAL_DOMAIN macro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LocalForward: 9.2.1. Local Forwarding (SSH, The Secure Shell)
multiple connections: 9.2.2. Trouble with Multiple Connections (SSH, The Secure Shell)
localhost, converting from loopback address: 8.3.5. The named.local File (TCP/IP Network Administration)
localhost file: 8.3. Configuring named (TCP/IP Network Administration)
localhost (named address match list): 10.1. Address Match Lists and ACLs (DNS and Bind)
local_IP_address:remote_IP_address option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
localities, domains named after: 3.2.3. Back in the U.S.A. (DNS and Bind)
LOCAL_NET_CONFIG macro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
localnets (named address match list): 10.1. Address Match Lists and ACLs (DNS and Bind)
LOCAL_RULE_n macro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOCAL_RULESETS macro (sendmail): E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOCAL_USER
m4 sendmail macro: E.3. m4 sendmail Macros (TCP/IP Network Administration)
sendmail macro: E.3.4. DOMAIN (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Location directive (httpd.conf file): 11.3.4. Defining Where Things Are Stored (TCP/IP Network Administration)
location, record for: 16.6.4. Location (DNS and Bind)
lock daemon: 7.5.1. Lock and status daemons (Managing NFS and NIS)
lock option (pppd command): 6.3.4. PPP Daemon Security (TCP/IP Network Administration)
A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lockd: 17.3.4. File Locking with NFS (Building Internet Firewalls)
9.1.1. NFS Daemons (TCP/IP Network Administration)
6.1. Setting up NFS (Managing NFS and NIS)
lockfiles: 12.5. Disk-Space Checker (Essential SNMP)
12.5. Disk-Space Checker (Essential SNMP)
locking files: 7.5. File locking (Managing NFS and NIS)
advisory locking: 11.1.3. Mandatory versus advisory locking (Managing NFS and NIS)
mandatory locking: 11.1.3. Mandatory versus advisory locking (Managing NFS and NIS)
NFS: 11.2.3. Mandatory locking and NFS (Managing NFS and NIS)
NFS: 11.2. NFS and file locking (Managing NFS and NIS)
17.3.4. File Locking with NFS (Building Internet Firewalls)
NLM protocol: 11.2.1. The NLM protocol (Managing NFS and NIS)
NLM, recovery: 11.2.2. NLM recovery (Managing NFS and NIS)
overview: 11.1. What is file locking? (Managing NFS and NIS)
re-establishing locks: 7.5.3. Recreating state information (Managing NFS and NIS)
troubleshooting: 11.3. Troubleshooting locking problems (Managing NFS and NIS)
unenforced locking: 11.1.3. Mandatory versus advisory locking (Managing NFS and NIS)
Windows: 11.2.4. NFS and Windows lock semantics (Managing NFS and NIS)
Windows/NT: 11.1.4. Windows/NT locking scheme (Managing NFS and NIS)
log file parameter (smb.config file): 9.3.1. Configuring a Samba Server (TCP/IP Network Administration)
log files: 10.2.2. Dynamic Update and Zone Data Files (DNS and Bind)
14.6.1. NFS server logging mechanics (Managing NFS and NIS)
Apache, conditional logging: 11.3.8.2. Using conditional logging (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Apache directives: 11.3.8.1. Defining the log file format (TCP/IP Network Administration)
incremental zone transfers and: 10.4.2. IXFR Files (DNS and Bind)
monitoring: 12.4.1. Know Your System (TCP/IP Network Administration)
sendmail: E.2. The sendmail Command (TCP/IP Network Administration)
share command: 9.1.2.1. The share command (TCP/IP Network Administration)
xinetd: 12.5.2. Controlling Access with xinetd (TCP/IP Network Administration)
log files and logging
connection logging: 11.2.3. Other Approaches to Logging (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
drec tool: 9.1.2.2. MGEN (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
host traffic: 8.2. Host-Monitoring Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
information in log files: 2.2.5.3. Log files (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
managing and tracking files: 11.2.2. Log File Management (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Microsoft Windows: 11.5. Microsoft Windows (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
mrtg files: 8.4.1.1. mrtg configuration file (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
netmon tool: 8.6. Microsoft Windows (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
NTP events: 11.3. NTP (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
other approaches to logging: 11.2.3. Other Approaches to Logging (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
remote logging files: 11.2.1.2. Remote logging (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
saving data to SQL databases: 8.3.1.2. Web mode (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
saving screen display to files: 11.1.1. Automating Documentation (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
syslog files: 11.2.1. syslog (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
tcpwrappers tool: 11.2.3.1. tcpwrappers (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
telnet sessions: 11.1.1. Automating Documentation (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
tracking troubleshooting steps: 11.1. Communications Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
using files in troubleshooting: 11.2. Log Files and Auditing (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
log option (share command): 9.1.2.1. The share command (TCP/IP Network Administration)
log record fields: 14.6. NFS server logging (Managing NFS and NIS)
logcheck management tool: 11.2.2. Log File Management (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
A.4. Sources for Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logfd option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
logfile option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LogFormat directive (Apache): 11.3.8.1. Defining the log file format (TCP/IP Network Administration)
logger command (syslog): 11.2.1. syslog (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logging: 7.4.15. Logging and Debugging (SSH, The Secure Shell)
compile-time configuration: 4.1.5.14. Debug output (SSH, The Secure Shell)
core dump files: 12.3. Throw Core (Essential SNMP)
MRTG log files: 13.1. Using MRTG (Essential SNMP)
13.2. Viewing Graphs (Essential SNMP)
Net-SNMP log files: 7.3.4. Net-SNMP (Formerly UCD-SNMP) (Essential SNMP)
OpenView
events: 10.2.1. HP OpenView (Essential SNMP)
10.2.2.2. Setting event categories (Essential SNMP)
10.2.2.4. Log messages, notifications, and automatic actions (Essential SNMP)
traps: 10.2.1. HP OpenView (Essential SNMP)
10.2.2.4. Log messages, notifications, and automatic actions (Essential SNMP)
variables: 10.2.2.4. Log messages, notifications, and automatic actions (Essential SNMP)
RMON
alarms: 9.1.1. Remote Monitoring (RMON) (Essential SNMP)
events: 9.1.1. Remote Monitoring (RMON) (Essential SNMP)
9.1.1. Remote Monitoring (RMON) (Essential SNMP)
9.1.1.1. RMON configuration (Essential SNMP)
server: 5.8. History, Logging, and Debugging (SSH, The Secure Shell)
OpenSSH: 5.8.3. Logging and OpenSSH (SSH, The Secure Shell)
SSH1: 5.8.1. Logging and SSH1 (SSH, The Secure Shell)
logging changes (see change logs)
logging messages (BIND 8/9): 7.5. Logging in BIND 8 and 9 (DNS and Bind)
importance of experimenting with: 7.5. Logging in BIND 8 and 9 (DNS and Bind)
logging on
login banners: 6.3. Device Identification (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
remotely: 11.1. Communications Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logging queries: 14.2.4. Logging Queries (DNS and Bind)
logging statement: 7.5. Logging in BIND 8 and 9 (DNS and Bind)
logging statement (named command): C.2.6. The logging Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
loghost (Solaris hostname): 3.2. The Host Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
logical and operator (&&): 5.4.2.4.4. Compound filters. (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logical network: 17.2. Network partitioning hardware (Managing NFS and NIS)
logical not operator (!): 5.4.2.4.4. Compound filters. (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logical operators in filters: 5.4.2.4. Filtering (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
5.4.2.4.3. Packet characteristics. (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logical or operator (||): 5.4.2.4.4. Compound filters. (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
logical symbols
AND (&&): 6.1.5.2. Filters (Essential SNMP)
NOT (!): 6.1.5.2. Filters (Essential SNMP)
OR (||): 6.1.5.2. Filters (Essential SNMP)
login activity, security considerations: 12.4.2.2. Checking login activity (TCP/IP Network Administration)
login banners: 6.3. Device Identification (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
login option (pppd): A.2. The PPP Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
login programs, compile-time configuration: 4.1.5.9. User logins and shells (SSH, The Secure Shell)
login restrictions: 12.1. User-oriented network security (Managing NFS and NIS)
login routines: 5.6. User Logins and Accounts (SSH, The Secure Shell)
login scripts, PPP servers, configuring: 6.3.5. PPP Server Configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LoginGraceTime: 5.4.3.5. Failed logins (SSH, The Secure Shell)
logins
account and password expiration warnings: 5.6.2. Expired Account or Password (SSH, The Secure Shell)
forbidding: 4.1.5.10. Forbidding logins (SSH, The Secure Shell)
"message of the day": 5.6.1. Welcome Messages for the User (SSH, The Secure Shell)
remote: 2.5.1. Remote Terminal Access and Command Execution (Building Internet Firewalls)
2.2. Remote Terminal Sessions with ssh (SSH, The Secure Shell)
restricting to root: 5.6.4.1. /etc/nologin (SSH, The Secure Shell)
selecting a program: 5.5.3. Selecting a Login Program (SSH, The Secure Shell)
successful, from unexpected site: 26.2.4. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (Building Internet Firewalls)
username syntax: 2.2. Remote Terminal Sessions with ssh (SSH, The Secure Shell)
logins, recording: 12.2. Who's Logging into My Machine? (I-Am-in) (Essential SNMP)
LogLevel: 5.8.3. Logging and OpenSSH (SSH, The Secure Shell)
7.4.15. Logging and Debugging (SSH, The Secure Shell)
LOGONLY mode, default for traps: 10.2.6. Creating Events Within OpenView (Essential SNMP)
LOGOUT command (IMAP): 3.4.3. Internet Message Access Protocol (TCP/IP Network Administration)
logs: 7.3.1. Where will logs go, and how? (Building Internet Firewalls)
10.9.4. Safeguard the System Logs (Building Internet Firewalls)
22.1.1. syslog (Building Internet Firewalls)
27.5.4. Keeping Activity Logs (Building Internet Firewalls)
of accepted/dropped packets: 8.8.7. It Should Be Able to Log Accepted and Dropped Packets (Building Internet Firewalls)
backups and: 10.12.2. Do Secure Backups (Building Internet Firewalls)
basic format: 14.6.3.1. Basic versus extended log format (Managing NFS and NIS)
creating with SOCKS: 9.5.1. Versions of SOCKS (Building Internet Firewalls)
cycling: 14.6.6. NFS log cycling (Managing NFS and NIS)
enabling logging, share command: 14.6.1. NFS server logging mechanics (Managing NFS and NIS)
extended format: 14.6.3.1. Basic versus extended log format (Managing NFS and NIS)
filehandle, path mapping and: 14.6.5. Filehandle to path mapping (Managing NFS and NIS)
memory required for: 26.1.3. Managing Your Disk Space (Building Internet Firewalls)
26.2.3. What Should You Watch For? (Building Internet Firewalls)
network address translation: 5.4.2.4. Dynamic allocation of addresses interferes with logging (Building Internet Firewalls)
NFS server logging
configuration: 14.6.3. NFS server logging configuration (Managing NFS and NIS)
enabling: 14.6.2. Enabling NFS server logging (Managing NFS and NIS)
nfslogd daemon: 14.6.4. The nfslogd daemon (Managing NFS and NIS)
NIS: 3.3.9. The ypserv daemon (Managing NFS and NIS)
proxy services: 5.3.1.1. Proxy services can be good at logging (Building Internet Firewalls)
of router actions: 8.3.1. Logging Actions (Building Internet Firewalls)
server logging, disabling: 14.6.9. Disabling NFS server logging (Managing NFS and NIS)
servers: 14.6.1. NFS server logging mechanics (Managing NFS and NIS)
setting up
on Unix: 11.2.1. Setting Up System Logs on Unix (Building Internet Firewalls)
on Windows NT: 12.3.1. Setting Up System Logs Under Windows NT (Building Internet Firewalls)
trimlog program for: B.6.10. trimlog (Building Internet Firewalls)
unexpectedly deleted or modified: 26.2.4. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (Building Internet Firewalls)
what to watch for: 26.2.3. What Should You Watch For? (Building Internet Firewalls)
logupdown parameter (gated): B.8.4. The bgp Statement (TCP/IP Network Administration)
Looked for PTR, Found CNAME message: 14.5.4. Resolver Reports "Looked for PTR, Found CNAME" (DNS and Bind)
looking glass sites: 4.1.2. Complications with traceroute (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
lookup operations
filehandles and: 7.2.5. Pathnames and filehandles (Managing NFS and NIS)
RPC procedures, NFS and: 7.2.1. NFS RPC procedures (Managing NFS and NIS)
lookups
CNAME records and: 16.1.5. Looking Up CNAMEs (DNS and Bind)
troubleshooting: 14.7.4. Lookups Take a Long Time (DNS and Bind)
client: 3.3.9. The ypserv daemon (Managing NFS and NIS)
DNS: 20.1.1. Packet Filtering Characteristics of DNS (Building Internet Firewalls)
20.1.4.3. Mismatched data between the hostname and IP address DNS trees (Building Internet Firewalls)
loopback addresses: 9.2.4.2. Access control and the loopback address (SSH, The Secure Shell)
4.2.9. The Loopback Address (DNS and Bind)
6.1.4. The nameserver Directive (DNS and Bind)
2.2. The IP Address (TCP/IP Network Administration)
2.1.3. netstat (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
converting to localhost: 8.3.5. The named.local File (TCP/IP Network Administration)
localhost: 3.2. The Host Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
multiple nameserver directives and: 6.1.4. The nameserver Directive (DNS and Bind)
named.conf file: 8.3.1.1. A caching-only server configuration (TCP/IP Network Administration)
routing tables: 7.2. The Minimal Routing Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LOOPBACK flag, ifconfig: 13.2.1.1. Examining interfaces (Managing NFS and NIS)
loopback interface: 1.2.1. Frames and network interfaces (Managing NFS and NIS)
1.2.1. Frames and network interfaces (Managing NFS and NIS)
IPv6: 1.3.6.2. IP Version 6 loopback address (Managing NFS and NIS)
network numbers and: 1.3.3. IPv4 address classes (Managing NFS and NIS)
loopback interface (Solaris), configuring: 6.1.1. The Interface Name (TCP/IP Network Administration)
loopback interfaces: 8.2. Retrieving Multiple MIB Values (Essential SNMP)
3.3.2.4. Using ping (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
loopback network: 4.2.9. The Loopback Address (DNS and Bind)
loopback route: 2.4. The Routing Table (TCP/IP Network Administration)
loose source routing: 4.1.2. Complications with traceroute (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
loss, testing: 4.2.3.3. iperf (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
lost datagrams: 2.1. SNMP and UDP (Essential SNMP)
lost packets
bing results: 4.2.2.3. bing (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
packet capture results: 5.3. Capturing Data (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
ping and: 3.3.2.2. Interpreting results (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
spray tool calculations: 9.1.2.1. spray (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
traceroute indicators: 4.1. Path Discovery with traceroute (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
Lotus Notes: 16.5. Lotus Notes and Domino (Building Internet Firewalls)
low-bandwidth networks, partitioning: 17.3. Network infrastructure (Managing NFS and NIS)
lp files: 9.2.2. Line Printer Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lpadmin command: 9.2.2. Line Printer Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lpd: 9.2.1. Line Printer Daemon (TCP/IP Network Administration)
printcap file: 9.2.1.1. The printcap file (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lp/lpr printing systems: 17.6.1. lpr and lp (Building Internet Firewalls)
lpq command: 9.2.1.2. Using LPD (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lpr command: 3.5.2. Print Services (TCP/IP Network Administration)
9.2.1.2. Using LPD (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lprm command: 9.2.1.2. Using LPD (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lpsystem command: 9.2.2. Line Printer Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lp/Systems file: 9.2.2. Line Printer Service (TCP/IP Network Administration)
LRF (Local Registration Files): 6.1.2. The netmon Process (Essential SNMP)
LSA (Link-State Advertisement): 7.4.3. Open Shortest Path First (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lseek( ): 3.3.5. Map files (Managing NFS and NIS)
lserver command (nslookup): 12.5.3. Switching Name Servers (DNS and Bind)
lsh: 13.3. Table of Products (SSH, The Secure Shell)
lsmod command (Linux): 5.1.1. Using Dynamically Loadable Modules (TCP/IP Network Administration)
lsof open file tool
ntop tool and: 8.3.1. ntop (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
packet sniffer detection: 5.7.2. Protecting Yourself (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
source web site: A.4. Sources for Tools (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
uses: 2.1.4. lsof (Network Troubleshooting Tools)
L2TP (Layer 2 Transport Protocol): 14.12. Layer 2 Transport Protocol (L2TP) (Building Internet Firewalls)


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