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Index: E

EBCDIC conversion : 35.12. Converting Between ASCII and EBCDIC
echo command : 6.8. Shell Variables
in bash cells : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
in Bourne shell scripts : 44.12. Trapping Exits Caused by Interrupts
in C shell : 47.2.1.1. Writing Files
combining two : 45.30.2. Using echo with awk, colrm, or cut
command-line arguments : 8.6. Output Command-Line Arguments
control characters used with
45.35.1. With echo
45.35.2. With tr and echo
creating error messages : 8.6.2. Making Error Messages
debugging using : 46.2. Quoting Trouble? Think, Then Use echo
-e option : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
-E option : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
escape sequences interpreted by : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
examples
44.5. Test String Values with Bourne Shell case
44.12. Trapping Exits Caused by Interrupts
44.18. Standard Command-Line Parsing
45.27. Turn Off echo for "Secret" Answers
47.2.1.1. Writing Files
47.2.4. Quoting
external versions of : 8.11. Which One Will bash Use?
interpreting octal numbers : 45.35.1. With echo
-n option : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
sending escape sequences : 41.9. Commands to Adjust Your Terminal
shell scripts using : 45.27. Turn Off echo for "Secret" Answers
showing values of variables : 6.1. What Environment Variables Are Good For
turning off : 45.27. Turn Off echo for "Secret" Answers
version differences : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
writing special escape sequences : 7.6. Session Information in Your Terminal's Status Line
echo flag, turning off : 41.2.2. Handling Most Characters
echo shell variable
6.9. Special C Shell Variables
8.17. verbose and echo Variables Show Quoting
echoing
smart : 41.5. Why Some Systems Backspace over Prompts
ed editor
diff command and : 28.9. ex Scripts Built by diff
file size limits : 33.8. Batch Editing Gotcha: Editors Bomb on Big Files
no matches : 33.7. ed/ex Batch Edits: Avoid Errors When No Match
ediff script
28.8. More Friendly diff Output
52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
edit command (SCCS) : 20.13. SCCS Basics
editing
compressed files : 24.11. Edit Compressed Files with zvi, zex, and zed
paired item checking : 29.9. Looking for Closure
with power tools : 1.6. Power Tools for Editing
spell checking : (see spell checking)
with file comparisons : 28.9. ex Scripts Built by diff
EDITOR environment variable : 6.3. Predefined Environment Variables
editors
ed : (see ed editor)
EDITOR variable : 6.3. Predefined Environment Variables
Emacs : (see Emacs editor)
ex : (see ex editor)
patch program : (see patch program)
qsubst program : 33.10. Quick Globals from the Command Line with qsubst
scripting line editors : 33.1. Why Line Editors Aren't Dinosaurs
sed : (see sed editor)
vi : (see vi editor)
egrep : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
egrep expressions
calendar command : 48.4. Automatic Reminders and More: calendar
case statements building : 48.2. Online Phone and Address Lists
examples : 48.2. Online Phone and Address Lists
for loop building : 48.2. Online Phone and Address Lists
options : 48.2. Online Phone and Address Lists
egrep script
17.21. lookfor: Which File Has that Word?
26.4.11. Extended Regular Expressions
27.5. Extended Searching for Text with egrep
27.9. New greps Are Much Faster
27.16. Faking Case-Insensitive Searches
| (vertical bar) : 27.5. Extended Searching for Text with egrep
catman compared to : 50.3. apropos on Systems Without apropos
examples : 50.3. apropos on Systems Without apropos
-f option : 27.7. grepping for a List of Patterns
-i option : 50.6. Searching Online Manual Pages
picking the processes to kill : 38.13. Interactively Kill Processes Matching a Pattern
plus sign (+) : 27.5. Extended Searching for Text with egrep
question mark (?) : 27.5. Extended Searching for Text with egrep
searching manual pages : 50.6. Searching Online Manual Pages
eight-bit filenames : 23.15. Using unlink to Remove a File with a Strange Name
elapsed time
39.2. Timing Programs
39.5. Why Is the System So Slow?
elookfor : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
elookfor script : 17.21. lookfor: Which File Has that Word?
else statement
44.8. Test Exit Status with the if Statement
(see also if loops)
examples : 44.8. Test Exit Status with the if Statement
em-dashes : 43.21. Preprocessing troff Input with sed
Emacs : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
emacs
emacs mode command-line editing : 11.13. Shell Command-Line Editing
Emacs editor
abbreviations : 32.11. Using Word Abbreviation Mode
advantages over other editors : 32.1. Emacs: The Other Editor
auto-save file : 32.4. Backup and Auto-Save Files
backup file : 32.4. Backup and Auto-Save Files
C shell's PWD and : 32.9. Unset PWD Before Using Emacs
command completion : 32.6. Command Completion
global initialization file : 32.3. Customizations and How to Avoid Them
insert mode versus overwrite : 32.5. Putting Emacs in Overwrite Mode
key mapping : 32.7. Mike's Favorite Time Savers
mouse-based editors versus : 32.2. Emacs Features: A Laundry List
quoting control characters : 32.10. Inserting Binary Characters into Files
search customizations : 32.8. Rational Searches
x-on/x-off flow control : 32.12. Getting Around Emacs Flow Control Problems
emacs editor
directory for : 4.4. Directories for Emacs Hacks
temporary files generated by : 14.11. Finding (Anyone's) Home Directory, Quickly
.emacs file
32.3. Customizations and How to Avoid Them
32.11.2. Making Word Abbreviations Part of Your Startup
.emacs_ml file : 32.7. Mike's Favorite Time Savers
.emacs_ml file : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
email
multiple mailboxes : 21.8.1.1. Multiple Mailboxes
notification of : 21.8. The MAILCHECK and mail Variables Check More than Mail
emoticons : 51.12. You Don't Have Enough Smileys?
empty files
13.14. What Can You Do with an Empty File?
21.7. Setting File Modification Time with touch
emptying files : 24.1. Instead of Removing a File, Empty It
enable command : 8.11. Which One Will bash Use?
encoding arguments in termcap or terminfo entries : 41.11.2. Encoding Arguments
encryption : 22.17. Ways of Improving the Security of crypt
End of file unexpected : 46.1.2. Unmatched Operators
error message : 46.1. Tips for Debugging Shell Scripts
end-of-file (EOF) character : 13.14. What Can You Do with an Empty File?
end-of-input character
effect on subshells : 38.4. Subshells
end-of-line processing : 5.11. Initializing the Terminal with tset
enscript program : 43.22. Converting Text Files to PostScript
.enter file : 14.14. Automatic Setup When You Enter/Exit a Directory
.enter.csh script : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
.enter.sh script : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
entomb system : 23.9. delete: Protecting Files from Accidental Deletion
env command
6.1. What Environment Variables Are Good For
6.8. Shell Variables
14.10. Variables Help You Find Directories and Files
52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
ENV environment variable
2.11. Faster ksh and bash Startup with $- Test
6.3. Predefined Environment Variables
environment : 38.3. Managing Processes: Overall Concepts
modifying : 44.23. Reading Files with the . and source Commands
temporary changes in : 13.7.2. Temporary Change of Directory and Environment
writing into temporary files : 40.4. Choosing the Shell Run (We Hope) by at
environment variables
2.12. Automatic Setups for Different Terminals
14.10. Variables Help You Find Directories and Files
45.24. A Shell Can Read a Script from its Standard Input, But...
(see also under specific variable names)
advantages : 6.1. What Environment Variables Are Good For
in Bourne shell : 47.2.5. Variable Syntax
in C shell : 47.2.5. Variable Syntax
changed inside redirected loops : 45.23. The Ins and Outs of Redirected I/O Loops
setting : 2.2.2. C Shell
epsffit program : 43.24. Other PostScript Utilities
equations
43.12.1. troff
43.12.2. TeX
erase character
5.9. Setting Your Erase, Kill, and Interrupt Characters
41.2.2. Handling Most Characters
BACKSPACE : 51.6. Cleaning script Files
DELETE : 51.6. Cleaning script Files
error messages
capturing for screen : 42.8. Errors Erased Too Soon? Try These Workarounds
creating : 8.6.2. Making Error Messages
installation process : 52.8.2.6. An Easy Build
program names included in : 44.22. Finding a Program Name; Multiple Program Names
scrolling off screen : 13.4. Problems Piping to a Pager
errors
44.9. Testing Your Success
(see also debugging; standard error)
Arguments too long : 9.20. Too Many Files for the Command Line
"Arguments too long" : 9.23. Workaround for "Arguments too long" Error
handled in C shell : 47.2.7. Error Handling
in redirected loops : 45.23. The Ins and Outs of Redirected I/O Loops
"No match" : 15.4. What if a Wildcard Doesn't Match?
stderr : (see standard error)
storing with logerrs script : 13.16. Store and Show Errors with logerrs
errors, syntax
in numeric tests : 46.4. Stop Syntax Errors in Numeric Tests
in string tests : 46.5. Stop Syntax Errors in String Tests
ESC key
file completion and : 9.9. Don't Match Useless Files in Filename Completion
ESC Z string : 5.5. Querying Your Terminal Type: qterm
escape sequences
5.8. Terminal Escape Sequences
41.9. Commands to Adjust Your Terminal
backslash character and : 8.6.1. Portability
copied into files : 51.5. Copy What You Do with script
echo command interpreting : 46.10. A Portable echo Command
prompt settings and : 7.8. Highlighting in Shell Prompts
removing : 43.19. Removing Leading Tabs and Other Trivia
writing with echo command : 7.6. Session Information in Your Terminal's Status Line
/etc/motd script : 2.14. motd.diff: Show New Lines in Login Messages
/etc/passwd file
corrupted : 50.12. Common UNIX Error Messages
/etc/passwd file : 1.23. File Access Permissions
/etc/shells file : 2.16. Approved Shells: Using Unapproved Login Shell
/etc/ttys file : 2.12. Automatic Setups for Different Terminals
/etc/ttytab file : 2.12. Automatic Setups for Different Terminals
eval command : 5.3. Setting the Terminal Type When You Log In
advantages : 8.10. eval: When You Need Another Chance
awk compared to : 44.14. Putting awk, sed, etc., Inside Shell Scripts
examples
45.14. Finding the Last Command-Line Argument
45.30.4. Using sed
if-then-else in aliases : 10.7. How to Put if-then-else in a C Shell Alias
scanning contents of variables : 45.17. Making a for Loop with Multiple Variables
sed combined with : 45.30.4. Using sed
shell variables and : 10.10. Simulated Bourne Shell Functions and Aliases
simulating arrays : 45.34. Arrays in the Bourne Shell
ex editor
abbreviations
30.31. vi Word Abbreviation
31.9. Good Stuff for Your .exrc File
appending to file : 30.13. Appending to an Existing File
capitalizing words : 30.17. Capitalizing Every Word on a Line
command descriptions : 33.4. Useful ex Commands
confirming substitutions : 30.10. Confirming Substitutions in ex and vi
counting occurrences : 30.16. Counting Occurrences; Stopping Search Wraps
deleting by patterns : 30.14. Moving Blocks of Text by Patterns
diff command and : 28.9. ex Scripts Built by diff
file recovery : 30.24. vi/ex File Recovery vs. Networked Filesystems
filtering text : 30.22. Filtering Text Through a UNIX Command
global command : 30.9.1. Global Searches
line addressing : 33.3. Line Addressing
modelines : 30.19. Modelines: Bug or Feature?
moving by patterns : 30.14. Moving Blocks of Text by Patterns
multiple setup files
30.20. Multiple Editor Setup Files; Starting with a Search
30.21. Per File Setups in Separate Files
no matches : 33.7. ed/ex Batch Edits: Avoid Errors When No Match
open mode : 30.36. The ex Open Mode Can Be Handy
patterns
30.9. Using Search Patterns and Global Commands
30.14. Moving Blocks of Text by Patterns
quoting control characters : 31.6. Protecting Keys from Interpretation by ex
quoting | (vertical bar) : 31.6. Protecting Keys from Interpretation by ex
reverting to saved : 30.4. Editing Multiple Files with vi
save as new file : 30.4. Editing Multiple Files with vi
saving as new file : 30.11. Keep Your Original File, Write to a New File
saving part of file : 30.12. Saving Part of a File
scripting : 33.3. Line Addressing
settings
30.6. Local Settings for vi and ex
30.18. Setting vi Options Automatically for Individual Files
startup commands : 30.6. Local Settings for vi and ex
stopping search wraps : 30.16. Counting Occurrences; Stopping Search Wraps
switching between files : 30.4. Editing Multiple Files with vi
transfer text between files : 30.5. Edits Between Files
undoing changes : 30.10. Confirming Substitutions in ex and vi
yank buffers : 30.5. Edits Between Files
examples : 51.11. Making an Arbitrary-Size File for Testing
exclamation point : (see !)
exclamation point (!)
test command using : 44.20. test: Testing Files and Strings
exec command : 1.11. How the Shell Executes Other Commands
associating file descriptors with files : 45.22. Handling Files Line-by-Line
examples : 45.10. Removing a File Once It's Opened - for Security and Easy Cleanup
manage file descriptors : 45.7. The exec Command
replacing C shell with Bourne shell
45.6. Making Sure Your Script Runs with Bourne Shell, Without #!
45.7. The exec Command
typing at a shell prompt : 38.2. fork and exec
exec commands : 38.2. fork and exec
executable files
52.8.2. Compiling Source Code
52.8.2.7. Functions, Libraries, and Header Files
displaying : 45.5. A File That Shows Itself... and What #! Does
errors caused by : 50.12. Common UNIX Error Messages
executing without showing #! : 45.5. A File That Shows Itself... and What #! Does
making executable by using # : 45.4. Fun with #!
permissions on : 44.2. Writing a Simple Shell Program
strip command and : 24.13. Save Space in Executable Files with strip
testing : 44.4. Testing How Your System Executes Files
execute permission
22.2. Tutorial on File and Directory Permissions
22.19. Shell Scripts Must be Readable and (Usually) Executable
without read permission : 22.12. A Directory that People Can Access but Can't List
execution statistics, report summarizing : 38.5. The ps Command
EXINIT environment variable
6.3. Predefined Environment Variables
6.10. Running a Command with a Temporarily Different Environment
10.2.2. Using More Complex Aliases
30.6. Local Settings for vi and ex
30.35. Out of Temporary Space? Use Another Directory
exit command : 44.11. Set Exit Status of a Shell (Script)
.cshrc file : 2.9. Speeding Up Your C Shell with set prompt Test
effect on subshells : 38.4. Subshells
examples : 44.5. Test String Values with Bourne Shell case
redirected loops using : 45.23. The Ins and Outs of Redirected I/O Loops
to end scripts : 51.5. Copy What You Do with script
exit command (awk) : 33.11.7. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
exit command (lpc) : 43.3. Printer Control with lpc
.exit file : 14.14. Automatic Setup When You Enter/Exit a Directory
exit status
44.8. Test Exit Status with the if Statement
(see also status variable)
of loops : 45.19. A while Loop with Several Loop Control Commands
non-zero : 46.9. If Command Doesn't Return a Status, Test the Error Messages
of background jobs : 44.7. Exit Status of UNIX Processes
of commands in Bourne shell scripts : 44.7. Exit Status of UNIX Processes
of pipelines : 44.7. Exit Status of UNIX Processes
of redirected loops : 45.23. The Ins and Outs of Redirected I/O Loops
returned by processes : 38.3. Managing Processes: Overall Concepts
testing
44.8. Test Exit Status with the if Statement
44.10. Loops That Test Exit Status
46.9. If Command Doesn't Return a Status, Test the Error Messages
values for expr
45.28. Quick Reference: expr
45.29. Testing Characters in a String with expr
zero
44.10. Loops That Test Exit Status
45.9. The Unappreciated Bourne Shell ":" Operator
46.9. If Command Doesn't Return a Status, Test the Error Messages
.exit.csh script : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
.exit.sh script : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
exp command (awk) : 33.11.7. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
expand command
41.4.1. TAB Is Just Another Character to UNIX
52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
Expect : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
Expect program : 9.26. Expect
testing interactive programs : 9.26.3. Testing: A Story
expr command
45.28. Quick Reference: expr
52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
advantages
45.30.1. Matching with expr
49.1. bc: Simple Math at the Shell Prompt
alternatives to : 45.11. The Multipurpose jot Command
arguments
$* : 45.30.1. Matching with expr
$@ : 45.30.1. Matching with expr
as calculator
49.1. bc: Simple Math at the Shell Prompt
49.6. Quick Arithmetic with expr
disadvantages : 45.30.1. Matching with expr
examples : 45.28. Quick Reference: expr
exit status values
45.28. Quick Reference: expr
45.29. Testing Characters in a String with expr
jot compared to : 45.11. The Multipurpose jot Command
listing command-line arguments : 45.30.1. Matching with expr
loops using : 45.11. The Multipurpose jot Command
matching character strings : 45.30.1. Matching with expr
operators : 45.28. Quick Reference: expr
syntax
45.28. Quick Reference: expr
45.28.1. Examples
testing character strings : 45.29. Testing Characters in a String with expr
variables : 45.28.1. Examples
expressions
in C shell
47.4.2. Expressions
47.4.4. Examples
conditional : 44.8. Test Exit Status with the if Statement
expressions, conditional
44.8. Test Exit Status with the if Statement
(see also if loops; for loops; foreach loop; while loops)
expunge program : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
exrc file (on disc) : 52.4. Quick Descriptions of What's on the Disc
.exrc file
4.9. Setting Up vi with the .exrc File
30.6. Local Settings for vi and ex
30.18. Setting vi Options Automatically for Individual Files
31.9. Good Stuff for Your .exrc File
EXSTAT environment variable : 30.20. Multiple Editor Setup Files; Starting with a Search
exta, extb rates : 41.2.1. How We Made It This Far (Back?)
extended regular expressions : 26.4.11. Extended Regular Expressions
extensions, filename
1.17. Filename Extensions
4.6. Naming Files
"external control" rates : 41.2.1. How We Made It This Far (Back?)
external commands
1.10. Internal and External Commands
7.4. Faster Prompt Setting with Built-Ins
executing : 1.11. How the Shell Executes Other Commands
setting variables with : 7.12. External Commands Send Signals to Set Variables
extractres program : 43.24. Other PostScript Utilities


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