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Java in a Nutshell

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6.6 Images and Sounds

Example 6.5 shows a Java applet that implements a simple client-side imagemap, which has the capability to highlight the "hot spots" in the image and play a sound clip when the user clicks on the image. Figure 6.4 shows what this applet might look like, when configured with an appropriate image.

This applet demonstrates quite a few important applet techniques:

  • getParameter() looks up the name of the image to display and the audio clip to play when the user clicks, and it also reads a list of rectangles and URLs that define the hot spots and hyperlinks of the imagemap.

  • The getImage() and getDocumentBase() methods load the image in the init() method, and Graphics.drawImage() displays the image in the paint() method.

  • getAudioClip() loads a sound file in the init() method, and AudioClip.play() plays the sound in the mousePressed() method.

  • Events are handled by an "event listener" object, which is defined by an inner class (see Chapter 5, Inner Classes and Other New Language Features). This is an example of the Java 1.1 event handling model (see Chapter 7, Events). Therefore, this applet only runs in Web browsers that support Java 1.1.

  • The showStatus() method displays the destination URL when the user presses the mouse button over a hot spot, while the AppletContext.showDocument() method makes the browser display that URL when the user releases the mouse button.

  • The applet uses "XOR mode" of the Graphics class to highlight an area of the image in a way that can be easily "un-highlighted" by redrawing.

  • The individual hot spots are represented by instances of a nested top-level class. The java.util.Vector class stores the list of hot spot objects, and java.util.StringTokenizer parses the descriptions of those hot spots.

The following HTML fragment shows an example of the properties read by this applet:

<APPLET code="Soundmap.class" width=288 height=288>
<PARAM name="image" value="image.gif">
<PARAM name="sound" value="sound.au">
<PARAM name="rect0" value="114,95,151,33,#part1">
<PARAM name="rect1" value="114,128,151,33,#part2">
<PARAM name="rect2" value="114,161,151,33,#part3">
<PARAM name="rect3" value="114,194,151,33,#part4">
<PARAM name="rect4" value="114,227,151,33,#part5">

Example 6.5: An Imagemap Applet

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.util.*;
 * A Java applet that simulates a client-side imagemap.
 * Plays a sound whenever the user clicks on one of the hyperlinks.
public class Soundmap extends Applet {
  protected Image image;      // The image to display.
  protected Vector rects;     // A list of rectangles in it.
  protected AudioClip sound;  // A sound to play on user clicks in a rectangle.
  /** Initialize the applet. */
  public void init() {
    // Look up the name of the image, relative to a base URL, and load it.
    // Note the use of three Applet methods in this one line.
    image = this.getImage(this.getDocumentBase(), this.getParameter("image"));
    // Lookup and parse a list of rectangular areas and the URLs they map to.
    // The convenience routine getRectangleParameter() is defined below.
    rects = new Vector();
    ImagemapRectangle r;
    for(int i = 0; (r = getRectangleParameter("rect" + i)) != null; i++)
    // Look up a sound to play when the user clicks one of those areas.
    sound = this.getAudioClip(this.getDocumentBase(),
    // Specify an "event listener" object to respond to mouse button
    // presses and releases.  Note that this is the Java 1.1 event model.
    // Note that it also uses a Java 1.1 inner class, defined below.
    this.addMouseListener(new Listener());
  /** Called when the applet is being unloaded from the system.
   * We use it here to "flush" the image we no longer need. This may
   * result in memory and other resources being freed more quickly. */
  public void destroy() { image.flush(); }
  /** To display the applet, we simply draw the image. */
  public void paint(Graphics g) { g.drawImage(image, 0, 0, this); }
  /** We override this method so that it doesn't clear the background
   * before calling paint().  No clear is necessary, since paint() overwrites
   * everything with an image.  Causes less flickering this way. */
  public void update(Graphics g) { paint(g); }
  /** Parse a comma-separated list of rectangle coordinates and a URL.
   * Used to read the imagemap rectangle definitions from applet parameters. */
  protected ImagemapRectangle getRectangleParameter(String name) {
    int x, y, w, h;
    URL url;
    String value = this.getParameter(name);
    if (value == null) return null;
    try {
      StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer(value, ",");
      x = Integer.parseInt(st.nextToken());
      y = Integer.parseInt(st.nextToken());
      w = Integer.parseInt(st.nextToken());
      h = Integer.parseInt(st.nextToken());
      url = new URL(this.getDocumentBase(), st.nextToken());
    catch (NoSuchElementException e) { return null; }
    catch (NumberFormatException e) { return null; }
    catch (MalformedURLException e) { return null; }
    return new ImagemapRectangle(x, y, w, h, url);
   * An instance of this inner class is used to respond to mouse events.
  class Listener extends MouseAdapter {
    /** The rectangle that the mouse was pressed in. */
    private ImagemapRectangle lastrect;
    /** Called when a mouse button is pressed. */
    public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
      // On button down, check if we're inside one of the specified rectangles.
      // If so, highlight the rectangle, display a message, and play a sound.
      // The utility routine findrect() is defined below.
      ImagemapRectangle r = findrect(e);
      if (r == null) return;
      Graphics g = Applet.this.getGraphics();
      g.drawRect(r.x, r.y, r.width, r.height);  // highlight rectangle
      Applet.this.showStatus("To: " + r.url);   // display URL
      sound.play();                             // play the sound
      lastrect = r;   // Remember the rectangle so it can be un-highlighted.
    /** Called when a mouse button is released. */
    public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) {
      // When the button is released, un-highlight the rectangle.  If the
      // mouse is still inside it, ask the browser to go to the URL.
      if (lastrect != null) {
    Graphics g = Applet.this.getGraphics();
    g.drawRect(lastrect.x, lastrect.y, lastrect.width, lastrect.height);
    Applet.this.showStatus("");   // Clear the message.
    ImagemapRectangle r = findrect(e);
    if ((r != null) && (r == lastrect))  // If still in the same rectangle
      Applet.this.getAppletContext().showDocument(r.url); // Go to the URL
    lastrect = null;
    /** Find the rectangle we're inside. */
    protected ImagemapRectangle findrect(MouseEvent e) {
      int i, x = e.getX(), y = e.getY();
      for(i = 0; i < rects.size(); i++)  {
    ImagemapRectangle r = (ImagemapRectangle) rects.elementAt(i);
    if (r.contains(x, y)) return r;
      return null;
   * A helper class.  Just like java.awt.Rectangle, but with a URL field.
   * Note the use of a nested top-level class for neatness.
  static class ImagemapRectangle extends Rectangle {
    URL url;
    public ImagemapRectangle(int x, int y, int w, int h, URL url) {
      super(x, y, w, h);
      this.url = url;

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