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HP-UX 11i Version 3: February 2007

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newfs_hfs: newfs — construct a new HFS file system


/usr/sbin/newfs [-F hfs] [-B] [-d] [-L|-S] [-O disk_type] [-R swap] [-v] [-V] [mkfs-options] special


The newfs command builds a file system by invoking the mkfs command.

The newfs command creates the file system with a rotational delay value of zero (see tunefs(1M)).

special represents a character (raw) special device.


newfs recognizes the following options:

-F hfs

Specify the HFS file system type.


Reserve space for boot programs past the end of the file system. If file /usr/lib/uxbootlf is present on the system then sufficient space to accommodate that file is reserved, otherwise 691 KB sectors are reserved. This option decreases the size of the file system to be created. This option cannot be used if the -s option is given; see mkfs Options below.


This option allows the newfs command to make the new file system in an ordinary file. In this case, special is the name of an existing file in which to create the file system. The -s option (see "mkfs Options") must be provided with this option.


There are two types of HFS file systems, distinguished mainly by directory formats that place different limits on the length of file names.

If -L is specified, build a long-file-name file system that allows directory entries (file names) to be up to MAXNAMLEN (255) bytes long.

If -S is specified, build a short-file-name file system that allows directory entries (file names) to be up to DIRSIZ (14) bytes long.

If neither -L nor -S is specified, build a file system of the same type as the root file system.

-O disk_type

Use disk parameters from the entry for the named disk type in /etc/disktab. This option is provided for backward compatibility with previous HP-UX releases. Any parameters specified in the command line will override the corresponding values in /etc/disktab. Any values not given in the command line or in /etc/disktab will be defaulted.

-R swap

Reserve swap megabytes (MB) of swap space past the end of the file system. This option decreases the size of the file system to be created by the given amount. This option cannot be used if the -s option is given; see "mkfs Options" below.


Verbose; the newfs command prints out its actions, including the parameters passed to the mkfs command.


Echo the completed command line, but perform no other actions. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab. This option allows the user to verify the command line.

Both the -R and -B options can be given in the same command line. In this case, both the requested swap space and the space needed for boot programs are reserved. These options are for use when the file system size defaults to the size of the entire disk.

mkfs Options

The mkfs-options argument can be zero or more of the following options that can be used to override default values passed to the mkfs command:

-b blksize

The primary block size for files on the file system. Valid values are: 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, and 65536. The default value is 8192 bytes.

-c cylinders_per_group

The number of disk cylinders per cylinder group. This number must be in the range 1 to 32. The default value is 16 cylinders per group.

-f fragsize

The fragment size for files on the file system. fragsize represents the smallest amount of disk space to be allocated to a file. It must be a power of two no smaller than DEV_BSIZE and no smaller than one-eighth of the file system block size. The default value is 1024 bytes.

-i number_of_bytes_per_inode

The density of inodes in the file system specified as the number of bytes per inode. The default is 6144 bytes per inode.

This number should reflect the expected average size of files in the file system. If fewer inodes are desired, a larger number should be used; if more inodes are desired, a smaller number should be used.

Note: The number of inodes that will be created in each cylinder group of a file system is approximately the size of the cylinder group divided by the number of bytes per inode, up to a limit of 2048 inodes per cylinder group. If the size of the cylinder group is large enough to reach this limit, the default number of bytes per inode will be increased.

-m free_space_percent

The minimum percentage of free disk space allowed. The default value is 10 percent.

Once the file system capacity reaches this threshold, only users with appropriate privileges can allocate disk blocks.

-r revolutions_per_minute

The disk speed in revolutions per minute (rpm). The default value is 3600 revolutions per minute.

-s size

The number of DEV_BSIZE blocks in the file system. DEV_BSIZE is defined in <sys/param.h>. The default value is the size of the entire disk or disk section minus any swap or boot space requested. See mkfs_hfs(1M) for limits on the size of HFS file systems.

-t tracks_per_cylinder

The number of tracks per cylinder. The default value depends on the size of the file system. For file systems of less than 500 MB, the default is 7; for file systems between 500 MB and 1 GB, the default is 12; for file systems larger than 1 GB the default is 16.

-o specific_options

Specify a list of comma separated suboptions and/or keyword/attribute pairs from the list below.

largefiles |nolargefiles

Controls the largefile featurebit for the file system. The default is nolargefiles. This means the bit is not set and files created on the file system will be limited to less than 2 gigabytes in size. If largefiles is specified, the bit is set and the maximum size for files created on the file system is not limited to 2 gigabytes (see mount_hfs(1M) and fsadm_hfs(1M)).

Access Control Lists

Every file with one or more optional ACL entries consumes an extra (continuation) inode. If you anticipate significant use of ACLs on a new file system, you can allocate more inodes by reducing the value of the argument to the -i option appropriately. The small default value typically causes allocation of many more inodes than are actually necessary, even with ACLs. To evaluate the need for extra inodes, run the bdf -i command on existing file systems. For more information on access control lists, see acl(5).


Execute the newfs command to create an HFS file system on a non-LVM disk /dev/rdisk/disk2 and reserve 40 megabytes of swap space.

newfs -F hfs -R 40 /dev/rdisk/disk2

Create an HFS file system within a logical volume, my_lvol, whose size is identical to that of the logical volume. (Note the use of the character (raw) special device.)

newfs -F hfs /dev/vg01/rmy_lvol


The old -F option, from prior releases of newfs(1M), is no longer supported.

newfs(1M) cannot be executed specifying creation of a file system on a whole disk if that disk was previously used as an LVM disk. If you wish to do this, use mediainit(1) to reinitialize the disk first.


newfs was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley.




Static information about the file systems.

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