The first three components are pretty straightforward: in the number
3.14, "3" is the base-10 integer, "." is the
decimal point, and "14" is the fraction. But the fourth
component (the exponent) requires a closer look.

To represent a very large positive or negative number as a float, we
can attach an exponent to a number using the letter E (or e). To
determine the value of a number with an exponent, multiply the number
by 10 to the power specified by the exponent. For example:

12e2 // 1200 (10 squared is 100, times 12 yields 1200)
143E-3 // 0.143 (10 to the power -3 is .001, times 143 yields 0.143)

You may recognize the format as standard scientific notation. If math
isn't your strong point, here's an easy conversion tip:
if the exponent is positive, move the decimal point that many places
to the right; if the exponent is negative, move the decimal point
that many places to the left.