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Network Working Group R. Rivest
Request for Comments: 1186 MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
October 1990
The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm
Status of this Memo
This RFC is the specification of the MD4 Digest Algorithm. If you
are going to implement MD4, it is suggested you do it this way. This
memo is for informational use and does not constitute a standard.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Table of Contents
1. Abstract .................................................... 1
2. Terminology and Notation .................................... 2
3. MD4 Algorithm Description ................................... 2
4. Extensions .................................................. 6
5. Summary ..................................................... 7
6. Acknowledgements ............................................ 7
APPENDIX - Reference Implementation ............................. 7
Security Considerations.......................................... 18
Author's Address................................................. 18
```## 1. Abstract

This note describes the MD4 message digest algorithm. The algorithm
takes as input an input message of arbitrary length and produces as
output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It
is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce two
messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message
having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD4 algorithm
is thus ideal for digital signature applications, where a large file
must be "compressed" in a secure manner before being signed with the
RSA public-key cryptosystem.
The MD4 algorithm is designed to be quite fast on 32-bit machines.
On a SUN Sparc station, MD4 runs at 1,450,000 bytes/second. On a DEC
MicroVax II, MD4 runs at approximately 70,000 bytes/second. On a
20MHz 80286, MD4 runs at approximately 32,000 bytes/second. In
addition, the MD4 algorithm does not require any large substitution
tables; the algorithm can be coded quite compactly.
The MD4 algorithm is being placed in the public domain for review and
possible adoption as a standard.
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
(Note: The document supersedes an earlier draft. The algorithm
described here is a slight modification of the one described in the
draft.)
## 2. Terminology and Notation

In this note a "word" is a 32-bit quantity and a byte is an 8-bit
quantity. A sequence of bits can be interpreted in a natural manner
as a sequence of bytes, where each consecutive group of 8 bits is
interpreted as a byte with the high-order (most significant) bit of
each byte listed first. Similarly, a sequence of bytes can be
interpreted as a sequence of 32-bit words, where each consecutive
group of 4 bytes is interpreted as a word with the low-order (least
significant) byte given first.
Let x_i denote "x sub i". If the subscript is an expression, we
surround it in braces, as in x_{i+1}. Similarly, we use ^ for
superscripts (exponentiation), so that x^i denotes x to the i-th
power.
Let the symbol "+" denote addition of words (i.e., modulo- 2^32
addition). Let X <<< s denote the 32-bit value obtained by circularly
shifting (rotating) X left by s bit positions. Let not(X) denote the
bit-wise complement of X, and let X v Y denote the bit-wise OR of X
and Y. Let X xor Y denote the bit-wise XOR of X and Y, and let XY
denote the bit-wise AND of X and Y.
## 3. MD4 Algorithm Description

We begin by supposing that we have a b-bit message as input, and that
we wish to find its message digest. Here b is an arbitrary
nonnegative integer; b may be zero, it need not be a multiple of 8,
and it may be arbitrarily large. We imagine the bits of the message
written down as follows:
m_0 m_1 ... m_{b-1} .
The following five steps are performed to compute the message digest
of the message.
Step 1. Append padding bits
The message is "padded" (extended) so that its length (in bits)
is congruent to 448, modulo 512. That is, the message is
extended so that it is just 64 bits shy of being a multiple of
512 bits long. Padding is always performed, even if the length
of the message is already congruent to 448, modulo 512 (in
which case 512 bits of padding are added).
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
Padding is performed as follows: a single "1" bit is appended
to the message, and then enough zero bits are appended so that
the length in bits of the padded message becomes congruent to
448, modulo 512.
Step 2. Append length
A 64-bit representation of b (the length of the message before
the padding bits were added) is appended to the result of the
previous step. In the unlikely event that b is greater than
2^64, then only the low-order 64 bits of b are used. (These
bits are appended as two 32-bit words and appended low-order
word first in accordance with the previous conventions.)
At this point the resulting message (after padding with bits
and with b) has a length that is an exact multiple of 512 bits.
Equivalently, this message has a length that is an exact
multiple of 16 (32-bit) words. Let M[0 ... N-1] denote the
words of the resulting message, where N is a multiple of 16.
Step 3. Initialize MD buffer
A 4-word buffer (A,B,C,D) is used to compute the message
digest. Here each of A,B,C,D are 32-bit registers. These
registers are initialized to the following values in
hexadecimal, low-order bytes first):
word A: 01 23 45 67
word B: 89 ab cd ef
word C: fe dc ba 98
word D: 76 54 32 10
Step 4. Process message in 16-word blocks
We first define three auxiliary functions that each take
as input three 32-bit words and produce as output one
32-bit word.
f(X,Y,Z) = XY v not(X)Z
g(X,Y,Z) = XY v XZ v YZ
h(X,Y,Z) = X xor Y xor Z
In each bit position f acts as a conditional: if x then y else
z. (The function f could have been defined using + instead of
v since XY and not(X)Z will never have 1's in the same bit
position.) In each bit position g acts as a majority function:
if at least two of x, y, z are on, then g has a one in that bit
position, else g has a zero. It is interesting to note that if
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
the bits of X, Y, and Z are independent and unbiased, the each
bit of f(X,Y,Z) will be independent and unbiased, and similarly
each bit of g(X,Y,Z) will be independent and unbiased. The
function h is the bit-wise "xor" or "parity" function; it has
properties similar to those of f and g.
Do the following:
For i = 0 to N/16-1 do /* process each 16-word block */
For j = 0 to 15 do: /* copy block i into X */
Set X[j] to M[i*16+j].
end /* of loop on j */
Save A as AA, B as BB, C as CC, and D as DD.
[Round 1]
Let [A B C D i s] denote the operation
A = (A + f(B,C,D) + X[i]) <<< s .
Do the following 16 operations:
[A B C D 0 3]
[D A B C 1 7]
[C D A B 2 11]
[B C D A 3 19]
[A B C D 4 3]
[D A B C 5 7]
[C D A B 6 11]
[B C D A 7 19]
[A B C D 8 3]
[D A B C 9 7]
[C D A B 10 11]
[B C D A 11 19]
[A B C D 12 3]
[D A B C 13 7]
[C D A B 14 11]
[B C D A 15 19]
[Round 2]
Let [A B C D i s] denote the operation
A = (A + g(B,C,D) + X[i] + 5A827999) <<< s .
(The value 5A..99 is a hexadecimal 32-bit
constant, written with the high-order digit
first. This constant represents the square
root of 2. The octal value of this constant
is 013240474631. See Knuth, The Art of
Programming, Volume 2 (Seminumerical
Algorithms), Second Edition (1981),
Addison-Wesley. Table 2, page 660.)
Do the following 16 operations:
[A B C D 0 3]
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
[D A B C 4 5]
[C D A B 8 9]
[B C D A 12 13]
[A B C D 1 3]
[D A B C 5 5]
[C D A B 9 9]
[B C D A 13 13]
[A B C D 2 3]
[D A B C 6 5]
[C D A B 10 9]
[B C D A 14 13]
[A B C D 3 3]
[D A B C 7 5]
[C D A B 11 9]
[B C D A 15 13]
[Round 3]
Let [A B C D i s] denote the operation
A = (A + h(B,C,D) + X[i] + 6ED9EBA1) <<< s .
(The value 6E..A1 is a hexadecimal 32-bit
constant, written with the high-order digit
first. This constant represents the square
root of 3. The octal value of this constant
is 015666365641. See Knuth, The Art of
Programming, Volume 2 (Seminumerical
Algorithms), Second Edition (1981),
Addison-Wesley. Table 2, page 660.)
Do the following 16 operations:
[A B C D 0 3]
[D A B C 8 9]
[C D A B 4 11]
[B C D A 12 15]
[A B C D 2 3]
[D A B C 10 9]
[C D A B 6 11]
[B C D A 14 15]
[A B C D 1 3]
[D A B C 9 9]
[C D A B 5 11]
[B C D A 13 15]
[A B C D 3 3]
[D A B C 11 9]
[C D A B 7 11]
[B C D A 15 15]
Then perform the following additions:
A = A + AA
B = B + BB
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
C = C + CC
D = D + DD
(That is, each of the four registers is incremented by
the value it had before this block was started.)
end /* of loop on i */
Step 5. Output
The message digest produced as output is A,B,C,D. That is, we
begin with the low-order byte of A, and end with the high-order
byte of D.
This completes the description of MD4. A reference
implementation in C is given in the Appendix.
## 4. Extensions

If more than 128 bits of output are required, then the following
procedure is recommended to obtain a 256-bit output. (There is no
provision made for obtaining more than 256 bits.)
Two copies of MD4 are run in parallel over the input. The first copy
is standard as described above. The second copy is modified as
follows.
The initial state of the second copy is:
word A: 00 11 22 33
word B: 44 55 66 77
word C: 88 99 aa bb
word D: cc dd ee ff
The magic constants in rounds 2 and 3 for the second copy of MD4 are
changed from sqrt(2) and sqrt(3) to cuberoot(2) and cuberoot(3):
Octal Hex
Round 2 constant 012050505746 50a28be6
Round 3 constant 013423350444 5c4dd124
Finally, after every 16-word block is processed (including the last
block), the values of the A registers in the two copies are
exchanged.
The final message digest is obtaining by appending the result of the
second copy of MD4 to the end of the result of the first copy of MD4.
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
## 5. Summary

The MD4 message digest algorithm is simple to implement, and provides
a "fingerprint" or message digest of a message of arbitrary length.
It is conjectured that the difficulty of coming up with two messages
having the same message digest is on the order of 2^64 operations,
and that the difficulty of coming up with any message having a given
message digest is on the order of 2^128 operations. The MD4
algorithm has been carefully scrutinized for weaknesses. It is,
however, a relatively new algorithm and further security analysis is
of course justified, as is the case with any new proposal of this
sort. The level of security provided by MD4 should be sufficient for
implementing very high security hybrid digital signature schemes
based on MD4 and the RSA public-key cryptosystem.
## 6. Acknowledgements

I'd like to thank Don Coppersmith, Burt Kaliski, Ralph Merkle, and
Noam Nisan for numerous helpful comments and suggestions.
APPENDIX - Reference Implementation
This appendix contains the following files:
md4.h -- header file for using MD4 implementation
md4.c -- the source code for MD4 routines
md4driver.c -- a sample "user" routine
session -- sample results of running md4driver
/*
** ********************************************************************
** md4.h -- Header file for implementation of **
** MD4 Message Digest Algorithm **
** Updated: 2/13/90 by Ronald L. Rivest **
** (C) 1990 RSA Data Security, Inc. **
** ********************************************************************
*/
/* MDstruct is the data structure for a message digest computation.
*/
typedef struct {
unsigned int buffer[4]; /* Holds 4-word result of MD computation */
unsigned char count[8]; /* Number of bits processed so far */
unsigned int done; /* Nonzero means MD computation finished */
} MDstruct, *MDptr;
/* MDbegin(MD)
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
** Input: MD -- an MDptr
** Initialize the MDstruct prepatory to doing a message digest
** computation.
*/
extern void MDbegin();
/* MDupdate(MD,X,count)
** Input: MD -- an MDptr
** X -- a pointer to an array of unsigned characters.
** count -- the number of bits of X to use (an unsigned int).
** Updates MD using the first "count" bits of X.
** The array pointed to by X is not modified.
** If count is not a multiple of 8, MDupdate uses high bits of
** last byte.
** This is the basic input routine for a user.
** The routine terminates the MD computation when count < 512, so
** every MD computation should end with one call to MDupdate with a
** count less than 512. Zero is OK for a count.
*/
extern void MDupdate();
/* MDprint(MD)
** Input: MD -- an MDptr
** Prints message digest buffer MD as 32 hexadecimal digits.
** Order is from low-order byte of buffer[0] to high-order byte
** of buffer[3].
** Each byte is printed with high-order hexadecimal digit first.
*/
extern void MDprint();
/*
** End of md4.h
****************************(cut)***********************************/
/*
** ********************************************************************
** md4.c -- Implementation of MD4 Message Digest Algorithm **
** Updated: 2/16/90 by Ronald L. Rivest **
** (C) 1990 RSA Data Security, Inc. **
** ********************************************************************
*/
/*
** To use MD4:
** -- Include md4.h in your program
** -- Declare an MDstruct MD to hold the state of the digest
** computation.
** -- Initialize MD using MDbegin(&MD)
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
** -- For each full block (64 bytes) X you wish to process, call
** MDupdate(&MD,X,512)
** (512 is the number of bits in a full block.)
** -- For the last block (less than 64 bytes) you wish to process,
** MDupdate(&MD,X,n)
** where n is the number of bits in the partial block. A partial
** block terminates the computation, so every MD computation
** should terminate by processing a partial block, even if it
** has n = 0.
** -- The message digest is available in MD.buffer[0] ...
** MD.buffer[3]. (Least-significant byte of each word
** should be output first.)
** -- You can print out the digest using MDprint(&MD)
*/
/* Implementation notes:
** This implementation assumes that ints are 32-bit quantities.
** If the machine stores the least-significant byte of an int in the
** least-addressed byte (e.g., VAX and 8086), then LOWBYTEFIRST
** should be set to TRUE. Otherwise (e.g., SUNS), LOWBYTEFIRST
** should be set to FALSE. Note that on machines with LOWBYTEFIRST
** FALSE the routine MDupdate modifies has a side-effect on its input
** array (the order of bytes in each word are reversed). If this is
** undesired a call to MDreverse(X) can reverse the bytes of X back
** into order after each call to MDupdate.
*/
#define TRUE 1
#define FALSE 0
#define LOWBYTEFIRST FALSE
/* Compile-time includes
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include "md4.h"
/* Compile-time declarations of MD4 "magic constants".
*/
#define I0 0x67452301 /* Initial values for MD buffer */
#define I1 0xefcdab89
#define I2 0x98badcfe
#define I3 0x10325476
#define C2 013240474631 /* round 2 constant = sqrt(2) in octal */
#define C3 015666365641 /* round 3 constant = sqrt(3) in octal */
/* C2 and C3 are from Knuth, The Art of Programming, Volume 2
** (Seminumerical Algorithms), Second Edition (1981), Addison-Wesley.
** Table 2, page 660.
*/
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
#define fs1 3 /* round 1 shift amounts */
#define fs2 7
#define fs3 11
#define fs4 19
#define gs1 3 /* round 2 shift amounts */
#define gs2 5
#define gs3 9
#define gs4 13
#define hs1 3 /* round 3 shift amounts */
#define hs2 9
#define hs3 11
#define hs4 15
/* Compile-time macro declarations for MD4.
** Note: The "rot" operator uses the variable "tmp".
** It assumes tmp is declared as unsigned int, so that the >>
** operator will shift in zeros rather than extending the sign bit.
*/
#define f(X,Y,Z) ((X&Y) | ((~X)&Z))
#define g(X,Y,Z) ((X&Y) | (X&Z) | (Y&Z))
#define h(X,Y,Z) (X^Y^Z)
#define rot(X,S) (tmp=X,(tmp<<S) | (tmp>>(32-S)))
#define ff(A,B,C,D,i,s) A = rot((A + f(B,C,D) + X[i]),s)
#define gg(A,B,C,D,i,s) A = rot((A + g(B,C,D) + X[i] + C2),s)
#define hh(A,B,C,D,i,s) A = rot((A + h(B,C,D) + X[i] + C3),s)
/* MDprint(MDp)
** Print message digest buffer MDp as 32 hexadecimal digits.
** Order is from low-order byte of buffer[0] to high-order byte of
** buffer[3].
** Each byte is printed with high-order hexadecimal digit first.
** This is a user-callable routine.
*/
void
MDprint(MDp)
MDptr MDp;
{ int i,j;
for (i=0;i<4;i++)
for (j=0;j<32;j=j+8)
printf("%02x",(MDp->buffer[i]>>j) & 0xFF);
}
/* MDbegin(MDp)
** Initialize message digest buffer MDp.
** This is a user-callable routine.
*/
void
MDbegin(MDp)
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
MDptr MDp;
{ int i;
MDp->buffer[0] = I0;
MDp->buffer[1] = I1;
MDp->buffer[2] = I2;
MDp->buffer[3] = I3;
for (i=0;i<8;i++) MDp->count[i] = 0;
MDp->done = 0;
}
/* MDreverse(X)
** Reverse the byte-ordering of every int in X.
** Assumes X is an array of 16 ints.
** The macro revx reverses the byte-ordering of the next word of X.
*/
#define revx { t = (*X << 16) | (*X >> 16); \
*X++ = ((t & 0xFF00FF00) >> 8) | ((t & 0x00FF00FF) << 8); }
MDreverse(X)
unsigned int *X;
{ register unsigned int t;
revx; revx; revx; revx; revx; revx; revx; revx;
revx; revx; revx; revx; revx; revx; revx; revx;
}
/* MDblock(MDp,X)
** Update message digest buffer MDp->buffer using 16-word data block X.
** Assumes all 16 words of X are full of data.
** Does not update MDp->count.
** This routine is not user-callable.
*/
static void
MDblock(MDp,X)
MDptr MDp;
unsigned int *X;
{
register unsigned int tmp, A, B, C, D;
#if LOWBYTEFIRST == FALSE
MDreverse(X);
#endif
A = MDp->buffer[0];
B = MDp->buffer[1];
C = MDp->buffer[2];
D = MDp->buffer[3];
/* Update the message digest buffer */
ff(A , B , C , D , 0 , fs1); /* Round 1 */
ff(D , A , B , C , 1 , fs2);
ff(C , D , A , B , 2 , fs3);
ff(B , C , D , A , 3 , fs4);
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
ff(A , B , C , D , 4 , fs1);
ff(D , A , B , C , 5 , fs2);
ff(C , D , A , B , 6 , fs3);
ff(B , C , D , A , 7 , fs4);
ff(A , B , C , D , 8 , fs1);
ff(D , A , B , C , 9 , fs2);
ff(C , D , A , B , 10 , fs3);
ff(B , C , D , A , 11 , fs4);
ff(A , B , C , D , 12 , fs1);
ff(D , A , B , C , 13 , fs2);
ff(C , D , A , B , 14 , fs3);
ff(B , C , D , A , 15 , fs4);
gg(A , B , C , D , 0 , gs1); /* Round 2 */
gg(D , A , B , C , 4 , gs2);
gg(C , D , A , B , 8 , gs3);
gg(B , C , D , A , 12 , gs4);
gg(A , B , C , D , 1 , gs1);
gg(D , A , B , C , 5 , gs2);
gg(C , D , A , B , 9 , gs3);
gg(B , C , D , A , 13 , gs4);
gg(A , B , C , D , 2 , gs1);
gg(D , A , B , C , 6 , gs2);
gg(C , D , A , B , 10 , gs3);
gg(B , C , D , A , 14 , gs4);
gg(A , B , C , D , 3 , gs1);
gg(D , A , B , C , 7 , gs2);
gg(C , D , A , B , 11 , gs3);
gg(B , C , D , A , 15 , gs4);
hh(A , B , C , D , 0 , hs1); /* Round 3 */
hh(D , A , B , C , 8 , hs2);
hh(C , D , A , B , 4 , hs3);
hh(B , C , D , A , 12 , hs4);
hh(A , B , C , D , 2 , hs1);
hh(D , A , B , C , 10 , hs2);
hh(C , D , A , B , 6 , hs3);
hh(B , C , D , A , 14 , hs4);
hh(A , B , C , D , 1 , hs1);
hh(D , A , B , C , 9 , hs2);
hh(C , D , A , B , 5 , hs3);
hh(B , C , D , A , 13 , hs4);
hh(A , B , C , D , 3 , hs1);
hh(D , A , B , C , 11 , hs2);
hh(C , D , A , B , 7 , hs3);
hh(B , C , D , A , 15 , hs4);
MDp->buffer[0] += A;
MDp->buffer[1] += B;
MDp->buffer[2] += C;
MDp->buffer[3] += D;
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
}
/* MDupdate(MDp,X,count)
** Input: MDp -- an MDptr
** X -- a pointer to an array of unsigned characters.
** count -- the number of bits of X to use.
** (if not a multiple of 8, uses high bits of last byte.)
** Update MDp using the number of bits of X given by count.
** This is the basic input routine for an MD4 user.
** The routine completes the MD computation when count < 512, so
** every MD computation should end with one call to MDupdate with a
** count less than 512. A call with count 0 will be ignored if the
** MD has already been terminated (done != 0), so an extra call with
** count 0 can be given as a "courtesy close" to force termination
** if desired.
*/
void
MDupdate(MDp,X,count)
MDptr MDp;
unsigned char *X;
unsigned int count;
{ unsigned int i, tmp, bit, byte, mask;
unsigned char XX[64];
unsigned char *p;
/* return with no error if this is a courtesy close with count
** zero and MDp->done is true.
*/
if (count == 0 && MDp->done) return;
/* check to see if MD is already done and report error */
if (MDp->done)
{ printf("\nError: MDupdate MD already done."); return; }
/* Add count to MDp->count */
tmp = count;
p = MDp->count;
while (tmp)
{ tmp += *p;
*p++ = tmp;
tmp = tmp >> 8;
}
/* Process data */
if (count == 512)
{ /* Full block of data to handle */
MDblock(MDp,(unsigned int *)X);
}
else if (count > 512) /* Check for count too large */
{ printf("\nError: MDupdate called with illegal count value %d."
,count);
return;
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
}
else /* partial block -- must be last block so finish up */
{ /* Find out how many bytes and residual bits there are */
byte = count >> 3;
bit = count & 7;
/* Copy X into XX since we need to modify it */
for (i=0;i<=byte;i++) XX[i] = X[i];
for (i=byte+1;i<64;i++) XX[i] = 0;
/* Add padding '1' bit and low-order zeros in last byte */
mask = 1 << (7 - bit);
XX[byte] = (XX[byte] | mask) & ~( mask - 1);
/* If room for bit count, finish up with this block */
if (byte <= 55)
{ for (i=0;i<8;i++) XX[56+i] = MDp->count[i];
MDblock(MDp,(unsigned int *)XX);
}
else /* need to do two blocks to finish up */
{ MDblock(MDp,(unsigned int *)XX);
for (i=0;i<56;i++) XX[i] = 0;
for (i=0;i<8;i++) XX[56+i] = MDp->count[i];
MDblock(MDp,(unsigned int *)XX);
}
/* Set flag saying we're done with MD computation */
MDp->done = 1;
}
}
/*
** End of md4.c
****************************(cut)***********************************/
/*
** ********************************************************************
** md4driver.c -- sample routines to test **
** MD4 message digest algorithm. **
** Updated: 2/16/90 by Ronald L. Rivest **
** (C) 1990 RSA Data Security, Inc. **
** ********************************************************************
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include "md4.h"
/* MDtimetrial()
** A time trial routine, to measure the speed of MD4.
** Measures speed for 1M blocks = 64M bytes.
*/
MDtimetrial()
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
{ unsigned int X[16];
MDstruct MD;
int i;
double t;
for (i=0;i<16;i++) X[i] = 0x01234567 + i;
printf
("MD4 time trial. Processing 1 million 64-character blocks...\n");
clock();
MDbegin(&MD);
for (i=0;i<1000000;i++) MDupdate(&MD,X,512);
MDupdate(&MD,X,0);
t = (double) clock(); /* in microseconds */
MDprint(&MD); printf(" is digest of 64M byte test input.\n");
printf("Seconds to process test input: %g\n,t/1e6);
printf("Characters processed per second: %ld.\n,(int)(64e12/t));
}
/* MDstring(s)
** Computes the message digest for string s.
** Prints out message digest, a space, the string (in quotes) and a
** carriage return.
*/
MDstring(s)
unsigned char *s;
{ unsigned int i, len = strlen(s);
MDstruct MD;
MDbegin(&MD);
for (i=0;i+64<=len;i=i+64) MDupdate(&MD,s+i,512);
MDupdate(&MD,s+i,(len-i)*8);
MDprint(&MD);
printf(" \"%s\"\n",s);
}
/* MDfile(filename)
** Computes the message digest for a specified file.
** Prints out message digest, a space, the file name, and a
** carriage return.
*/
MDfile(filename)
char *filename;
{ FILE *f = fopen(filename,"rb");
unsigned char X[64];
MDstruct MD;
int b;
if (f == NULL)
{ printf("%s can't be opened.\n",filename); return; }
MDbegin(&MD);
while ((b=fread(X,1,64,f))!=0) MDupdate(&MD,X,b*8);
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
MDupdate(&MD,X,0);
MDprint(&MD);
printf(" %s\n",filename);
fclose(f);
}
/* MDfilter()
** Writes the message digest of the data from stdin onto stdout,
** followed by a carriage return.
*/
MDfilter()
{ unsigned char X[64];
MDstruct MD;
int b;
MDbegin(&MD);
while ((b=fread(X,1,64,stdin))!=0) MDupdate(&MD,X,b*8);
MDupdate(&MD,X,0);
MDprint(&MD);
printf("\n");
}
/* MDtestsuite()
** Run a standard suite of test data.
*/
MDtestsuite()
{
printf("MD4 test suite results:\n");
MDstring("");
MDstring("a");
MDstring("abc");
MDstring("message digest");
MDstring("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
MDstring
("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789");
MDfile("foo"); /* Contents of file foo are "abc" */
}
main(argc,argv)
int argc;
char *argv[];
{ int i;
/* For each command line argument in turn:
** filename -- prints message digest and name of file
** -sstring -- prints message digest and contents of string
** -t -- prints time trial statistics for 64M bytes
** -x -- execute a standard suite of test data
** (no args) -- writes messages digest of stdin onto stdout
*/
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
if (argc==1) MDfilter();
else
for (i=1;i<argc;i++)
if (argv[i][0]=='-' && argv[i][1]=='s') MDstring(argv[i]+2);
else if (strcmp(argv[i],"-t")==0) MDtimetrial();
else if (strcmp(argv[i],"-x")==0) MDtestsuite();
else MDfile(argv[i]);
}
/*
** end of md4driver.c
****************************(cut)***********************************/
--------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Sample session. Compiling and using MD4 on SUN Sparcstation ---
--------------------------------------------------------------------
>ls
total 66
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rivest 3 Feb 14 17:40 abcfile
-rwxrwxr-x 1 rivest 24576 Feb 17 12:28 md4
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rivest 9347 Feb 17 00:37 md4.c
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rivest 25150 Feb 17 12:25 md4.doc
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rivest 1844 Feb 16 21:21 md4.h
-rw-rw-r-- 1 rivest 3497 Feb 17 12:27 md4driver.c
>
>cc -o md4 -O4 md4.c md4driver.c
md4.c:
md4driver.c:
Linking:
>
>md4 -x
MD4 test suite results:
31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0 ""
bde52cb31de33e46245e05fbdbd6fb24 "a"
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d "abc"
d9130a8164549fe818874806e1c7014b "message digest"
d79e1c308aa5bbcdeea8ed63df412da9 "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
043f8582f241db351ce627e153e7f0e4
"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789"
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d abcfile
>
>md4 -sabc -shi
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d "abc"
cfaee2512bd25eb033236f0cd054e308 "hi"
>
>md4 *
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d abcfile
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RFC 1186 MD4 Message Digest Algorithm October 1990
d316f994da0e951cf9502928a1f73300 md4
379adb39eada0dfdbbdfdcd0d9def8c4 md4.c
9a3f73327c65954198b1f45a3aa12665 md4.doc
37fe165ac177b461ff78b86d10e4ff33 md4.h
7dcba2e2dc4d8f1408d08beb17dabb2a md4.o
08790161bfddc6f5788b4353875cb1c3 md4driver.c
1f84a7f690b0545d2d0480d5d3c26eea md4driver.o
>
>cat abcfile | md4
a448017aaf21d8525fc10ae87aa6729d
>
>md4 -t
MD4 time trial. Processing 1 million 64-character blocks...
6325bf77e5891c7c0d8104b64cc6e9ef is digest of 64M byte test input.
Seconds to process test input: 44.0982
Characters processed per second: 1451305.
>
>
------------------------ end of sample session --------------------
Note: A version of this document including the C source code is
available for FTP from THEORY.LSC.MIT.EDU in the file "md4.doc".
Security Considerations
The level of security discussed in this memo by MD4 is considered to
be sufficient for implementing very high security hybrid digital
signature schemes based on MD4 and the RSA public-key cryptosystem.
Author's Address
Ronald L. Rivest
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Laboratory for Computer Science
NE43-324
545 Technology Square
Cambridge, MA 02139-1986
Phone: (617) 253-5880
EMail: rivest@theory.lcs.mit.edu
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