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17.6. Reading Usenet News Messages

17.6.3. Discussion

Reading news from a news server requires you to connect to the server and specify a group you're interested in reading:

// open a connection to the nntp server
$server = "{news.php.net/nntp:119}";
$group = "php.general";
$nntp = imap_open("$server$group",'','',OP_ANONYMOUS);

The function imap_open( ) takes four parameters. The first specifies the news server to use and the newsgroup to read. The server here is news.php.net, the news server that mirrors all the PHP mailing lists. Add /nntp to let the IMAP extension know you're reading news instead of mail, and specify 119 as a port; that's typically the port reserved for NNTP. NNTP stands for Network News Transport Protocol; it's used to communicate with news servers, just as HTTP communicates with web servers. The group is php.general, the main mailing list of the PHP community.

The middle two arguments to imap_open( ) are a username and password, in case you need to provide verification of your identity. Because news.php.net is open to all readers, leave them blank. Finally, pass the flag OP_ANONYMOUS, which tells IMAP you're an anonymous reader; it will not then keep a record of you in a special .newsrc file.

Once you're connected, you usually want to either get a general listing of recent messages or all the details about one specific message. Here's some code that displays recent messages:

// read and display posting index
$last = imap_num_msg($nntp);
$n = 10; // display last 10 messages

// table header
print <<<EOH
<table>
<tr>
    <th align="left">Subject</th>
    <th align="left">Sender</th>
    <th align="left">Date</th>
</tr>
EOH;

// the messages
for ($i = $last-$n+1; $i <= $last; $i++) {
    $header = imap_header($nntp, $i);

    if (! $header->Size) { continue; }
           
    $subj  = $header->subject;
    $from  = $header->from;
    $email = $from[0]->mailbox."@".$from[0]->host;
    $name  = $from[0]->personal ? $from[0]->personal : $email;
    $date  = date('m/d/Y h:i A', $header->udate);

print <<<EOM
<tr>
    <td><a href="$_SERVER[PHP_SELF]"?msg=$i\">$subj</a></td>
    <td><a href="mailto:$email">$name</a></td>
    <td>$date</td>
</tr>
EOM;
     }

// table footer
echo "</table>\n";

To browse a listing of posts, you need to specify what you want by number. The first post ever to a group gets number 1, and the most recent post is the number returned from imap_num_msg( ). So, to get the last $n messages, loop from $last-$n+1 to $last.

Inside the loop, call imap_header( ) to pull out the header information about a post. The header contains all the metainformation but not the actual text of the message; that's stored in the body. Because the header is usually much smaller than the body, this allows you to quickly retrieve data for many posts without taking too much time.

Now pass imap_header( ) two parameters: the server connection handle and the message number. It returns an object with many properties, which are listed in Table 17-2.

Table 17-2. imap_header( ) fields from a NNTP server

Name

Description

Type

Example

date or Date

RFC 822 formatted date: date('r')

String

Fri, 16 Aug 2002 01:52:24 -0400

subject or Subject

Message subject

String

Re: PHP Cookbook Revisions

message_id

A unique ID identifying the message

String

<20030410020818. 33915.php@news.example.com>

newsgroups

The name of the group the message was posted to

String

php.general

toaddress

The address the message was sent to

String

php-general@lists.php.net

to

Parsed version of toaddress field

Object

mailbox: "php-general", host: "lists-php.net"

fromaddress

The address that sent the message

String

Ralph Josephs <ralph@example.net>

from

Parsed version of fromaddress field

Object

personal: "Ralph Josephs", mailbox: "ralph", host: "example.net"

reply_toaddress

The address you should reply to, if you're trying to contact the author

String

rjosephs@example.net

reply_to

Parsed version of reply_toaddress field

Object

Mailbox: "rjosephs", host: "example.net"

senderaddress

The person who sent the message; almost always identical to the from field, but if the from field doesn't uniquely identify who sent the message, this field does

String

Ralph Josephs <ralph@example.net>

sender

Parsed version of senderaddress field

Object

Personal: "Ralph Josephs", mailbox: "ralph", host: "example.net"

Recent

If the message is recent, or new since the last time the user checked for mail

String

Y or N

Unseen

If the message is unseen

String

Y or " "

Flagged

If the message is marked

String

Y or " "

Answered

If a reply has been sent to this message

String

Y or " "

Deleted

If the message is deleted

String

Y or " "

Draft

If the message is a draft

String

Y or " "

Size

Size of the message in bytes

String

1345

udate

Unix timestamp of message date

Int

1013480645

Mesgno

The number of the message in the group

String

34943

Some of the more useful fields are: size, subject, the from list, and udate. The size property is the size of the message in bytes; if it's 0, the message was either deleted or otherwise removed. The subject field is the subject of the post. The from list is more complicated. It's an array of objects; each element in the array holds an object with three properties: personal, mailbox and host. The personal field is the name of the poster: Homer Simpson. The mailbox field is the part of the email address before the @ sign: homer. The host is the part of the email address after the @ sign: thesimpsons.com. Usually, there's just one element in the from list array, because a message usually has just one sender.

Pull the $header->from object into $from because PHP can't directly access $header->from[0]->personal due to the array in the middle. Then combine $from[0]->mailbox and $from[0]->host to form the poster's email address. Use the ternary operator to assign the personal field as the poster's name, if one is supplied; otherwise, make it the email address.

The udate field is the posting time as an Unix timestamp. Use date( ) to convert it from seconds to a more human-friendly format.

You can also view a specific posting as follows:

// read and display a single message
$header = imap_header($nntp, $msg);
        
$subj  = $header->subject;
$from  = $header->from;
$email = $from[0]->mailbox."@".$from[0]->host;
$name  = $from[0]->personal;
$date  = date('m/d/Y h:i A', $header->udate);
$body  = nl2br(htmlspecialchars(imap_fetchbody($nntp,$msg,1)));

print <<<EOM
<table>
<tr>
    <th align=left>From:</th>
    <td>$name &lt;<a href="mailto:$email">$email</a>&gt;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
    <th align=left>Subject:</th>
    <td>$subj</td>
</tr>
<tr>
    <th align=left>Date:</th>
    <td>$date</td>
</tr>
<tr>
    <td colspan="2">$body</td>
</tr>
</table>
EOM;

The code to grab a single message is similar to one that grabs a sequence of message headers. The main difference is that you define a $body variable that's the result of three chained functions. Innermost, you call imap_fetchbody( ) to return the message body; it takes the same parameters as imap_header( ). You pass that to htmlspecialchars( ) to escape any HTML that may interfere with yours. That result then is passed to nl2br( ) , which converts all the carriage returns to XHTML <br /> tags; the message should now look correct on a web page.

To disconnect from the IMAP server and close the stream, pass the IMAP connection handle to imap_close( ):

// close connection when finished
imap_close($nntp);

17.6.4. See Also

Section 17.5 for more on posting to newsgroups; documentation on imap_open( ) at http://www.php.net/imap-open, imap_header( ) at http://www.php.net/imap-header, imap_body( ) at http://www.php.net/imap-body, and IMAP in general at http://www.php.net/imap; code to read newsgroups in PHP without using IMAP at http://cvs.php.net/cvs.php/php-news-web; RFC 977 at http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc977.html.



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