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11.2. By Value Versus by Reference

In JavaScript, as in all programming languages, there are three important ways that you can manipulate a data value. First, you can copy it; for example, by assigning it to a new variable. Second, you can pass it as an argument to a function or method. Third, you can compare it with another value to see if the two values are equal. To understand any programming language, you must understand how these three operations are performed in that language.

There are two fundamentally distinct ways to manipulate data values. These techniques are called "by value" and "by reference." When a value is manipulated by value, it is the value of the datum that matters. In an assignment, a copy of the actual value is made and that copy is stored in a variable, object property, or array element; the copy and the original are two totally independent values that are stored separately. When a datum is passed by value to a function, a copy of the datum is passed to the function; if the function modifies the value, the change affects only the function's copy of the datum -- it does not affect the original datum. Finally, when a datum is compared by value to another datum, the two distinct pieces of data must represent exactly the same value (which usually means that a byte-by-byte comparison finds them to be equal).

The other way of manipulating a value is by reference. With this technique, there is only one actual copy of the value; references to that value are manipulated.[42] If a value is manipulated by reference, variables do not hold that value directly; they hold only references to it. It is these references that are copied, passed, and compared. So, in an assignment made by reference, it is the reference to the value that is assigned, not a copy of the value and not the value itself. After the assignment, the new variable refers to the same value that the original variable refers to. Both references are equally valid and both can be used to manipulate the value -- if the value is changed through one reference, that change also appears through the original reference. The situation is similar when a value is passed to a function by reference. A reference to the value is passed to the function, and the function can use that reference to modify the value itself; any such modifications are visible outside the function. Finally, when a value is compared to another by reference, the two references are compared to see if they refer to the same unique copy of a value; references to two distinct values that happen to be equivalent (i.e., consist of the same bytes) are not treated as equal.

[42]C programmers and anyone else familiar with the concept of pointers should understand the idea of a reference in this context. Note, however, that JavaScript does not support pointers.

These are two very different ways of manipulating values, and they have important implications that you should understand. Table 11-2 summarizes these implications. This discussion of manipulating data by value and by reference has been a general one, but the distinctions apply to all programming languages. The sections that follow explain how these distinctions apply specifically to JavaScript; they discuss which data types are manipulated by value and which are manipulated by reference.

Table 11-2. By value versus by reference

By value

By reference


The value is actually copied; there are two distinct, independent copies.

Only a reference to the value is copied. If the value is modified through the new reference, that change is also visible through the original reference.


A distinct copy of the value is passed to the function; changes to it have no effect outside the function.

A reference to the value is passed to the function. If the function modifies the value through the passed reference, the modification is visible outside the function.


Two distinct values are compared (often byte by byte) to see if they are the same value.

Two references are compared to see if they refer to the same value. Two references to distinct values are not equal, even if the two values consist of the same bytes.

11.2.1. Primitive Types and Reference Types

The basic rule in JavaScript is this: primitive types are manipulated by value, and reference types, as the name suggests, are manipulated by reference. Numbers and booleans are primitive types in JavaScript -- primitive because they consist of nothing more than a small, fixed number of bytes that are easily manipulated at the low (primitive) levels of the JavaScript interpreter. Objects, on the other hand, are reference types. Arrays and functions, which are specialized types of objects, are therefore also reference types. These data types can contain arbitrary numbers of properties or elements, so they cannot be manipulated as easily as fixed-size primitive values can. Since object and array values can become quite large, it doesn't make sense to manipulate these types by value, as this could involve the inefficient copying and comparing of large amounts of memory.

What about strings? A string can have an arbitrary length, so it would seem that strings should be reference types. In fact, though, they are usually considered to be primitive types in JavaScript simply because they are not objects. Strings don't actually fit into the primitive versus reference type dichotomy. We'll have more to say about strings and their behavior a little later.

The best way to explore the differences between data manipulation by value and by reference is through example. Study the following examples carefully, paying attention to the comments. Example 11-1 copies, passes, and compares numbers. Since numbers are primitive types, this example illustrates data manipulation by value.

Example 11-1. Copying, passing, and comparing by value

// First we illustrate copying by value
var n = 1;  // Variable n holds the value 1
var m = n;  // Copy by value: variable m holds a distinct value 1

// Here's a function we'll use to illustrate passing by value
// As we'll see, the function doesn't work the way we'd like it to
function add_to_total(total, x)
    total = total + x;  // This line changes only the internal copy of total

// Now call the function, passing the numbers contained in n and m by value.
// The value of n is copied, and that copied value is named total within the
// function. The function adds a copy of m to that copy of n. But adding
// something to a copy of n doesn't affect the original value of n outside
// of the function. So calling this function doesn't accomplish anything.
add_to_total(n, m);

// Now, we'll look at comparison by value.
// In the following line of code, the literal 1 is clearly a distinct numeric
// value encoded in the program. We compare it to the value held in variable
// n. In comparison by value, the bytes of the two numbers are checked to
// see if they are the same.
if (n == 1) m = 2;  // n contains the same value as the literal 1; m is now 2

Now, consider Example 11-2. This example copies, passes, and compares an object. Since objects are reference types, these manipulations are performed by reference. This example uses Date objects, which you can read more about in the core reference section of this book.

Example 11-2. Copying, passing, and comparing by reference

// Here we create an object representing the date of Christmas, 2001
// The variable xmas contains a reference to the object, not the object itself
var xmas = new Date(2001, 11, 25);

// When we copy by reference, we get a new reference to the original object
var solstice = xmas;  // Both variables now refer to the same object value

// Here we change the object through our new reference to it

// The change is visible through the original reference, as well
xmas.getDate( );  // Returns 21, not the original value of 25

// The same is true when objects and arrays are passed to functions.
// The following function adds a value to each element of an array.
// A reference to the array is passed to the function, not a copy of the array.
// Therefore, the function can change the contents of the array through
// the reference, and those changes will be visible when the function returns.
function add_to_totals(totals, x)
    totals[0] = totals[0] + x;
    totals[1] = totals[1] + x;
    totals[2] = totals[2] + x;

// Finally, we'll examine comparison by reference.
// When we compare the two variables defined above, we find they are
// equal, because they refer to the same object, even though we were trying
// to make them refer to different dates:
(xmas == solstice)  // Evaluates to true

// The two variables defined next refer to two distinct objects, both
// of which represent exactly the same date.
var xmas = new Date(2001, 11, 25);
var solstice_plus_4 = new Date(2001, 11, 25);

// But, by the rules of "compare by reference," distinct objects are not equal!
(xmas != solstice_plus_4)  // Evaluates to true

Before we leave the topic of manipulating objects and arrays by reference, we need to clear up a point of nomenclature. The phrase "pass by reference" can have several meanings. To some readers, the phrase refers to a function invocation technique that allows a function to assign new values to its arguments and to have those modified values visible outside the function. This is not the way the term is used in this book. Here, we mean simply that a reference to an object or array -- not the object itself -- is passed to a function. A function can use the reference to modify properties of the object or elements of the array. But if the function overwrites the reference with a reference to a new object or array, that modification is not visible outside of the function. Readers familiar with the other meaning of this term may prefer to say that objects and arrays are passed by value, but the value that is passed is actually a reference rather than the object itself. Example 11-3 illustrates this issue.

11.2.2. Copying and Passing Strings

As mentioned earlier, JavaScript strings don't fit neatly into the primitive type versus reference type dichotomy. Since strings are not objects, it is natural to assume that they are primitive. If they are primitive types, then by the rules given above, they should be manipulated by value. But since strings can be arbitrarily long, it would seem inefficient to copy, pass, and compare them byte by byte. Therefore, it would also be natural to assume that strings are implemented as reference types.

Instead of making assumptions about strings, suppose we write some JavaScript code to experiment with string manipulation. If strings are copied and passed by reference, we should be able to modify the contents of a string through the reference stored in another variable or passed to a function.

When we set out to write the code to perform this experiment, however, we run into a major stumbling block: there is no way to modify the contents of a string. The charAt( ) method returns the character at a given position in a string, but there is no corresponding setCharAt( ) method. This is not an oversight. JavaScript strings are intentionally immutable -- that is, there is no JavaScript syntax, method, or property that allows you to change the characters in a string.

Since strings are immutable, our original question is moot: there is no way to tell if strings are passed by value or by reference. We can assume that, for efficiency, JavaScript is implemented so that strings are passed by reference, but in actuality it doesn't matter, since it has no practical bearing on the code we write.

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