home | O'Reilly's CD bookshelfs | FreeBSD | Linux | Cisco | Cisco Exam  

Unix Power ToolsUnix Power ToolsSearch this book

24.8. Why ps Prints Some Commands in Parentheses

There is a reason that some versions of ps, and thus derivatives such as w, sometimes print commands in parentheses:

% ps -f -u jerry
   jerry 29240 29235  0 07:56:19 ttyp1    0:01 sh find_mh_dupes
   jerry 29259 29240 23 07:57:52 ttyp1    0:07 (egrep)

The reason is that whoever wrote ps liked it that way. The parentheses indicate that the command overwrote its name, or ps could not find the name, and that ps is printing instead the "accounting name." (The accounting name is the last component of the name given to the exec (Section 24.2) system call, and is the name used in the system resource usage accounting file.) Basically, ps does this in the C language:

if (proc->argv == NULL || strcmp(proc->acct_name, proc->argv[0]) != 0)
   printf("(%s)", proc->acct_name);

In the case of a large environment, ps is unable to find the argument vector. This is because it reads only the last few stack pages of each process.

Other versions of ps use completely different mechanisms for locating the command arguments and may never print parentheses.

-- CT, in net.unix-wizards on Usenet, 13 November 1983

Library Navigation Links

Copyright © 2003 O'Reilly & Associates. All rights reserved.