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ls

ls [options ] [names ]

If no names are given, list the files in the current directory. With one or more names , list files contained in a directory name or that match a file name . The options let you display a variety of information in different formats. The most useful options include -F , -R , -a , -l , and -s . Some options don't make sense together; e.g., -u and -c .

Note: the Solaris /usr/bin/ls pays attention to the LC_COLLATE environment variable. Its default value, en_US , (in the United States) causes ls to sort in dictionary order (i.e., ignoring case). Set LC_COLLATE to C to restore the traditional Unix behavior of sorting in ASCII order, or use /usr/ucb/ls .

Options

-a

List all files, including the normally hidden . files.

-A

Like -a , but exclude . and .. (the current and parent directories). Solaris only.

-b

Show nonprinting characters in octal.

-c

List files by inode modification time.

-C

List files in columns (the default format, when displaying to a terminal device).

-d

List only the directory's information, not its contents. (Most useful with -l and -i .)

-f

Interpret each name as a directory (files are ignored).

-F

Flag filenames by appending / to directories, > to doors (Solaris only), * to executable files, | to fifos, @ to symbolic links, and = to sockets.

-g

Like -l , but omit owner name (show g roup).

-i

List the inode for each file.

-l

Long format listing (includes permissions, owner, size, modification time, etc.).

-L

List the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link rather than the link itself.

-m

Merge the list into a comma-separated series of names.

-n

Like -l , but use user ID and group ID numbers instead of owner and group names.

-o

Like -l , but omit group name (show o wner).

-p

Mark directories by appending / to them.

-q

Show nonprinting characters as ? .

-r

List files in reverse order (by name or by time).

-R

Recursively list subdirectories as well as current directory.

-s

Print sizes of the files in blocks.

-t

List files according to modification time (newest first).

-u

List files according to the file access time.

-x

List files in rows going across the screen.

-1

Print one entry per line of output.

Examples

List all files in the current directory and their sizes; use multiple columns and mark special files:

ls -asCF

List the status of directories /bin and /etc :

ls -ld /bin /etc

List C source files in the current directory, the oldest first:

ls -rt *.c

Count the files in the current directory:

ls | wc -l


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