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ls [options ] [names ]

If no names are given, list the files in the current directory. With one or more names , list files contained in a directory name or that match a file name . The options let you display a variety of information in different formats. The most useful options include -F , -R , -a , -l , and -s . Some options don't make sense together; e.g., -u and -c .

Note: the Solaris /usr/bin/ls pays attention to the LC_COLLATE environment variable. Its default value, en_US , (in the United States) causes ls to sort in dictionary order (i.e., ignoring case). Set LC_COLLATE to C to restore the traditional Unix behavior of sorting in ASCII order, or use /usr/ucb/ls .



List all files, including the normally hidden . files.


Like -a , but exclude . and .. (the current and parent directories). Solaris only.


Show nonprinting characters in octal.


List files by inode modification time.


List files in columns (the default format, when displaying to a terminal device).


List only the directory's information, not its contents. (Most useful with -l and -i .)


Interpret each name as a directory (files are ignored).


Flag filenames by appending / to directories, > to doors (Solaris only), * to executable files, | to fifos, @ to symbolic links, and = to sockets.


Like -l , but omit owner name (show g roup).


List the inode for each file.


Long format listing (includes permissions, owner, size, modification time, etc.).


List the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link rather than the link itself.


Merge the list into a comma-separated series of names.


Like -l , but use user ID and group ID numbers instead of owner and group names.


Like -l , but omit group name (show o wner).


Mark directories by appending / to them.


Show nonprinting characters as ? .


List files in reverse order (by name or by time).


Recursively list subdirectories as well as current directory.


Print sizes of the files in blocks.


List files according to modification time (newest first).


List files according to the file access time.


List files in rows going across the screen.


Print one entry per line of output.


List all files in the current directory and their sizes; use multiple columns and mark special files:

ls -asCF

List the status of directories /bin and /etc :

ls -ld /bin /etc

List C source files in the current directory, the oldest first:

ls -rt *.c

Count the files in the current directory:

ls | wc -l

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