shows non-printable characters in a printable way.
has two options for displaying white space in a line.
If you use the
characters are shown as
option combined with
marks the end of each line
Some versions of
don't require the
with those options.
Let's compare a one-line file without and with the
have to be typed separately, by the way;
This is a one-line file - boring, eh?
cat -v -t -e afile
ThiS^Hs is^Ia one-line file^I- boring, eh? $
Although you can't tell it from plain
, there's a backspace
(CTRL-h) before the first
, two TABs that take up only
one column of white space each, and seven spaces at the end of the line.
Knowing this can help you debug problems in printing and displaying files.
It's also a help for shell programmers who need to parse or sort the output
of other programs.