(right angle bracket) operator redirects the standard output of a
process to a file.
It doesn't affect the standard error.
If you're logged in and can see any messages written to standard error,
nroff -ms report.ms > report.out &
nroff: can't open file /hoem/jpeek/report.data
But if you log out and leave the job running, you'll never see those errors
unless you use the
It redirects both standard output and standard error to a file.
make >& make.output &
cc -O -c random.c
cc -O -c output.c
"output.c", line 46: syntax error
"output.c", line 50: time_e undefined
"output.c", line 50: syntax error
You might also use the
operator while you're logged in - and watch
the output file with
If you don't want the errors mixed with other output, you can split them
to two files; see article
The C shell also has a pipe operator,
, that redirects both
standard output and standard error.
It's great for running a job in the background, or on another computer,
any output to me:
make |& mailx -s "'make bigprog' output" email@example.com &
 29182 29183
If I'd used plain
, any text on the standard
error wouldn't go into the mail message.