6.2. Device DiscoveryThe first step in managing a network is discovering which devices are on the network. There are some fairly obvious reasons why this is important. You will need to track address usage to manage services such as DNS. You may need this information to verify licensing information. From a security perspective, you will want to know if there are any devices on your network that shouldn't be there. And one particularly compelling reason for a complete picture of your network is IP address management.
6.2.1. IP Address ManagementManagement of IP addresses is often cited as the most common problem faced in the management of an IP network. There are two goals in IP management -- keeping track of the addresses in use so you know what is available and keeping track of the devices associated with each assigned IP address. Several developments over the last few years have helped to lessen the problems of IP management. First, DHCP servers, systems that automatically allocate and track IP addresses, help when dynamic allocation is appropriate. But there are a number of reasons why a system may require a static IP address. Any resource or server -- time server, name server, and so on -- should be given a static address. Network devices like switches and routers require static addresses. Some sites require reverse DNS lookup before allowing access. The easiest way to provide this is with a static IP address and with an appropriate DNS entry. Even when such issues don't apply, the cost and complexity of DHCP services may prevent their use. And even if you use DHCP, there is nothing to prevent a user from incorrectly assigning a static IP address in the middle of the block of addresses you have reserved for DNS assignment.
Strictly speaking, static addresses are not mandatory in every case. Support for dynamic DNS, or DDNS, has been available for several years. With DDNS, DNS entries can be mapped to dynamically assigned IP addresses. Unfortunately, many sites still do not use it.Another development that has helped is automatic testing of newly assigned addresses. While earlier implementations of TCP/IP stacks sometimes neglected to test whether an IP address was being used, most systems, when booted, now first check to see if an IP address is in use before using it. The test, known as gratuitous ARP, sends out an ARP request for the IP address about to be used. If anyone replies, the address must already be in use. Of course, this test works only when the other machine is turned on. You may set up a machine with everything appearing to work correctly, only to get a call later in the day. Once such a problem has been detected, you will need to track it down. While these and similar developments have gone a long way toward lessening the problems of IP management and duplicate IP addresses, IP management remains a headache on many networks. Ideally, you will keep careful records as IP addresses are assigned, but mistakes are unavoidable. Thus, an automated approach is often desirable. The simplest way to collect MAC/IP address pairs is to ping the address and then examine your ARP table. The ping is necessary since most ARP tables are flushed frequently. At one time, it was possible to ping a broadcast address and get a number of replies at once. Most hosts are now configured to ignore ICMP requests sent to broadcast addresses. (See the discussion of Smurf Attacks in Chapter 3, "Connectivity Testing".) You will need to repeat ping scans very frequently if you want to get a picture over time. It is a simple matter to create a script that automates the process of pinging a range of IP addresses, particularly if you use a tool like fping. You'll need the output from the arp command if you want the MAC addresses. And you certainly will want to do some cleanup with sort or sed. Fortunately, there is a class of tools that simplifies this process -- IP scanner or ping scanner. These are usually very simple tools that send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets in a systematic manner to each IP address in a range of IP addresses and then record any replies. (These tools are not limited to using just ECHO_REQUEST packets.)
6.2.2. nmapThe program nmap is a multifunction tool that supports IP scanning. It also provides port scanning and stack fingerprinting. (Stack fingerprinting is described later in this chapter.) nmap is an extremely feature-rich program with lots of versatility. For many of its uses, root privileges are required, although some functions work without root privileges. nmap certainly could have been described in Chapter 2, "Host Configurations", when port scanners were introduced. But if all you want is a port scan for a single machine, using nmap is overkill. Nonetheless, if you only want as few programs as possible and you need some of the other functionality that nmap provides, then you can probably get by with just nmap.
There are also reasons, as will become evident, why you might not want nmap too freely available on your network.To use nmap as a port scanner, the only information you need is the IP address or hostname of the target:
The results should be self-explanatory. You can specify several IP addresses or you can span a segment by specifying an address with a mask if you want to scan multiple devices or addresses. The next example will scan all the addresses on the same subnet as the lnx1 using a class C network mask:bsd1# nmap sol1 Starting nmap V. 2.12 by Fyodor (firstname.lastname@example.org, www.insecure.org/nmap/) Interesting ports on sol1.lander.edu (172.16.2.233): Port State Protocol Service 21 open tcp ftp 23 open tcp telnet 25 open tcp smtp 37 open tcp time 111 open tcp sunrpc 515 open tcp printer 540 open tcp uucp 6000 open tcp X11 Nmap run completed -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 1 second
While nmap skips addresses that don't respond, this can still produce a lot of output. Fortunately, nmap will recognize a variety of address range options. Consider:bsd1# nmap lnx1/24
This will scan seven IP addresses -- those from 172.16.2.230 through 172.16.2.235 inclusive and 172.16.2.240. You can use 172.16.2.* to scan everything on the subnet. Be warned, however, that the shell you use may require you to use an escape sequence for the * to work correctly. For example, with C-shell, you could use 172.16.2.\*. You should also note that the network masks do not have to align with a class boundary. For example, /29 would scan eight hosts by working through the possibilities generated by changing the three low-order bits of the address. If you want to just do an IP scan to discover which addresses are currently in use, you can use the -sP option. This will do a ping-like probe for each address on the subnet:bsd1# nmap 172.16.2.230-235,240
You should be warned that this particular scan uses both an ordinary ICMP packet and a TCP ACK packet to port 80 (HTTP). This second packet will get past routers that block ICMP packets. If an RST packet is received, the host is up and the address is in use. Unfortunately, some intrusion detection software that will ignore the ICMP packet will flag the TCP ACK as an attack. If you want to use only ICMP packets, use the -PI option. For example, the previous scan could have been done using only ICMP packets with the command:bsd1# nmap -sP lnx1/24 Starting nmap V. 2.12 by Fyodor (email@example.com, www.insecure.org/nmap/) Host (172.16.2.0) seems to be a subnet broadcast address (returned 3 extra pings). Skipping host. Host cisco.lander.edu (172.16.2.1) appears to be up. Host (172.16.2.12) appears to be up. Host (172.16.2.230) appears to be up. Host bsd2.lander.edu. (172.16.2.232) appears to be up. Host sol1.lander.edu (172.16.2.233) appears to be up. Host lnx1.lander.edu (172.16.2.234) appears to be up. Host (172.16.2.255) seems to be a subnet broadcast address (returned 3 extra pings). Skipping host. Nmap run completed -- 256 IP addresses (6 hosts up) scanned in 1 second
In this case, since the devices are on the same subnet and there is no intervening firewall, the same machines are found. Unfortunately, nmap stretches the limits of what might be considered appropriate at times. In particular, nmap provides a number of options for stealth scanning. There are two general reasons for using stealth scanning. One is to probe a machine without being detected. This can be extremely difficult if the machine is actively watching for such activity. The other reason is to slip packets past firewalls. Because firewall configuration can be quite complex and because it can be very difficult to predict traffic patterns, many firewalls are configured in ways that allow or block broad, generic classes of traffic. This minimizes the number of rules that need to be applied and improves the throughput of the firewall. But blocking broad classes of traffic also means that it may be possible to sneak packets past such firewalls by having them look like legitimate traffic. For example, external TCP connections may be blocked by discarding the external SYN packets used to set up a connection. If a SYN/ACK packet is sent from the outside, most firewalls will assume the packet is a response for a connection that was initiated by an internal machine. Consequently, the firewall will pass the packet. With these firewalls, it is possible to construct such a packet and slip it through the firewall to see how an internal host responds. nmap has several types of scans that are designed to do stealth probes. These include -sF, -sX, and -sN. (You can also use the -f option to break stealth probes into lots of tiny fragments.) But while these stealth packets may slip past firewalls, they should all be detected by any good intrusion detection software running on the target. You may want to try these on your network just to see how well your intrusion detection system works or to investigate how your firewall responds. But if you are using these to do clandestine scans, you should be prepared to be caught and to face the consequences. Another questionable feature of nmap is the ability to do decoy scans. This option allows you to specify additional forged IP source addresses. In addition to the probe packets that are sent with the correct source address, other similar packets are sent with forged source addresses. The idea is to make it more difficult to pinpoint the real source of the attack since only a few of the packets will have the correct source address. Not only does this create unnecessary network traffic, but it can create problems for hosts whose addresses are spoofed. If the probed site automatically blocks traffic from probing sites, it will cut off the spoofed sites as well as the site where the probe originated. Clearly, this is not what you really want to do. This calls into question any policy that simply blocks sites without further investigation. Such systems are also extremely vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks. Personally, I can see no legitimate use for this feature and would be happy to see it dropped from nmap. But while there are some questionable options, they are easily outnumbered by useful options. If you want your output in greater detail, you might try the -v or the -d option. If information is streaming past you on the screen too fast for you to read, you can log the output to a file in human-readable or machine-parseable form. Use, respectively, the -o or -m options along with a filename. The -h option will give a brief summary of nmap's many options. You may want to print this to use while you learn nmap. If you are using nmap to do port scans, you can use the -p option to specify a range of ports. Alternatively, the -F, or fast scan option, can be used to limit scans to ports in your services file. You'll certainly want to consider using one or the other of these. Scanning every possible port on a network can take a lot of time and generate a lot of traffic. A number of other options are described in nmap's documentation. Despite the few negative things I have mentioned, nmap really is an excellent tool. You will definitely want to add it to your collection.bsd1# nmap -sP -PI lnx1/24
6.2.3. arpwatchActive scans, such as those we have just seen with nmap, have both advantages and disadvantages. They allow scans of remote networks and give a good snapshot of the current state of the network. The major disadvantage is that these scans will identify only machines that are operational when you do the scan. If a device is on for only short periods at unpredictable times, it can be virtually impossible to catch by scanning. Tools that run constantly, like arpwatch, provide a better picture of activity over time. For recording IP addresses and their corresponding MAC addresses, arpwatch is my personal favorite. It is a very simple tool that does this very well. Basically, arpwatch places an interface in promiscuous mode and watches for ARP packets. It then records IP/MAC address pairs. The primary limitation to arpwatch comes from being restricted to local traffic. It is not a tool that can be used across networks. If you need to watch several networks, you will need to start arpwatch on each of those networks. The information can be recorded in one of four ways. Data may be written directly to the system console, to the system's syslog file, or to a user-specified text file, or it can be sent as an email to root. (syslog is described in Chapter 11, "Miscellaneous Tools".) Output to the console or the syslog file is basically the same. An entry will look something like:
Of course, with the syslog file, these messages will be interspersed with many other messages, but you can easily use grep to extract them. For example, to write all the messages from arpwatch that were recorded in /var/log/messages into the file /temp/arp.data, you can use the command:Mar 30 15:16:29 bsd1 arpwatch: new station 172.16.2.234 0:60:97:92:4a:6
If your syslog file goes by a different name or you want output in a different output file, you will need to adjust names accordingly. This approach will include other messages from arpwatch as well, but you can easily delete those that are not of interest. Email looks like:bsd1# grep arpwatch /var/log/messages > /tmp/arp.list
Email output has the advantage of doing name resolution for the IP address, and it gives the vendor for the MAC address. The vendor name is resolved using information in the file ethercodes.dat. This file, as supplied with arpwatch, is not particularly complete or up-to-date, but you can always go to the IEEE site as described in Chapter 2, "Host Configurations" if you need this data for a particular interface. If you do this, don't forget to update the ethercodes.dat file on your system. arpwatch can also record raw data to a file. This is typically the file arp.dat, but you can specify a different file with the -f option. The default location for arp.dat seems to vary with systems. The manpage for arpwatch specifies /usr/operator/arpwatch as the default home directory, but this may not be true for some ports. If you use an alternative file, be sure to give its full pathname. Whether you use arp.dat or another file, the file must exist before you start arpwatch. The format is pretty sparse:From: arpwatch (Arpwatch) To: root Subject: new station (lnx1.lander.edu) hostname: lnx1.lander.edu ip address: 172.16.2.234 ethernet address: 0:60:97:92:4a:6 ethernet vendor: 3Com timestamp: Thursday, March 30, 2000 15:16:29 -0500
Expect a lot of entries the first few days after you start arpwatch as it learns your network. This can be a little annoying at first, but once most machines are recorded, you shouldn't see much traffic -- only new or changed addresses. These should be very predictable. Of particular concern are frequently changing addresses. The most likely explanation for a single address change is that a computer has been replaced by another. Although less likely, a new adapter would also explain the change. Frequent or unexplained changes deserve greater scrutiny. It could simply mean someone is using two computers. Perhaps a user is unplugging his desktop machine in order to plug in his portable. But it can also mean that someone is trying to hide something they are doing. On many systems, both the MAC and IP addresses can be easily changed. A cracker will often change these addresses to cover her tracks. Or a cracker could be using ARP poisoning to redirect traffic. Here is an example of an email report for an address change:0:60:97:92:4a:6 172.16.2.234 954447389 lnx1
Notice that the subject line will alert you to the nature of the change. This change was followed shortly by another change as shown here:From: arpwatch (Arpwatch) To: root Subject: changed ethernet address hostname: <unknown> ip address: 220.127.116.11 ethernet address: 0:e0:29:21:88:83 ethernet vendor: <unknown> old ethernet address: 0:e0:29:21:89:d9 old ethernet vendor: <unknown> timestamp: Monday, April 3, 2000 4:57:16 -0400 previous timestamp: Monday, April 3, 2000 4:52:33 -0400 delta: 4 minutes
This is basically the same sort of information, but arpwatch labels the first as a changed address and subsequent changes as flip-flops. If you are running DHCP and find arpwatch's output particularly annoying, you may want to avoid arpwatch. But if you are having problems with DHCP, arpwatch might, in limited circumstances, be useful.From: arpwatch (Arpwatch) To: root Subject: flip flop hostname: <unknown> ip address: 18.104.22.168 ethernet address: 0:e0:29:21:89:d9 ethernet vendor: <unknown> old ethernet address: 0:e0:29:21:88:83 old ethernet vendor: <unknown> timestamp: Monday, April 3, 2000 9:40:47 -0400 previous timestamp: Monday, April 3, 2000 9:24:07 -0400 delta: 16 minutes
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