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11.13. Alphabetical Summary of ex Commands

ex commands can be entered by specifying any unique abbreviation. In this listing, the full name appears in the margin, and the shortest possible abbreviation is used in the syntax line. Examples are assumed to be typed from vi, so they include the : prompt.

abbrev

ab [string text]

Define string when typed to be translated into text. If string and text are not specified, list all current abbreviations.

Examples

Note: ^M appears when you type Ctrl-V followed by Return.

:ab ora O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
:ab id Name:^MRank:^MPhone:
append

[address] a[!]

text

.

Append text at specified address, or at present address if none is specified. Add a ! to switch the autoindent setting that will be used during input (e.g., if autoindent was enabled, ! disables it). Terminate input by entering a line consisting of just a period.

args

ar

Print filename arguments (the list of files to edit). The current argument is shown in brackets ([]).

cd

cd dir

chdir dir

Change current directory within the editor to dir.

change

[address] c[!]

text

.

Replace the specified lines with text. Add a ! to switch the autoindent setting during input of text. Terminate input by entering a line consisting of just a period.

copy

[address] co destination

Copy the lines included in address to the specified destination address. The command t is the same as copy.

Example


:1,10 co 50     Copy first 10 lines to just after line 50
delete

[address] d [buffer]

Delete the lines included in address. If buffer is specified, save or append the text to the named buffer.

Examples

:/Part I/,/Part II/-1d     Delete to line above "Part II"
:/main/+d                  Delete line below "main"
:.,$d                      Delete from this line to last line
edit

e[!] [+n] [file]

Begin editing file. Add a ! to discard any changes to the current file. If no file is given, edit another copy of the current file. With the +n argument, begin editing on linen.

Examples


:e file
:e#     Return to editing the previous file
:e!     Discard edits since last save
exusage

exu [command]

Print a brief usage message describing command, or a list of available commands if command is omitted.

file

f [filename]

Change the name of the current file to filename, which is considered "not edited." If no filename is specified, print the current status of the file.

Example

:f %.new
global

[address] g[!]/pattern<//[commands]

Execute commands on all lines that contain pattern or, if address is specified, on all lines within that range. If commands are not specified, print all such lines. If ! is used, execute commands on all lines that don't contain pattern. See v.

Examples

:g/Unix/p               Print all lines containing "Unix"
:g/Name:/s/tom/Tom/     Change "tom" to "Tom" on all lines
                                              containing "Name:"
help

h

Print a brief help message. Information on particular commands can be obtained through the exusage and viusage commands.

insert

address i[!]

text

.

Insert text at line before the specified address, or at present address if none is specified. Add a ! to switch the autoindent setting during input of text. Terminate input by entering a line consisting of just a period.

join

[address] j[!] [count]

Place the text in the specified address on one line, with whitespace adjusted to provide two blank characters after a period (.), no blank characters after a ), and one blank character otherwise. Add a ! to prevent whitespace adjustment.

Example


:1,5j!     Join first five lines, preserving whitespace
k

[address] k char

Mark the given address with char. Return later to the line with 'char.

list

[address] l [count]

Print the specified lines so that tabs display as ^I, and the ends of lines display as $. l is a temporary version of :set list.

map

map[!] [char commands]

Define a keyboard macro named char as the specified sequence of commands. char is usually a single character, or the sequence #n, representing a function key on the keyboard. Use a ! to create a macro for input mode. With no arguments, list the currently defined macros.

Examples

:map K dwwP         Transpose two words
:map q :w^M:n^M     Write current file; go to next
:map! + ^[bi(^[ea)  Enclose previous word in parentheses
mark

[address] ma char

Mark the specified line with char, a single lowercase letter. Return later to the line with 'char. Same as k.

mkexrc

mk[!] file

Create an .exrc file containing a set command for every ex option, set to defaults.

move

[address] m destination

Move the lines specified by address to the destination address.

Example


:.,/Note/m /END/     Move text block after line containing "END"
next

n[!] [[+command] filelist]

Edit the next file from the command-line argument list. Use args to list these files. If filelist is provided, replace the current argument list with filelist and begin editing on the first file; if command is given (containing no spaces), execute command after editing the first such file. Add a ! to discard any changes to the current file.

Example


:n chap*     Start editing all "chapter" files
number

[address] nu [count]

Print each line specified by address, preceded by its buffer line number. Use # as an alternate abbreviation for number. count specifies the number of lines to show, starting with address.

open

[address] o [/pattern/]

Enter vi's open mode at the lines specified by address or at the lines matching pattern. Enter and exit open mode with Q. Open mode lets you use the regular vi commands, but only one line at a time. May be useful on slow dial-up lines.

preserve

pre

Save the current editor buffer as though the system had crashed.

previous

prev[!]

Edit the previous file from the command-line argument list.

print

[address] p [count]

[address] P [count]

Print the lines specified by address. count specifies the number of lines to print, starting with address. Add a ! to discard any changes to the current file.

Example


:100;+5p     Show line 100 and the next 5 lines
put

[address] pu [char]

Restore the lines that were previously deleted or yanked from named buffer char, and put them after the line specified by address. If char is not specified, restore the last deleted or yanked text.

quit

q[!]

Terminate current editing session. Use ! to discard changes made since the last save. If the editing session includes additional files in the argument list that were never accessed, quit by typing q! or by typing q twice.

read

[address] r file

Copy in the text from file on the line below the specified address. If file is not specified, the current filename is used.

Example


:0r $HOME/data     Read file in at top of current file
read

[address] r !command

Read the output of Linux command into the text after the line specified by address.

Example


:$r !cal     Place a calendar at end-of-file
recover

rec [file]

Recover file from system save area.

rewind

rew[!]

Rewind argument list and begin editing the first file in the list. The ! flag rewinds, discarding any changes to the current file that haven't been saved.

script

sc[!] [file]

Create a new shell in a buffer that can be saved, optionally specifying file where the buffer can be saved. Can be used only in vi.

set

se parameter1 parameter2 ...

Set a value to an option with each parameter, or if no parameter is supplied, print all options that have been changed from their defaults. For Boolean-valued options, each parameter can be phrased as option or nooption; other options can be assigned with the syntax option=value. Specify all to list current settings.

Examples

:set nows wm=10
:set all
shell

sh

Create a new shell. Resume editing when the shell is terminated.

source

so file

Read and execute ex commands from file.

Example

:so $HOME/.exrc
stop

st

Suspend the editing session. Same as Ctrl-Z. Use fg to resume session.

substitute

[address] s [/pattern/replacement/] [options] [count]

Replace each instance of pattern on the specified lines with replacement. If pattern and replacement are omitted, repeat last substitution. count specifies the number of lines on which to substitute, starting with address. When preceded by the global (g) or v command, this command can be specified with a blank pattern, in which case the pattern from the g or v command is then used. For more examples, see Section 9.4.1, "Examples of Searching and Replacing" in Chapter 9, "Pattern Matching".

Options

c

Prompt for confirmation before each change.

g

Substitute all instances of pattern on each line.

p

Print the last line on which a substitution was made.

Examples

:1,10s/yes/no/g               Substitute on first 10 lines
:%s/[Hh]ello/Hi/gc            Confirm global substitutions
:s/Fortran/\U&/ 3             Uppercase first instance of "Fortran"
                                                          on next three lines
:g/^[0-9][0-9]*/s//Line &:/   For every line beginning
                                                          with one or more digits,
                                                          add the "Line" and a colon
suspend

su

Suspend the editing session. Same as Ctrl-Z. Use fg to resume session.

t

[address] t destination

Copy the lines included in address to the specified destination address. t is an alias for copy.

Example


:%t$     Copy the file and add it to the end
tag

[address] ta[!] tag

Switch the editing session to the file containing tag.

Example

Run ctags, then switch to the file containing myfunction:

:!ctags *.c
:tag myfunction
tagnext

tagn[!]

Find the next occurrence of the current tag.

tagpop

tagp[!]

Forget the current tag and return to the last position of the previous tag found.

tagprev

tagpr[!]

Return to the previous occurrence of the current tag.

tagtop

tagt[!]

Return to the first tag searched for and forget about all tags.

unabbreviate

una word

Remove word from the list of abbreviations.

undo

u

Reverse the changes made by the last editing command.

unmap

unm[!] char

Remove char from the list of keyboard macros. Use ! to remove a macro for input mode.

v

[address] v/pattern/[commands]

Execute commands on all lines not containing pattern. If commands are not specified, print all such lines. v is equivalent to g!. See global.

Example


:v/#include/d     Delete all lines except "#include" lines
version

ve

Print the editor's current version number.

vi

vi [+n] file

Begin editing file, optionally at line n. Can be used only in vi.

visual

[address] vi [type] [count]

Enter visual mode (vi) at the line specified by address. Exit with Q. type can be one of -, ^, or . (See the z command.) count specifies an initial window size.

viusage

viu [key]

Print a brief usage message describing the operation of key, or a list of defined keys if key is omitted.

wq

wq[!]

Write and quit the file in one command. The ! flag forces the editor to write over any current contents of file.

write

[address] w[!] [[>>] file

Write lines specified by address to file, or write full contents of buffer if address is not specified. If file also is omitted, save the contents of the buffer to the current filename. If >>file is used, write contents to the end of an existing file. The ! flag forces the editor to write over any current contents of file.

write

[address] w !command

Write lines specified by address to command.

Examples

:1,10w name_list      Copy first 10 lines to name_list
:50w >> name_list     Now append line 50
xit

x

Write the file if it was changed since the last write, then quit.

yank

[address] ya [char] [count]

Place lines specified by address in named buffer char. If no char is given, place lines in general buffer. count specifies the number of lines to yank, starting with address.

Example

:101,200 ya a
z

[address] z [type] [count]

Print a window of text, with the line specified by address at the top. count specifies the number of lines to be displayed.

Type

+

Place specified line at top of window (the default).

-

Place specified line at bottom of window.

.

Place specified line in center of window.

^

Move up one window.

=

Place specified line in center of window, and leave this line as the current line.

!

[address] !command

Execute Linux command in a shell. If address is specified, apply the lines contained in address as standard input to command, and replace the lines with the output.

Examples

:!ls               List files in the current directory
:11,20!sort -f     Sort lines 11-20 of current file
=

[address] =

Print the line number of the next line matching address. If no address is given, print the number of the last line.

< >

[address]<[count]

[address]>[count]

Shift lines specified by address either left (<) or right (>). Only blanks and tabs are removed in a left shift. count specifies the number of lines to shift, starting with address.

address

address

Print the line specified in address.

Return

Return

Print the next line in the file.

&

& [options] [count]

Repeat the previous substitution (s) command. count specifies the number of lines on which to substitute, starting with address.

Examples

:s/Overdue/Paid/    Substitute once on current line
:g/Status/&         Redo substitution on all "Status" lines
~

[address] ~ [count]

Replace the previous regular expression with the previous replacement pattern from a substitute (s) command.

^D

^D

Scroll through the file.

^Z

^Z

Suspend the editing session. Use fg to resume session.



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