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Java AWT

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12.2 ColorModel

A color model determines how colors are represented within AWT. ColorModel is an abstract class that you can subclass to specify your own representation for colors. AWT provides two concrete subclasses of ColorModel that you can use to build your own color model; they are DirectColorModel and IndexColorModel. These two correspond to the two ways computers represent colors internally.

Most modern computer systems use 24 bits to represent each pixel. These 24 bits contain 8 bits for each primary color (red, green, blue); each set of 8 bits represents the intensity of that color for the particular pixel. This arrangement yields the familiar "16 million colors" that you see in advertisements. It corresponds closely to Java's direct color model.

However, 24 bits per pixel, with something like a million pixels on the screen, adds up to a lot of memory. In the dark ages, memory was expensive, and devoting this much memory to a screen buffer cost too much. Therefore, designers used fewer bits--possibly as few as three, but more often eight--for each pixel. Instead of representing the colors directly in these bits, the bits were an index into a color map. Graphics programs would load the color map with the colors they were interested in and then represent each pixel by using the index of the appropriate color in the map. For example, the value 1 might represent fuschia; the value 2 might represent puce. Full information about how to display each color (the red, green, and blue components that make up fuschia or puce) is contained only in the color map. This arrangement corresponds closely to Java's indexed color model.

Because Java is platform-independent, you don't need to worry about how your computer or the user's computer represents colors. Your programs can use an indexed or direct color map as appropriate. Java will do the best it can to render the colors you request. Of course, if you use 5,000 colors on a computer that can only display 256, Java is going to have to make compromises. It will decide which colors to put in the color map and which colors are close enough to the colors in the color map, but that's done behind your back.

Java's default color model uses 8 bits per pixel for red, green, and blue, along with another 8 bits for alpha (transparency) level. However, as I said earlier, you can create your own ColorModel if you want to work in some other scheme. For example, you could create a grayscale color model for black and white pictures, or an HSB (hue, saturation, brightness) color model if you are more comfortable working with this system. Your color model's job will be to take a pixel value in your representation and translate that value into the corresponding alpha, red, green, and blue values. If you are working with a grayscale image, your image producer could deliver grayscale values to the image consumer, plus a ColorModel that tells the consumer how to render these gray values in terms of ARGB components.

ColorModel Methods

Constructors

public ColorModel (int bits)

There is a single constructor for ColorModel. It has one parameter, bits, which describes the number of bits required per pixel of an image. Since this is an abstract class, you cannot call this constructor directly. Since each pixel value must be stored within an integer, the maximum value for bits is 32. If you request more, you get 32.

Pseudo-constructors

public static ColorModel getRGBdefault()

The getRGBdefault() method returns the default ColorModel, which has 8 bits for each of the components alpha, red, green, and blue. The order the pixels are stored in an integer is 0xAARRGGBB, or alpha in highest order byte, down to blue in the lowest.

Other methods

public int getPixelSize ()

The getPixelSize() method returns the number of bits required for each pixel as described by this color model. That is, it returns the number of bits passed to the constructor.

public abstract int getAlpha (int pixel)

The getAlpha() method returns the alpha component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel is completely transparent and the background will appear through the pixel. A value of 255 means the pixel is opaque and you cannot see the background behind it.

public abstract int getRed (int pixel)

The getRed() method returns the red component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no red in it. A value of 255 means red is at maximum intensity.

public abstract int getGreen (int pixel)

The getGreen() method returns the green component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no green in it. A value of 255 means green is at maximum intensity.

public abstract int getBlue (int pixel)

The getBlue() method returns the blue component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no blue in it. A value of 255 means blue is at maximum intensity.

public int getRGB(int pixel)

The getRGB() method returns the color of pixel in the default RGB color model. If a subclass has changed the ordering or size of the different color components, getRGB() will return the pixel in the RGB color model (0xAARRGGBB order). In theory, the subclass does not need to override this method, unless it wants to make it final. Making this method final may yield a significant performance improvement.

public void finalize ()

The garbage collector calls finalize() when it determines that the ColorModel object is no longer needed. finalize() frees any internal resources that the ColorModel object has used.

DirectColorModel

The DirectColorModel class is a concrete subclass of ColorModel. It specifies a color model in which each pixel contains all the color information (alpha, red, green, and blue values) explicitly. Pixels are represented by 32-bit (int) quantities; the constructor lets you change which bits are allotted to each component.

All of the methods in this class, except constructors, are final, because of assumptions made by the implementation. You can create subclasses of DirectColorModel, but you can't override any of its methods. However, you should not need to develop your own subclass. Just create an instance of DirectColorModel with the appropriate constructor. Any subclassing results in serious performance degradation, because you are going from fast, static final method calls to dynamic method lookups.Constructors

public DirectColorModel (int bits, int redMask, int greenMask, int blueMask, int alphaMask)

This constructor creates a DirectColorModel in which bits represents the total number of bits used to represent a pixel; it must be less than or equal to 32. The redMask, greenMask, blueMask, and alphaMask specify where in a pixel each color component exists. Each of the bit masks must be contiguous (e.g., red cannot be the first, fourth, and seventh bits of the pixel), must be smaller than 2^bits, and should not exceed 8 bits. (You cannot display more than 8 bits of data for any color component, but the mask can be larger.) Combined, the masks together should be bits in length. The default RGB color model is:

new DirectColorModel (32, 0x00ff0000, 0x0000ff00, 0x000000ff, 0xff000000)

The run-time exception IllegalArgumentException is thrown if any of the following occur:

  • The bits that are set in a mask are not contiguous.

  • Mask bits overlap (i.e., the same bit is set in two or more masks).

  • The number of mask bits exceeds bits.

public DirectColorModel (int bits, int redMask, int greenMask, int blueMask)

This constructor for DirectColorModel calls the first with an alpha mask of 0, which means that colors in this color model have no transparency component. All colors will be fully opaque with an alpha value of 255. The same restrictions for the red, green, and blue masks apply.

Methods

final public int getAlpha (int pixel)

The getAlpha() method returns the alpha component of pixel for the color model as a number from 0 to 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel is completely transparent, and the background will appear through the pixel. A value of 255 means the pixel is opaque, and you cannot see the background behind it.

final public int getRed (int pixel)

The getRed() method returns the red component of pixel for the color model. Its range is from 0 to 255. A value of 0 means the pixel has no red in it. A value of 255 means red is at maximum intensity.

final public int getGreen (int pixel)

The getGreen() method returns the green component of pixel for the color model. Its range is from 0 to 255. A value of 0 means the pixel has no green in it. A value of 255 means green is at maximum intensity.

final public int getBlue (int pixel)

The getBlue() method returns the blue component of pixel for the color model. Its range is from 0 to 255. A value of 0 means the pixel has no blue in it. A value of 255 means blue is at maximum intensity.

final public int getRGB (int pixel)

The getRGB() method returns the color of pixel in the default RGB color model. If a subclass has changed the ordering or size of the different color components, getRGB() will return the pixel in the RGB color model (0xAARRGGBB order). The getRGB() method in this subclass is identical to the method in ColorModel but overrides it to make it final.

Other methods

final public int getAlphaMask ()

The getAlphaMask() method returns the alphaMask from the DirectColorModel constructor (or 0 if constructor did not have alphaMask). The alphaMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the alpha transparency component of the color model.

final public int getRedMask ()

The getRedMask() method returns the redMask from the DirectColorModel constructor. The redMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the red component of the color model.

final public int getGreenMask ()

The getGreenMask() method returns the greenMask from the DirectColorModel constructor. The greenMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the green component of the color model.

final public int getBlueMask ()

The getBlueMask() method returns the blueMask from the DirectColorModel constructor. The blueMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the blue component of the color model.

IndexColorModel

The IndexColorModel is another concrete subclass of ColorModel. It specifies a ColorModel that uses a color map lookup table (with a maximum size of 256), rather than storing color information in the pixels themselves. Pixels are represented by an index into the color map, which is at most an 8-bit quantity. Each entry in the color map gives the alpha, red, green, and blue components of some color. One entry in the map can be designated "transparent." This is called the "transparent pixel"; the alpha component of this map entry is ignored.

All of the methods in this class, except constructors, are final because of assumptions made by the implementation. You shouldn't need to create subclasses; you can if necessary, but you can't override any of the IndexColorModel methods. Example 12.2 (later in this chapter) uses an IndexColorModel. Constructors

There are two sets of constructors for IndexColorModel. The first two constructors use a single-byte array for the color map. The second group implements the color map with separate byte arrays for each color component.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte colorMap[], int start, boolean hasalpha, int transparent)

This constructor creates an IndexColorModel. bits is the number of bits used to represent each pixel and must not exceed 8. size is the number of elements in the map; it must be less than 2^bits. hasalpha should be true if the color map includes alpha (transparency) components and false if it doesn't. transparent is the location of the transparent pixel in the map (i.e., the pixel value that is considered transparent). If there is no transparent pixel, set transparent to -1.

The colorMap describes the colors used to paint pixels. start is the index within the colorMap array at which the map begins; prior elements of the array are ignored. An entry in the map consists of three or four consecutive bytes, representing the red, green, blue, and (optionally) alpha components. If hasalpha is false, a map entry consists of three bytes, and no alpha components are present; if hasalpha is true, map entries consist of four bytes, and all four components must be present.

For example, consider a pixel whose value is p, and a color map with a hasalpha set to false. Therefore, each element in the color map occupies three consecutive array elements. The red component of that pixel will be located at colorMap[start + 3*p]; the green component will be at colorMap[start + 3*p + 1]; and so on. The value of size may be smaller than 2^bits, meaning that there may be pixel values with no corresponding entry in the color map. These pixel values (i.e., size <= p < 2^bits) are painted with the color components set to 0; they are transparent if hasalpha is true, opaque otherwise.

If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2^bits), or the colorMap array is too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte colorMap[], int start, boolean hasalpha)

This version of the IndexColorModel constructor calls the previous constructor with a transparent index of -1; that is, there is no transparent pixel. If bits is too large (greater than 8), or size is too large (greater than 2^bits), or the colorMap array is too small to hold the map, the run-time exception, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte red[], byte green[], byte blue[], int transparent)

The second set of constructors for IndexColorModel is similar to the first group, with the exception that these constructors use three or four separate arrays (one per color component) to represent the color map, instead of a single array.

The bits parameter still represents the number of bits in a pixel. size represents the number of elements in the color map. transparent is the location of the transparent pixel in the map (i.e., the pixel value that is considered transparent). If there is no transparent pixel, set transparent to -1.

The red, green, and blue arrays contain the color map itself. These arrays must have at least size elements. They contain the red, green, and blue components of the colors in the map. For example, if a pixel is at position p, red[p] contains the pixel's red component; green[p] contains the green component; and blue[p] contains the blue component. The value of size may be smaller than 2^bits, meaning that there may be pixel values with no corresponding entry in the color map. These pixel values (i.e., size <= p < 2^bits) are painted with the color components set to 0.

If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2^bits), or the red, green, and blue arrays are too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte red[], byte green[], byte blue[])

This version of the IndexColorModel constructor calls the previous one with a transparent index of -1; that is, there is no transparent pixel. If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2^bits), or the red, green, and blue arrays are too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte red[], byte green[], byte blue[], byte alpha[])

Like the previous constructor, this version creates an IndexColorModel with no transparent pixel. It differs from the previous constructor in that it supports transparency; the array alpha contains the map's transparency values. If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2^bits), or the red, green, blue, and alpha arrays are too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

Methods

final public int getAlpha (int pixel)

The getAlpha() method returns the alpha component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel is completely transparent and the background will appear through the pixel. A value of 255 means the pixel is opaque and you cannot see the background behind it.

final public int getRed (int pixel)

The getRed() method returns the red component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no red in it. A value of 255 means red is at maximum intensity.

final public int getGreen (int pixel)

The getGreen() method returns the green component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no green in it. A value of 255 means green is at maximum intensity.

final public int getBlue (int pixel)

The getBlue() method returns the blue component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no blue in it. A value of 255 means blue is at maximum intensity.

final public int getRGB (int pixel)

The getRGB() method returns the color of pixel in the default RGB color model. If a subclass has changed the ordering or size of the different color components, getRGB() will return the pixel in the RGB color model (0xAARRGGBB order). This version of getRGB is identical to the version in the ColorModel class but overrides it to make it final.

Other methods

final public int getMapSize()

The getMapSize() method returns the size of the color map (i.e., the number of distinct colors).

final public int getTransparentPixel ()

The getTransparentPixel() method returns the color map index for the transparent pixel in the color model. If no transparent pixel exists, it returns -1. It is not possible to change the transparent pixel after the color model has been created.

final public void getAlphas (byte alphas[])

The getAlphas() method copies the alpha components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the alphas array. Space must already be allocated in the alphas array.

final public void getReds (byte reds[])

The getReds() method copies the red components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the reds array. Space must already be allocated in the reds array.

final public void getGreens (byte greens[])

The getGreens() method copies the green components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the greens array. Space must already be allocated in the greens array.

final public void getBlues (byte blues[])

The getBlues() method copies the blue components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the blues array. Space must already be allocated in the blues array.


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