home | O'Reilly's CD bookshelfs | FreeBSD | Linux | Cisco | Cisco Exam    

Book Home Java Enterprise in a Nutshell Search this book

Chapter 8. Java Development Tools

Sun's implementation of Java includes a number of tools for Java developers. Chief among these are the Java interpreter and the Java compiler, of course, but there are a number of others as well. This chapter documents all the tools shipped with the Java 2 SDK (formerly known as the JDK), except for the RMI and IDL tools that are specific to enterprise programming. Those tools are documented in Java Enterprise in a Nutshell (O'Reilly).

The tools documented here are part of Sun's development kit; they are implementation details and not part of the Java specification itself. If you are using a Java development environment other than Sun's SDK (or a port of it), you should consult your vendor's tool documentation.

Some examples in this chapter use Unix conventions for file and path separators. If Windows is your development platform, change forward slashes in filenames to backward slashes, and colons in path specifications to semicolons.

appletviewerJDK 1.0 and later
The Java Applet Viewer

Synopsis

appletviewer [ options ] url | file... 

Description

appletviewer reads or downloads the one or more HTML documents specified by the filename or URL on the command line. Next, it downloads any applets specified in any of those files and runs each applet in a separate window. If the specified document or documents do not contain any applets, appletviewer does nothing.

appletviewer recognizes applets specified with the <APPLET> tag and, in Java 1.2 and later, the <OBJECT> and <EMBED> tags.

Options

appletviewer recognizes the following options:

-debug

If this option is specified, appletviewer is started within jdb (the Java debugger). This allows you to debug the applets referenced by the document or documents.

-encodingenc

This option specifies the character encoding that appletviewer should use when reading the contents of the specified files or URLs. It is used in the conversion of applet parameter values to Unicode. Java 1.1 and later.

-Jjavaoption

This option passes the specified javaoption as a command-line argument to the Java interpreter. javaoption should not contain spaces. If a multiword option must be passed to the Java interpreter, multiple -J options should be used. See java for a list of valid Java interpreter options. Java 1.1 and later.

appletviewer also recognizes the -classic, -native, and -green options that the Java interpreter recognizes. See java for details on these options.

Commands

Each window displayed by appletviewer contains a single Applet menu, with the following commands available:

Restart

Stops and destroys the current applet, then reinitializes and restarts it.

Reload

Stops, destroys, and unloads the applet, then reloads, reinitializes, and restarts it.

Stop

Stops the current applet. Java 1.1 and later.

Save

Serializes the applet and saves the serialized applet in the file Applet.ser in the user's home directory. The applet should be stopped before selecting this option. Java 1.1 and later.

Start

Restarts a stopped applet. Java 1.1 and later.

Clone

Creates a new copy of the applet in a new appletviewer window.

Tag

Pops up a dialog box that displays the <APPLET> tag and all associated <PARAM> tags that created the current applet.

Info

Pops up a dialog box that contains information about the applet. This information is provided by the getAppletInfo() and getParameterInfo() methods implemented by the applet.

Edit

This command is not implemented. The Edit menu item is disabled.

Character Encoding

Displays the current character encoding in the status line. Java 1.1 and later.

Print

Prints the applet. Java 1.1 and later.

Properties

Displays a dialog that allows the user to set appletviewer preferences, including settings for firewall and caching proxy servers.

Close

Closes the current appletviewer window.

Quit

Quits appletviewer, closing all open windows.

CLASSPATH

In Java 1.0 and Java 1.1, appletviewer uses the CLASSPATH environment variable in the same way the Java interpreter does. See java for details. In Java 1.2 and later, however, appletviewer ignores this environment variable to better simulate the action of a web browser.

Properties

When it starts up, appletviewer reads property definitions from the file ~/.hotjava/properties (Unix) or .hotjava\properties relative to the HOME environment variable (Windows). These properties are stored in the system properties list and can specify the various error and status messages the applet viewer displays, as well as its security policies and use of proxy servers. The properties that affect security and proxies are described in the following sections. Most users of appletviewer do not need to use these properties.

Security Properties

The following properties specify the security restrictions appletviewer places on untrusted applets:

acl.read

A list of files and directories an untrusted applet is allowed to read. The elements of the list should be separated with colons on Unix systems and semicolons on Windows systems. On Unix systems, the ~ character is replaced with the home directory of the current user. If the plus character appears as an element in the list, it is replaced by the value of the acl.read.default property. This provides an easy way to enable read access--by simply setting acl.read to "+". By default, untrusted applets are not allowed to read any files or directories.

acl.read.default

A list of files and directories that are readable by untrusted applets if the acl.read property contains a plus character.

acl.write

A list of files and directories an untrusted applet is allowed to write to. The elements of the list should be separated with colons on Unix systems and semicolons on Windows systems. On Unix systems, the ~ character is replaced with the home directory of the current user. If the plus character appears as an element in the list, it is replaced by the value of the acl.write.default property. This provides an easy way to enable write access--by simply setting acl.write to "+". By default, untrusted applets are not allowed to write to any files or directories.

acl.write.default

A list of files and directories that are writable by untrusted applets if the acl.write property contains a plus character.

appletviewer.security.mode

Specifies the types of network access an untrusted applet is allowed to perform. If it is set to "none", the applet can perform no networking at all. The value "host" is the default; it specifies that the applet can connect only to the host from which it was loaded. The value "unrestricted" specifies that an applet can connect to any host without restrictions.

package.restrict.access.package-prefix

Properties of this form can be set to true to prevent untrusted applets from using classes in any package that has the specified package name prefix as the first component of its name. For example, to prevent applets from using any of the Sun classes (such as the Java compiler and the applet viewer itself) that are shipped with the Java SDK, you can specify the following property:

package.restrict.access.sun=true

appletviewer sets this property to true by default for the sun.* and netscape.* packages.

package.restrict.definition.package-prefix

Properties of this form can be set to true to prevent untrusted applets from defining classes in a package that has the specified package name prefix as the first component of its name. For example, to prevent an applet from defining classes in any of the standard Java packages, you can specify the following property:

package.restrict.definition.java=true

appletviewer sets this property to true by default for the java.*, sun.*, and netscape.* packages.

property.applet

When a property of this form is set to true (as of Java 1.1), it specifies that an applet should be allowed to read the property named property from the system properties list. By default, applets are allowed to read only 10 standard system properties (as detailed in Java Foundation Classes in a Nutshell (O'Reilly)). For example, to allow an applet to read the user.home property, specify a property of the form:

user.home.applet=true

Proxy Properties

appletviewer uses the following properties to configure its use of firewall and caching proxy servers:

firewallHost

The firewall proxy host to connect to if firewallSet is true.

firewallPort

The port of the firewall proxy host to connect to if firewallSet is true.

firewallSet

Whether the applet viewer should use a firewall proxy. Values are true or false.

proxyHost

The caching proxy host to connect to if proxySet is true.

proxyPort

The port of the caching proxy host to connect to if proxySet is true.

proxySet

Whether the applet viewer should use a caching proxy. Values are true or false.

See Also: java, javac, jdb

extcheckJava 2 SDK 1.2 and later
JAR Version Conflict Utility

Synopsis

extcheck -verbose jarfile

Description

extcheck checks to see if the extension contained in the specified jarfile (or a newer version of that extension) has already been installed on the system. It does this by reading the Specification-Title and Specification-Version manifest attributes from the specified jarfile and from all of the JAR files found in the system extensions directory.

extcheck is designed for use in automated installation scripts. Without the -verbose option, it does not print the results of its check. Instead, it sets its exit code to 0 if the specified extension does not conflict with any installed extensions and can be safely installed. It sets its exit code to a non-zero value if an extension with the same name is already installed and has a specification version number equal to or greater than the version of the specified file.

-verbose

Lists the installed extensions as they are checked and displays the results of the check.

See Also: jar

jarJDK 1.1 and later
Java Archive Tool

Synopsis

jar c|t|u|x[f][m][M][0][v] [ jar] [manifest] [-C directory] [files]
jar -i [ jar] 

Description

jar is a tool that can create and manipulate Java Archive ( JAR) files. A JAR file is a ZIP file that contains Java class files, auxiliary resource files required by those classes, and optional meta-information. This meta-information includes a manifest file that lists the contents of the JAR archive and provides auxiliary information about each file.

The jar command can create JAR files, list the contents of JAR files, and extract files from a JAR archive. In Java 1.2 and later, it can also add files to an existing archive or update the manifest file of an archive. In Java 1.3 and later, jar can also add an index entry to a JAR file.

Options

The syntax of the jar command is reminiscent of the Unix tar (tape archive) command. Most options to jar are specified as a block of concatenated letters passed as a single argument, rather than as individual command-line arguments. The first letter of the first argument specifies what action jar is to perform; it is required. Other letters are optional. The various file arguments depend on which letters are specified.

Command Options

The first letter of the first option to jar specifies the basic operation jar is to perform. Here are the four possible options:

c

Creates a new JAR archive. A list of input files and/or directories must be specified as the final arguments to jar. The newly created JAR file has a META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file as its first entry. This automatically created manifest lists the contents of the JAR file and contains a message digest for each file.

t

Lists the contents of a JAR archive.

u

Updates the contents of a JAR archive. Any files listed on the command line are added to the archive. When used with the m option, this adds the specified manifest information to the JAR file. Java 1.2 and later.

x

Extracts the contents of a JAR archive. The files and directories specified on the command line are extracted and created in the current working directory. If no file or directory names are specified, all the files and directories in the JAR file are extracted.

Modifier Options

Each of the four command specifier letters can be followed by additional letters that provide further detail about the operation to be performed:

f

Indicates that jar is to operate on a JAR file whose name is specified on the command line. If this option is not present, jar reads a JAR file from standard input and/or writes a JAR file to standard output. If the f option is present, the command line must contain the name of the JAR file to operate on.

m

When jar creates or updates a JAR file, it automatically creates (or updates) a manifest file named META-INF/MANIFEST.MF in the JAR archive. This default manifest simply lists the contents of the JAR file. Many JAR files require additional information to be specified in the manifest; the m option tells the jar command that a manifest template is specified on the command line. jar reads this manifest file and stores all the information it contains into the META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file it creates. This m option should be used only with the c or u commands, not with the t or x commands.

M

Used with the c and u commands to tell jar not to create a default manifest file.

v

Tells jar to produce verbose output.

0

Used with the c and u commands to tell jar to store files in the JAR archive without compressing them. Note that this option is the digit zero, not the letter O.

Files

The first option to jar consists of an initial command letter and various option letters. This first option is followed by a list of files:

jar

If the first option contains the letter f, that option must be followed by the name of the JAR file to create or manipulate.

manifest

If the first option contains the letter m, that option must be followed by the name of the file that contains manifest information. If the first option contains both the letters f and m, the JAR and manifest files should be listed in the same order the f and m options appear. In other words, if f comes before m, the JAR filename should come before the manifest filename. Otherwise, if m comes before f, the manifest filename should be specified before the JAR filename.

files

The list of one or more files and/or directories to be inserted into or extracted from the JAR archive.

Additional Options

In addition to all the options listed previously, jar also supports the following:

-C dir

Used within the list of files to process; it tells jar to change to the specified dir while processing the subsequent files and directories. The subsequent file and directory names are interpreted relative to dir and are inserted into the JAR archive without dir as a prefix. Any number of -C options can be used; each remains in effect until the next is encountered. The directory specified by a -C option is interpreted relative to the current working directory, not the directory specified by the previous -C option. Java 1.2 and later.

-i jarfile

The -i option is used instead of the c, t, u, and x commands. It tells jar to produce an index of all JAR files referenced by the specified jarfile. The index is stored in a file named META-INF/INDEX.LIST ; a Java interpreter or applet viewer can use the information in this index to optimize its class and resource lookup algorithm and avoid downloading unnecessary JAR files. Java 1.3 and later.

Examples

The jar command has a confusing array of options, but, in most cases, its use is quite simple. To create a simple JAR file that contains all the class files in the current directory and all files in a subdirectory called images, you can type:

% jar cf my.jar *.class images

Examples: To verbosely list the contents of a JAR archive:

% jar tvf your.jar

Examples: To extract the manifest file from a JAR file for examination or editing:

% jar xf the.jar META-INF/MANIFEST.MF

Examples: To update the manifest of a JAR file:

% jar ufm my.jar manifest.template

See Also: jarsigner

jarsignerJava 2 SDK 1.2 and later
JAR Signing and Verification Tool

Synopsis

jarsigner [options] jarfile signer
jarsigner -verify jarfile

Description

jarsigner adds a digital signature to the specified jarfile, or, if the -verify option is specified, it verifies the digital signature or signatures already attached to the JAR file. The specified signer is a case-insensitive nickname or alias for the entity whose signature is to be used. The specified signer name is used to look up the private key that generates the signature.

When you apply your digital signature to a JAR file, you are implicitly vouching for the contents of the archive. You are offering your personal word that the JAR file contains only nonmalicious code, files that do not violate copyright laws, and so forth. When you verify a digitally signed JAR file, you can determine who the signer or signers of the file are and (if the verification succeeds) that the contents of the JAR file have not been changed, corrupted, or tampered with since the signature or signatures were applied. Verifying a digital signature is entirely different from deciding whether or not you trust the person or organization whose signature you verified.

jarsigner and the related keytool program replace the javakey program of Java 1.1.

Options

jarsigner defines a number of options, many of which specify how a private key is to be found for the specified signer. Most of these options are unnecessary when using the -verify option to verify a signed JAR file:

-certs

If this option is specified along with either the -verify or -verbose option, it causes jarsigner to display details of the public-key certificates associated with the signed JAR file.

-Jjavaoption

Passes the specified javaoption directly to the Java interpreter.

-keypass password

Specifies the password that encrypts the private key of the specified signer. If this option is not specified, jarsigner prompts you for the password.

-keystore url

A keystore is a file that contains keys and certificates. This option specifies the filename or URL of the keystore in which the private- and public-key certificates of the specified signer are looked up. The default is the file named .keystore in the user's home directory (the value of the system property user.home). This is also the default location of the keystore managed by keytool.

-sigfile basename

Specifies the base names of the .SF and .DSA files added to the META-INF/ directory of the JAR file. If you leave this option unspecified, the base filename is chosen based on the signer name.

-signedjar outputfile

Specifies the name for the signed JAR file created by jarsigner. If this option is not specified, jarsigner overwrites the jarfile specified on the command line.

-storepass password

Specifies the password that verifies the integrity of the keystore (but does not encrypt the private key). If this option is omitted, jarsigner prompts you for the password.

-storetype type

Specifies the type of keystore specified by the -keystore option. The default is the system-default keystore type, which on most systems is the Java Keystore type, known as "JKS". If you have the Java Cryptography Extension installed, you may want to use a "JCEKS" keystore instead.

-verbose

Displays extra information about the signing or verification process.

-verify

Specifies that jarsigner should verify the specified JAR file rather than sign it.

See Also: jar, keytool, javakey

javaJDK 1.0 and later
The Java Interpreter

Synopsis

java [ interpreter-options ] classname [ program-arguments ]
java [ interpreter-options ] -jar jarfile [ program-arguments ]

Description

java is the Java byte-code interpreter; it runs Java programs. The program to be run is the class specified by classname. This must be a fully qualified name: it must include the package name of the class, but not the .class file extension. For example:

% java david.games.Checkers
% java Test

The specified class must define a main() method with exactly the following signature:

public static void main(String[] args)

This method serves as the program entry point: the interpreter begins execution here.

In Java 1.2 and later, a program can be packaged in an executable JAR file. To run a program packaged in this fashion, use the -jar option to specify the JAR file. The manifest of an executable JAR file must contain a Main-Class attribute that specifies which class within the JAR file contains the main() method at which the interpreter is to begin execution.

Any command-line options that precede the name of the class or JAR file to execute are options to the Java interpreter itself. Any options that follow the class name or JAR filename are options to the program; they are ignored by the Java interpreter and passed as an array of strings to the main() method of the program.

The Java interpreter runs until the main() method exits, and any threads (except for threads marked as daemon threads) created by the program have also exited.

Interpreter Versions

The java program is the basic version of the Java interpreter. In addition to this program, however, there are several other versions of the Java interpreter. Each of these versions is similar to java, but has a specialized function. The various interpreter programs are the following:

java

This is the basic version of the Java interpreter; it is usually the correct one to use. The behavior and set of supported options changed between Java 1.1 and Java 1.2.

oldjava

This version of the interpreter is included in Java 1.2 and Java 1.3x for compatibility with the Java 1.1 interpreter. It loads classes using the Java 1.1 class-loading scheme. Very few Java applications need to use this version of the interpreter.

javaw

This version of the interpreter is included only on Windows platforms. Use javaw when you want to run a Java program (from a script, for example) without forcing a console window to appear. In Java 1.2 and Java 1.3, there is also an oldjavaw program that combines the features of oldjava and javaw.

java_g

In Java 1.0 and Java 1.1, java_g is a debugging version of the Java interpreter. It includes a few specialized command-line options, but is rarely used. Windows platforms also define a javaw_g program. java_g is not included in Java 1.2 or later versions.

Client or Classic VM

In Java 1.3, the java application launcher tool can run a program using either of two VM implementations. The "Client VM" uses Sun's Hotspot incremental compilation technology and is highly tuned for running client-side Java applications (as opposed to server applications). This is the default VM. The "Classic VM" is essentially the same VM used by Java 1.2. To select the "Classic VM," specify the -classic option.

Just-In-Time Compiler

In Java 1.2, and in Java 1.3 when you specify the -classic option, the Java interpreter uses a just-in-time compiler (if one is available for your platform). A JIT converts Java byte codes to native machine instructions at runtime and significantly speeds up the execution of a typical Java program. If you do not want to use the JIT, you can disable it by setting the JAVA_COMPILER environment variable to "NONE" or the java.compiler system property to "NONE" using the -D option:

% setenv JAVA_COMPILER NONE                        // Unix syntax
% java -Djava.compiler=NONE MyProgram

If you want to use a different JIT compiler implementation, set the environment variable or system property to the name of the desired implementation.

Threading systems

On Solaris and related Unix platforms, you have a choice of the type of threads used by the Java 1.2 interpreter and the "Classic VM" of Java 1.3. To use native OS threads, specify -native. To use nonnative, or green, threads (the default), specify -green. In Java 1.3, the default "Client VM" uses native threads. Specifying -green or -native in Java 1.3 implicitly specifies -classic as well.

Options

-classic

Runs the "Classic VM" instead of the default high-performance "Client VM." Java 1.3 and later.

-classpath path

Specifies the directories, JAR files, and ZIP files java searches when trying to load a class. In Java 1.0 and 1.1, and with the oldjava interpreter, this option specifies the location of system classes, extension classes, and application classes. In Java 1.2 and later, this option specifies only the location of application classes. See Loading Classes for further details.

-cp

A synonym for -classpath. Java 1.2 and later.

-cs, -checksource

Both options tell java to check the modification times on the specified class file and its corresponding source file. If the class file cannot be found or if it is out of date, it is automatically recompiled from the source. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; these options are not available in Java 1.2 and later.

-Dpropertyname=value

Defines propertyname to equal value in the system properties list. Your Java program can then look up the specified value by its property name. You can specify any number of -D options. For example:

% java -Dawt.button.color=gray -Dmy.class.pointsize=14 my.class
-debug

Causes java to start up in a way that allows the jdb debugger to attach itself to the interpreter session. In Java 1.2 and later, this option has been replaced with -Xdebug.

-green

On operating systems such as Solaris that support multiple styles of threading, this option selects nonnative, or green, threads. This is the default in Java 1.2. In Java 1.3, using this option also selects the -classic option. See also -native. Java 1.2 and later.

-help, -?

Prints a usage message and exits. See also -X.

-jar jarfile

Runs the specified executable jarfile. The manifest of the specified jarfile must contain a Main-Class attribute that identifies the class with the main() method at which program execution is to begin. Java 1.2 and later.

-ldigit

Sets the logging level for trace output. See -t and -tm. java_g only.

-ms initmem[k|m]

Specifies how much memory is allocated for the heap when the interpreter starts up. In Java 1.2 and later, this option has been renamed -Xms.

-mx maxmem[k|m]

Specifies the maximum heap size the interpreter can use for dynamically allocated objects and arrays. In Java 1.2 and later, this option has been renamed -Xmx.

-native

On operating systems such as Solaris that support multiple styles of threading, this option selects native threads, instead of the default green threads. Using native threads can be advantageous in some circumstances, such as when running on a multi-CPU computer. In Java 1.3, the default Hotspot virtual machine uses native threads. Selecting this option in Java 1.3 implicitly selects the -classic option as well. Java 1.2 and later.

-noasyncgc

Do not do garbage collection asynchronously. With this option specified, java performs garbage collection only when it runs out of memory or when the garbage collector is explicitly invoked. Without this option, java runs the garbage collector as a separate, low-priority thread. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later versions.

-noclassgc

Do not garbage-collect loaded classes no longer in use. This option was added in Java 1.1; it has been renamed to -Xnoclassgc as of Java 1.2.

-noverify

Never run the byte-code verifier. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later versions.

-oss stacksize[k|m]

Sets the size of each thread's Java code stack. By default, stacksize is specified in bytes. You can specify it in kilobytes by appending the letter k or in megabytes by appending the letter m. The default value is 400 KB. You must specify at least 1000 bytes. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later versions.

-prof[:file]

Outputs profiling information to the specified file or to the file java.prof in the current directory. The format of this profiling information is not well-documented. Prior to Java 1.1, no file can be specified; profiling information is always output to ./java.prof. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been superseded in Java 1.2 by the -Xrunhprof option and in Java 1.3 by -Xprof.

-showversion

This option works like the -version option, except that the interpreter continues running after printing the version information. Java 1.3 and later.

-ss stacksize[k|m]

Sets the size of each thread's native code stack. By default, stacksize is specified in bytes. You can specify it in kilobytes by appending the letter k or in megabytes by appending the letter m. The default value is 128 KB. You must specify at least 1000 bytes. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later versions.

-t

Outputs a trace of all byte codes executed. java_g only.

-tm

Outputs a trace of all methods executed. java_g only.

-verbose, -v, -verbose:class

Prints a message each time java loads a class. In Java 1.0 and Java 1.1, you can use -v as a synonym. In Java 1.2 and later, you can use -verbose:class as a synonym.

-verbosegc

Prints a message when garbage collection occurs. In Java 1.2 and later, this option has been renamed -verbose:gc.

-verbose:gc

Prints a message when garbage collection occurs. Java 1.2 and later. Prior to Java 1.2, use -verbosegc.

-verbose:jni

Prints a message when native methods are called. Java 1.2 and later.

-verify

Runs the byte-code verifier on all classes that are loaded. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later.

-verifyremote

Runs the byte-code verifier on all classes that are loaded through a class loader. (This generally refers to classes that are dynamically loaded from an untrusted location.) This is the default behavior for java. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later.

-version

Prints the version of the Java interpreter and exits.

-X

Displays usage information for the nonstandard interpreter options (those beginning with -X) and exits. See also -help. Java 1.2 and later.

-Xbatch

Tells the Hotspot VM to perform all just-in-time compilation in the foreground, regardless of the time required for compilation. Without this option, the VM compiles methods in the background while interpreting them in the foreground. Java 1.3 and later.

-Xbootclasspath:path

Specifies a search path consisting of directories, ZIP files, and JAR files the java interpreter should use to look up system classes. With oldjava, use -classpath to specify this information. Use of this option is very rare. Java 1.2 and later.

-Xcheck:jni

Performs additional checks when using Java Native Interface functions. Java 1.2 and later.

-Xdebug

Starts the interpreter in a way that allows a debugger to communicate with it. Java 1.2 and later. Prior to Java 1.2, use -debug.

-Xfuture

Strictly checks the format of all class files loaded. Without this option, java performs the same checks that were performed in Java 1.1. Java 1.2 and later.

-Xincgc

Uses incremental garbage collection. In this mode the garbage collector runs continuously in the background, and a running program is rarely, if ever, subject to noticeable pauses while garbage collection occurs. Using this option typically results in a 10% decrease in overall performance, however. Java 1.3 and later.

-Xint

Tells the Hotspot VM to operate in interpreted mode only, without performing any just-in-time compilation. Java 1.3 and later.

-Xmixed

Tells the Hotspot VM to perform just-in-time compilation on frequently used methods ("hotspots") and execute other methods in interpreted mode. This is the default behavior. Java 1.3 and later.

-Xms initmem[k|m]

Specifies how much memory is allocated for the heap when the interpreter starts up. By default, initmem is specified in bytes. You can specify it in kilobytes by appending the letter k or in megabytes by appending the letter m. The default is 1 MB. For large or memory-intensive applications (such as the Java compiler), you can improve runtime performance by starting the interpreter with a larger amount of memory. You must specify an initial heap size of at least 1000 bytes. Java 1.2 and later. Prior to Java 1.2, use -ms.

-Xmx maxmem[k|m]

Specifies the maximum heap size the interpreter uses for dynamically allocated objects and arrays. maxmem is specified in bytes by default. You can specify maxmem in kilobytes by appending the letter k and in megabytes by appending the letter m. The default is 16 MB. You cannot specify a heap size less than 1000 bytes. Java 1.2 and later. Prior to Java 1.2, use -mx.

-Xnoclassgc

Do not garbage-collect classes. Java 1.2 and later. In Java 1.1, use -noclassgc.

-Xprof

Prints profiling output to standard output. Java 1.3 and later. In Java 1.2, or when using the -classic option, use -Xrunhprof. Prior to Java 1.2, use -prof.

-Xrs

Requests that the interpreter use fewer operating system signals. This option may improve performance on some systems. Java 1.2 and later.

-Xrunhprof:suboptions

Turns on CPU, heap, or monitor profiling. suboptions is a comma-separated list of name=value pairs. Use -Xrunhprof:help for a list of supported options and values. Java 1.2 and later. Prior to Java 1.2, rudimentary profiling support is available with the -prof option. In Java 1.3, this option is supported if -classic is used, but is not supported by the new Hotspot VM. See -Xprof.

Loading Classes

The Java interpreter knows where to find the system classes that comprise the Java platform. In Java 1.2 and later, it also knows where to find the class files for all extensions installed in the system extensions directory. However, the interpreter must be told where to find the nonsystem classes that comprise the application to be run.

Class files are stored in directories that correspond to their package name. For example, the class com.davidflanagan.utils.Util is stored in a file com/davidflanagan/utils/Util.class. By default, the interpreter uses the current working directory as the root and looks for all classes in and beneath this directory.

The interpreter can also search for classes within ZIP and JAR files. To tell the interpreter where to look for classes, you specify a classpath : a list of directories and ZIP and JAR archives. When looking for a class, the interpreter searches each of the specified locations in the order in which they are specified.

The easiest way to specify a classpath is to set the CLASSPATH environment variable, which works much like the PATH variable used by a Unix shell or a Windows command-interpreter path. To specify a classpath in Unix, you might type a command like this:

% setenv CLASSPATH .:~/myclasses:/usr/lib/javautils.jar:/usr/lib/javaapps

On a Windows system, you might use a command like the following:

C:\> set CLASSPATH=.;c:\myclasses;c:\javatools\classes.zip;d:\javaapps

Note that Unix and Windows use different characters to separate directory and path components.

You can also specify a classpath with the -classpath or -cp options to the Java interpreter. A path specified with one of these options overrides any path specified by the CLASSPATH environment variable. In Java 1.2 and later, the -classpath option specifies only the search path for application and user classes. Prior to Java 1.2, or when using the oldjava interpreter, this option specifies the search path for all classes, including system classes and extension classes.

See Also: javac, jdb

javacJDK 1.0 and later
The Java Compiler

Synopsis

javac [ options ] files
oldjavac [ options ] files

Description

javac is the Java compiler; it compiles Java source code (in .java files) into Java byte codes (in .class files). The Java compiler is itself written in Java. The Java compiler has been completely rewritten in Java 1.3, and its performance has been substantially improved. Although the new javac is substantially compatible with previous versions of the compiler, the old version of the compiler is provided as oldjavac.

javac can be passed any number of Java source files, whose names must all end with the .java extension. javac produces a separate .class class file for each class defined in the source files. Each source file can contain any number of classes, although only one can be a public top-level class. The name of the source file (minus the .java extension) must match the name of the public class it contains.

In Java 1.2 and later, if a filename specified on the command line begins with the character @, that file is taken not as a Java source file, but as a list of Java source files. Thus, if you keep a list of Java source files for a particular project in a file named project.list, you can compile all those files at once with the command:

% javac @project.list

To compile a source file, javac must be able to find definitions of all classes used in the source file. It looks for definitions in both source-file and class-file form, automatically compiling any source files that have no corresponding class files or that have been modified since they were most recently compiled.

Options

-bootclasspath path

Specifies the search pathjavac uses to look up system classes. This option is handy when you are using javac as a cross-compiler to compile classes against different versions of the Java API. For example, you might use the Java 1.3 compiler to compile classes against the Java 1.2 runtime environment. This option does not specify the system classes used to run the compiler itself, only the system classes read by the compiler. See also -extdirs and -target. Java 1.2 and later.

-classpath path

Specifies the path javac uses to look up classes referenced in the specified source code. This option overrides any path specified by the CLASSPATH environment variable. The path specified is an ordered list of directories, ZIP files, and JAR archives, separated by colons on Unix systems or semicolons on Windows systems. If the -sourcepath option is not set, this option also specifies the search path for source files.

Prior to Java 1.2, this option specifies the path to system and extension classes, as well as user and application classes, and must be used carefully. In Java 1.2 and later, it specifies only the search path for application classes. See the discussion of "Loading Classes" in the documentation for the java command for further information.

-d directory

Specifies the directory in which (or beneath which) class files should be stored. By default, javac stores the .class files it generates in the same directory as the .java files those classes were defined in. If the -d option is specified, however, the specified directory is treated as the root of the class hierarchy, and .class files are placed in this directory or the appropriate subdirectory below it, depending on the package name of the class. Thus, the following command:

% javac -d /java/classes Checkers.java

places the file Checkers.class in the directory /java/classes if the Checkers.java file has no package statement. On the other hand, if the source file specifies that it is in a package:

package com.davidflanagan.games;

the .class file is stored in /java/classes/com/davidflanagan/games. When the -d option is specified, javac automatically creates any directories it needs to store its class files in the appropriate place.

-depend

Tells javac to recursively search for out-of-date class files in need of recompilation. This option forces a thorough compilation, but can slow the process down significantly. In Java 1.2 and later, this option has been renamed -Xdepend.

-deprecation

Tells javac to issue a warning for every use of a deprecated API. By default, javac issues only a single warning for each source file that uses deprecated APIs. Java 1.1 and later.

-extdirs path

Specifies a list of directories to search for extension JAR files. It is used along with -bootclasspath when doing cross-compilation for different versions of the Java runtime environment. Java 1.2 and later.

-g

Tells javac to add line number, source file, and local variable information to the output class files, for use by debuggers. By default, javac generates only the line numbers.

-g:none

Tells javac to include no debugging information in the output class files. Java 1.2 and later.

-g:keyword-list

Tells javac to output the types of debugging information specified by the comma-separated keyword-list. The valid keywords are: source, which specifies source-file information; lines, which specifies line number information; and vars, which specifies local variable debugging information. Java 1.2 and later.

-Jjavaoption

Passes the argument javaoption directly through to the Java interpreter. For example: -J-Xmx32m. javaoption should not contain spaces; if multiple arguments must be passed to the interpreter, use multiple -J options. Java 1.1 and later.

-nowarn

Tells javac not to print warning messages. Errors are still reported as usual.

-nowrite

Tells javac not to create any class files. Source files are parsed as usual, but no output is written. This option is useful when you want to check that a file will compile without actually compiling it. Java 1.0 and Java 1.1 only; this option is not available in Java 1.2 and later.

-O

Enables optimization of class files to improve their execution speed. Using this option can result in larger class files that are difficult to debug and cause longer compilation times. Prior to Java 1.2, this option is incompatible with -g; turning on -O implicitly turns off -g and turns on -depend.

-sourcepath path

Specifies the list of directories, ZIP files, and JAR archives that javac searches when looking for source files. The files found in this source path are compiled if no corresponding class files are found or if the source files are newer than the class files. By default, source files are searched for in the same places class files are searched for. Java 1.2 and later.

-target version

Specifies the class-file-format version to use for the generated class files. The default version is 1.1, which generates class files that can be read and executed by Java 1.0 and later virtual machines. If you specify version as 1.2, javac increments the class file version number, producing a class file that does not run with a Java 1.0 or Java 1.1 interpreter. There have not been any actual changes to the Java class-file format; the new version number is simply a convenient way to prevent classes that depend on the many new features of Java 1.2 from being run on out-of-date interpreters.

-verbose

Tells the compiler to display messages about what it is doing. In particular, it causes javac to list all the source files it compiles, including files that did not appear on the command line.

-X

Tells the javac compiler (and, in Java 1.3, the oldjavac compiler) to display usage information for its nonstandard options (all of which begin with -X). Java 1.2 and oldjavac only.

-Xdepend

Tells javac to recursively search for source files that need recompilation. This causes a very thorough but time-consuming compilation process. Java 1.2 and oldjavac only.

-Xstdout

Tells javac to send warning and error messages to the standard output stream instead of the standard error stream. Java 1.2 and oldjavac only.

-Xverbosepath

Displays verbose output explaining where various class files and source files were found. Java 1.2 and oldjavac only.

Environment

CLASSPATH

Specifies an ordered list (colon-separated on Unix, semicolon-separated on Windows systems) of directories, ZIP files, and JAR archives in which javac should look for user class files and source files. This variable is overridden by the -classpath option.

See Also: java, jdb

javadocJDK 1.0 and later
The Java Documentation Generator

Synopsis

javadoc [ options ] package... sourcefiles... @lists... 

Description

javadoc generates API documentation, in HTML format (by default), for any number of packages and classes you specify. The javadoc command line can list any number of package names and any number of Java source files. For convenience, when working with a large number of packages or source files, you can list them all in an auxiliary file and specify the name of that file on the command line, preceded by an @ character.

javadoc uses the javac compiler to process all the specified Java source files and all the Java source files in all the specified packages. It uses the information it gleans from this processing to generate detailed API documentation. Most importantly, the generated documentation includes the contents of all documentation comments included in the source files. See Chapter 7, "Java Programming and Documentation Conventions", for information about writing doc comments in your own Java code.

When you specify a Java source file for javadoc to process, you must specify the name of the file that contains the source, including a complete path to the file. It is more common, however, to use javadoc to create documentation for entire packages of classes. When you specify a package for javadoc to process, you specify the package name, not the directory that contains the source code for the package. In this case, you may need to specify the -sourcepath option so that javadoc can find your package source code correctly if it is not stored in a location already listed in your default classpath.

javadoc creates HTML documentation by default, but you can customize its behavior by defining a doclet class that generates documentation in whatever format you desire. You can write your own doclets using the doclet API defined by the com.sun.javadoc package. Documentation for this package is included in the standard documentation bundle for Java 1.2 and later.

javadoc has significant new functionality as of Java 1.2. This reference page documents the Java 1.2 and later versions of the program, but makes no attempt to distinguish new features of the Java 1.2 version from the features that existed in previous versions.

Options

javadoc defines a large number of options. Some are standard options that are always recognized by javadoc. Other options are defined by the doclet that produces the documentation. The options for the standard HTML doclet are included in the following list:

-1.1

Simulates the output style and directory structure of the Java 1.1 version of javadoc.

-author

Includes authorship information specified with @author in the generated documentation. Default doclet only.

-bootclasspath

Specifies the location of an alternate set of system classes. This can be useful when cross-compiling. See javac for more information on this option.

-bottom text

Displays text at the bottom of each generated HTML file. text can contain HTML tags. See also -footer. Default doclet only.

-charset encoding

Specifies the character encoding for the output. This depends on the encoding used in the documentation comments of your source code, of course. The encoding value is used in a <META> tag in the HTML output. Default doclet only.

-classpath path

Specifies a path javadoc uses to look up both class files and, if you do not specify the -sourcepath option, source files. Because javadoc uses the javac compiler, it needs to be able to locate class files for all classes referenced by the packages being documented. See java and javac for more information about this option and the default value provided by the CLASSPATH environment variable.

-d directory

Specifies the directory in and beneath which javadoc should store the HTML files it generates. If this option is omitted, the current directory is used. Default doclet only.

-docencoding encoding

Specifies the encoding to be used for output HTML documents. The name of the encoding specified here may not exactly match the name of the charset specified with the -charset option. Default doclet only.

-doclet classname

Specifies the name of the doclet class to use to generate the documentation. If this option is not specified, javadoc generates documentation using the default HTML doclet.

-docletpath classpath

If the class specified by the -doclet tag is not available from the default classpath, this option specifies a path from which it can be loaded.

-doctitle text

Provides a title to display at the top of the documentation overview file. This file is often the first thing readers see when they browse the generated documentation. The title can contain HTML tags. Default doclet only.

-encoding encoding-name

Specifies the character encoding of the input source files and the documentation comments they contain. This can be different from the desired output encoding specified by -docencoding. The default is the platform default encoding.

-extdirs dirlist

Specifies a list of directories to search for standard extensions. Only necessary when cross-compiling with -bootclasspath. See javac for details.

-footer text

Specifies text to be displayed near the bottom of each file, to the right of the navigation bar. text can contain HTML tags. See also -bottom and -header. Default doclet only.

-group title packagelist

javadoc generates a top-level overview page that lists all packages in the generated document. By default, these packages are listed in alphabetical order in a single table. You can break them into groups of related packages with this option, however. The title specifies the title of the package group, such as "Core Packages." The packagelist is a colon-separated list of package names, each of which can include a trailing * character as a wildcard. The javadoc command line can contain any number of -group options. For example:

javadoc -group "AWT Packages" java.awt*
        -group "Swing Packages" javax.accessibility:javax.swing*
-header text

Specifies text to be displayed near the top of each file, to the right of the upper navigation bar. text can contain HTML tags. See also -footer, -doctitle, and -windowtitle. Default doclet only.

-help

Displays a usage message for javadoc.

-helpfile file

Specifies the name of an HTML file that contains help for using the generated documentation. javadoc includes links to this help file in all files it generates. If this option is not specified, javadoc creates a default help file. Default doclet only.

-Jjavaoption

Passes the argument javaoption directly through to the Java interpreter. When processing a large number of packages, you may need to use this option to increase the amount of memory javadoc is allowed to use. For example:

% javadoc -J-Xmx64m
-link url

Specifies an absolute or relative URL of the top-level directory of another javadoc-generated document. javadoc uses this URL as the base URL for links from the current document to packages, classes, methods, and fields that are not documented in the current document. For example, when using javadoc to produce documentation for your own packages, you can use this option to link your documentation to the javadoc documentation for the core Java APIs. Default doclet only.

The directory specified by url must contain a file named package-list, and javadoc must be able to read this file at runtime. This file is automatically generated by a previous run of javadoc ; it contains a list of all packages documented at the url.

More than one -link option can be specified, although this does not work properly in early releases of Java 1.2. If no -link option is specified, references in the generated documentation to classes and members that are external to the documentation are not hyperlinked.

-linkoffline url packagelist

This option is like the -link option, except that the packagelist file is explicitly specified on the command line. This is useful when the directory specified by url does not have a package-list file or when that file is not available when javadoc is run. Default doclet only.

-locale language_country_variant

Specifies the locale to use for generated documentation. This is used to look up a resource file that contains localized messages and text for the output files.

-nodeprecated

Tells javadoc to omit documentation for deprecated features. This option implies -nodeprecatedlist. Default doclet only.

-nodeprecatedlist

Tells javadoc not to generate the deprecated-list.html file and not to output a link to it on the navigation bar. Default doclet only.

-nohelp

Tells javadoc not to generate a help file or a link to it in the navigation bar. Default doclet only.

-noindex

Tells javadoc not to generate index files. Default doclet only.

-nonavbar

Tells javadoc to omit the navigation bars from the top and bottom of every file. Also omits the text specified by -header and -footer. This is useful when generating documentation to be printed. Default doclet only.

-notree

Tells javadoc not to generate the tree.html class hierarchy diagram or a link to it in the navigation bar. Default doclet only.

-overview filename

Reads an overview doc comment from filename and uses that comment in the overview page. This file does not contain Java source code, so the doc comment should not actually appear between /** and */ delimiters.

-package

Includes package-visible classes and members in the output, as well as public and protected classes and members.

-private

Includes all classes and members, including private and package-visible classes and members, in the generated documentation.

-protected

Includes public and protected classes and members in the generated output. This is the default.

-public

Includes only public classes and members in the generated output. Omits protected, private, and package-visible classes and members.

-serialwarn

Issues warnings about serializable classes that do not adequately document their serialization format with @serial and related doc-comment tags. Default doclet only.

-sourcepath path

Specifies a search path for source files, typically set to a single root directory. javadoc uses this path when looking for the Java source files that implement a specified package.

-splitindex

Generates multiple index files, one for each letter of the alphabet. Use this option when documenting large amounts of code. Otherwise, the single index file generated by javadoc will be too large to be useful. Default doclet only.

-stylesheetfile file

Specifies a file to use as a CSS stylesheet for the generated HTML. javadoc inserts appropriate links to this file in the generated documentation. Default doclet only.

-use

Generates and inserts links to an additional file for each class and package that lists the uses of the class or package.

-verbose

Displays additional messages while processing source files.

-version

Includes information from @version tags in the generated output. This option does not tell javadoc to print its own version number. Default doclet only.

-windowtitle text

Specifies text to be output in the <TITLE> tag of each generated file. This title typically appears in the web-browser titlebar and its history and bookmarks lists. text should not contain HTML tags. See also -doctitle and -header. Default doclet only.

Environment

CLASSPATH

This environment variable specifies the default classpath javadoc uses to find the class files and source files. It is overridden by the -classpath and -sourcepath options. See java and javac for further discussion of the classpath.

See Also: java, javac

javahJDK 1.0 and later
Native Method C Stub Generator

Synopsis

javah [ options ] classnames

Description

javah generates C header and source files (.h and .c files) that are used when implementing Java native methods in C. The preferred native method interface has changed between Java 1.0 and Java 1.1. In Java 1.1 and earlier, javah generates files for old-style native methods. In Java 1.1, the -jni option specifies that javah should generate new-style files. In Java 1.2 and later, this option becomes the default.

This reference page describes only how to use javah. A full description of how to implement Java native methods in C is beyond the scope of this book.

Options

-bootclasspath

Specifies the path to search for system classes. See javac for further discussion. Java 1.2 and later.

-classpath path

The path javah uses to look up the classes named on the command line. This option overrides any path specified by the CLASSPATH environment variable. Prior to Java 1.2, this option can specify the location of the system classes and extensions. In Java 1.2 and later, it specifies only the location of application classes. See -bootclasspath. See also java for further discussion of the classpath.

-d directory

Specifies the directory into which javah stores the files it generates. By default, it stores them in the current directory. This option cannot be used with -o.

-force

Always write output files, even if they contain no useful content.

-help

Causes javah to display a simple usage message and exit.

-jni

Specifies that javah should output header files for use with the new Java Native Interface (JNI), rather than using the old JDK 1.0 native interface. This option is the default in Java 1.2 and later. See also -old. Java 1.1 and later.

-o outputfile

Combines all output into a single file, outputfile, instead of creating separate files for each specified class.

-old

Outputs files for Java 1.0-style native methods. Prior to Java 1.2, this was the default. See also -jni. Java 1.2 and later.

-stubs

Generates .c stub files for the class or classes, instead of header files. This option is only for the Java 1.0 native methods interface. See -old.

-td directory

Specifies the directory where javah should store temporary files. On Unix systems, the default is /tmp.

-trace

Specifies that javah should include tracing output commands in the stub files it generates. In Java 1.2 and later, this option is obsolete and has been removed. In its place, you can use the -verbose:jni option of the Java interpreter.

-v, -verbose

Verbose mode. Causes javah to print messages about what it is doing. In Java 1.2 and later, -verbose is a synonym.

-version

Causes javah to display its version number.

Environment

CLASSPATH

Specifies the default classpath javah searches to find the specified classes. See java for a further discussion of the classpath.

See Also: java, javac

javakeyJDK 1.1; Superseded in Java 2 SDK 1.2
Key Management and Digital Signatures

Synopsis

javakey options

Description

javakey provides a command-line interface to a number of complex key and certificate generation and management tasks, including the generation of digital signatures. In Java 1.2 and later, javakey has been superseded by two new tools, keytool for managing keys and certificates and jarsigner for digitally signing code. Due to bugs in Java 1.1, digital signatures generated by javakey are not recognized in Java 1.2. Likewise, signatures generated by the new jarsigner tool are not recognized by Java 1.1.

javakey manages a system database of entities. Each entity can have public and private keys and/or certificates associated with it. In addition, each entity can be declared to be trusted or not. Any entity in the database can be an identity or a signer. Identities have only a public key associated with them, while signers have both a public and private key and thus can sign files.

Options

javakey defines a large number of options that perform a number of distinct operations:

-c identity-name [true|false]

Creates and adds a new identity entity to the database, using the specified name. If identity-name is followed by true, it declares the identity to be trusted. Otherwise, it is untrusted.

-cs signer-name [true|false]

Creates and adds a new signer entity to the database, using the specified name. If signer-name is followed by true, declares the signer to be trusted. Otherwise, it is untrusted.

-t entity-name true|false

Specifies whether the named entity is trusted (true) or not (false).

-l

Lists the names of all entities in the security database.

-ld

Lists the names and other details about all entities in the security database.

-li entity-name

Lists detailed information about the named entity from the security database.

-r entity-name

Removes the named entity from the security database.

-ik identity-name keyfile

Imports a key by reading a public key from the specified file and associating it with the named identity. The key must be in X.509 format.

-ikp signer-name pubkeyfile privkeyfile

Imports a key pair by reading the specified public-key and private-key files and associating them with the named signer entity. The keys must be in X.509 format.

-ic entity-name certificate-file

Imports a certificate by reading a certificate from the named certificate file and associating it with the named entity. If the entity already has a public key, compares it to the key in the certificate and issues a warning if they don't match. If the entity has no public key assigned, uses the public key from the certificate.

-ii entity-name

Imports information, allowing you to enter arbitrary textual information about an entity into the database.

-gk signer algorithm size [pubfile [privfile]]

Generates a public and private key and associates them with the named signer. Uses the specified algorithm. Currently, the only supported algorithm is "DSA". Generates keys of the specified number of bits, which must be between 512 and 1024. If pubfile is specified, writes the public key to the specified file. If privfile is specified, writes the private key to the specified file.

-g signer algorithm size [pubfile [privfile]]

A synonym for the -gk command.

-gc directivefile

Generates a certificate according to the parameters specified in the directive file. The directive file is a Properties file that must provide values for the following named properties:

issuer.name

The name of the entity issuing the certificate

issuer.cert

The issuer's certificate number to be used to sign the generated certificate (unless the certificate is self-signed)

subject.name

The database name of the entity to which the certificate is being issued

subject.real.name

The real name of the entity to which the certificate is being issued

subject.country

The country the subject entity is in

subject.org

The organization with which the subject entity is affiliated

subject.org.unit

A division within the subject's organization

start.date

The starting date (and time) of the certificate

end.date

The ending date (and time) of the certificate

serial.number

A serial number for the certificate; this number must be unique among all certificates generated by the issuer

out.file

An optional filename that specifies the file to which the certificate should be written

-dc certfile

Displays the contents of the certificate stored in certfile.

-ec entity certificate-number file

Exports the numbered certificate of the specified entity into the specified file. Use the -li command to inspect the certificate numbers for a given entity.

-ek entity pubfile [privfile]

Exports the public key of the specified entity into the specified file. If the entity is a signer and the privfile is specified, additionally exports the private key of the entity to that file.

-gs directivefile jarfile

Generates, or applies, a digital signature to the specified JAR file, using the directives in the specified directive file. The directive file is a Properties file that must provide values for the following named properties:

signer

The entity name of the signer

cert

The certificate number to use for the signature

chain

The length of a chain of certificates to include (not currently supported; specify 0)

signature.file

The basename of the signature file and signature block to be inserted into the JAR file; must be eight characters or less and should not conflict with any other digital signatures that may be inserted into the JAR file

out.file

This optional property specifies the name that should be used for the signed JAR file that is generated.

See Also: jar, jarsigner, keytool

javapJDK 1.0 and later
The Java Class Disassembler

Synopsis

javap [ options ] classnames

Description

javap reads the class files specified by the class names on the command line and prints a human-readable version of the API defined by those classes. javap can also disassemble the specified classes, displaying the Java VM byte codes for the methods they contain.

Options

-b

Enables backward compatibility with the output of the Java 1.1 version of javap. This option exists for program that depends on the precise output format of javap. Java 1.2 and later.

-bootclasspath path

Specifies the search path for the system classes. See javac for information about this rarely used option. Java 1.2 and later.

-c

Displays the code (i.e., Java VM byte codes) for each method of each specified class. This option always disassembles all methods, regardless of their visibility level.

-classpath path

Specifies the path javap uses to look up the classes named on the command line. This option overrides the path specified by the CLASSPATH environment variable. Prior to Java 1.2, this argument specifies the path for all system classes, extensions, and application classes. In Java 1.2 and later, it specifies only the application classpath. See also -bootclasspath and -extdirs. See java and javac for more information on the classpath.

-extdirs dirs

Specifies one or more directories that should be searched for extension classes. See javac for information about this rarely used option. Java 1.2 and later.

-l

Displays tables of line numbers and local variables, if available in the class files. This option is typically useful only when used with -c. The javac compiler does not include local variable information in its class files by default. See the -g and related options to javac.

-help

Prints a usage message and exits.

-Jjavaoption

Passes the specified javaoption directly to the Java interpreter.

-package

Displays package-visible, protected, and public class members, but not private members. This is the default.

-private

Displays all class members, including private members.

-protected

Displays only protected and public members.

-public

Displays only public members of the specified classes.

-s

Outputs the class member declarations using the internal VM type and method signature format, instead of the more readable source-code format.

-verbose

Verbose mode. Outputs additional information (in the form of Java comments) about each member of each specified class.

-verify

Causes javap to perform partial class verification on the specified class or classes and display the results. Java 1.0 and 1.1. only; this option has been removed in Java 1.2 and later because it does not perform a sufficiently thorough verification.

-version

Causes javap to display its version number.

Environment

CLASSPATH

Specifies the default search path for application classes. The -classpath option overrides this environment variable. See java for a discussion of the classpath.

See Also: java, javac

jdbJDK 1.0 and later
The Java Debugger

Synopsis

jdb [ options ] class [ program options ]
jdb connect options

Description

jdb is a debugger for Java classes. It is text-based, command-line-oriented, and has a command syntax like that of the Unix dbx or gdb debuggers used with C and C++ programs.

jdb is written in Java, so it runs within a Java interpreter. When jdb is invoked with the name of a Java class, it starts another copy of the java interpreter, using any interpreter options specified on the command line. The new interpreter is started with special options that enable it to communicate with jdb. The new interpreter loads the specified class file and then stops and waits for debugging commands before executing the first byte code.

jdb can also debug a program that is already running in another Java interpreter. Doing so requires special options be passed to both the java interpreter and to jdb. The Java debugging architecture has changed dramatically with the introduction of Java 1.3, and so have the java and jdb options used to allow jdb to connect to a running interpreter.

jdb Expression Syntax

jdb debugging commands such as print, dump, and suspendx allow you to refer to classes, objects, methods, fields, and threads in the program being debugged. You can refer to classes by name, with or without their package names. You can also refer to static class members by name. You can refer to individual objects by object ID, which is an eight-digit hexadecimal integer. Or, when the classes you are debugging contain local variable information, you can often use local variable names to refer to objects. You can use normal Java syntax to refer to the fields of an object and the elements of an array; you can also use this syntax to write quite complex expressions. In Java 1.3, jdb even supports method invocation using standard Java syntax.

A number of jdb commands require you to specify a thread. Each thread is given an integer identifier and is named using the syntax t@n, where n is the thread ID.

Options

When invoking jdb with a specified class file, any of the java interpreter options can be specified. See the java reference page for an explanation of these options. In addition, jdb supports the following options:

-attach [host:]port

Specifies that jdb should connect to the Java "Client VM" that is already running on the specified host (or the local host, if unspecified) and listening for debugging connections on the specified port. Java 1.3 and later.

In order to use jdb to connect to a running VM in this way, the VM must have been started with a command line something like this:

% java -Xdebug -Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socket,address=8000,server=y,suspend=n

The Java 1.3 jdb architecture allows a complex set of interpreter-to-debugger connection options, and java and jdb provide a complex set of options and suboptions to enable it. A detailed description of those options is beyond the scope of this book.

-help

Displays a usage message listing supported options.

-host hostname

In Java 1.2 and earlier, this option is used to connect to an already running interpreter. It specifies the name of the host upon which the desired interpreter session is running. If omitted, the default is the local host. This option must be used with -password. In Java 1.3, this option has been replaced by the -attach option.

-launch

Starts the specified application when jdb starts. This avoids the need to explicitly use the run command to start it. Java 1.3 and later.

-password password

In Java 1.2 and earlier, this option specifies a password that uniquely identifies a Java VM on a particular host. When used in conjunction with -hostname, this option enables jdb to connect to a running interpreter. The interpreter must have been started with the -debug or -Xdebug option, which causes it to display an appropriate password for use with this option. In Java 1.3, this option has been replaced by the -attach option.

-sourcepath path

Specifies the locations jdb searches when attempting to find source files that correspond to the class files being debugged. If unspecified, jdb uses the classpath by default. Java 1.3 and later.

-tclassic

Tells jdb to invoke the "Classic VM" instead of the "Client VM" (Hotspot), which is the default VM in Java 1.3. Java 1.3 and later.

-version

Displays the jdb version number and exits.

Commands

jdb understands the following debugging commands:

? or help

Lists all supported commands, with a short explanation of each.

!!

A shorthand command that is replaced with the text of the last command entered. It can be followed with additional text that is appended to that previous command.

catch [ exception-class ]

Causes a breakpoint whenever the specified exception is thrown. If no exception is specified, the command lists the exceptions currently being caught. Use ignore to stop these breakpoints from occurring.

classes

Lists all classes that have been loaded.

clear

Lists all currently set breakpoints.

clear class.method [(param-type...)]

Clears the breakpoint set in the specified method of the specified class.

clear [ class:line ]

Removes the breakpoint set at the specified line of the specified class.

cont

Resumes execution. This command should be used when the current thread is stopped at a breakpoint.

down [ n ]

Moves down n frames in the call stack of the current thread. If n is not specified, moves down one frame.

dump id...

Prints the value of all fields of the specified object or objects. If you specify the name of a class, dump displays all class (static) methods and variables of the class, and also displays the superclass and list of implemented interfaces. Objects and classes can be specified by name or by their eight-digit hexadecimal ID numbers. Threads can also be specified with the shorthand t@thread-number.

exit or quit

Quits jdb.

gc

Runs the garbage collector to force unused objects to be reclaimed.

ignore exception-class

Does not treat the specified exception as a breakpoint. This command turns off a catch command. This command does not cause the Java interpreter to ignore exceptions; it merely tells jdb to ignore them.

list [ line-number ]

Lists the specified line of source code as well as several lines that appear before and after it. If no line number is specified, uses the line number of the current stack frame of the current thread. The lines listed are from the source file of the current stack frame of the current thread. Use the use command to tell jdb where to find source files.

list method

Displays the source code of the specified method.

load classname

Loads the specified class into jdb.

locals

Displays a list of local variables for the current stack frame. Java code must be compiled with the -g option in order to contain local variable information.

memory

Displays a summary of memory usage for the Java program being debugged.

methods class

Lists all methods of the specified class. Use dump to list the instance variables of an object or the class (static) variables of a class.

print id...

Prints the value of the specified item or items. Each item can be a class, object, field, or local variable, and can be specified by name or by eight-digit hexadecimal ID number. You can also refer to threads with the special syntax t@thread-number. The print command displays an object's value by invoking its toString() method.

next

Executes the current line of source code, including any method calls it makes. See also step.

resume [ thread-id... ]

Resumes execution of the specified thread or threads. If no threads are specified, all suspended threads are resumed. See also suspend.

run [ class ] [ args ]

Runs the main() method of the specified class, passing the specified arguments to it. If no class or arguments are specified, uses the class and arguments specified on the jdb command line.

step

Runs the current line of the current thread and stops again. If the line invokes a method, steps into that method and stops. See also next.

stepi

Executes a single Java VM instruction.

step up

Runs until the current method returns to its caller and stops again.

stop

Lists current breakpoints.

stop at class:line

Sets a breakpoint at the specified line of the specified class. Program execution stops when it reaches this line. Use clear to remove a breakpoint.

stop in class.method [(param-type...)]

Sets a breakpoint at the beginning of the specified method of the specified class. Program execution stops when it enters the method. Use clear to remove a breakpoint.

suspend [ thread-id... ]

Suspends the specified thread or threads. If no threads are specified, suspends all running threads. Use resume to restart them.

thread thread-id

Sets the current thread to the specified thread. This thread is used implicitly by a number of other jdb commands. The thread can be specified by name or number.

threadgroup name

Sets the current thread group.

threadgroups

Lists all thread groups running in the Java interpreter session being debugged.

threads [ threadgroup ]

Lists all threads in the named thread group. If no thread group is specified, lists all threads in the current thread group (specified by threadgroup).

up [ n ]

Moves up n frames in the call stack of the current thread. If n is not specified, moves up one frame.

use [ source-file-path ]

Sets the path used by jdb to look up source files for the classes being debugged. If no path is specified, displays the current source path.

where [thread-id ] [all]

Displays a stack trace for the specified thread. If no thread is specified, displays a stack trace for the current thread. If all is specified, displays a stack trace for all threads.

wherei [thread-id x]

Displays a stack trace for the specified or current thread, including detailed program counter information.

Environment

CLASSPATH

Specifies an ordered list (colon-separated on Unix, semicolon-separated on Windows systems) of directories, ZIP files, and JAR archives in which jdb should look for class definitions. When a path is specified with this environment variable, jdb always implicitly appends the location of the system classes to the end of the path. If this environment variable is not specified, the default path is the current directory and the system classes. This variable is overridden by the -classpath option.

See Also: java

keytoolJava 2 SDK 1.2 and later
Key and Certificate Management Tool

Synopsis

keytool command options

Description

keytool manages and manipulates a keystore : a repository for public and private keys and public-key certificates. keytool defines various commands for generating keys, importing data into the keystore, and exporting and displaying keystore data. Keys and certificates are stored in a keystore using a case-insensitive name, or alias. keytool uses this alias to refer to a key or certificate.

The first option to keytool always specifies the basic command to be performed. Subsequent options provide details about how the command is to be performed. Only the command must be specified. If a command requires an option that does not have a default value, keytool prompts you interactively for the value.

Commands

-certreq

Generates a certificate signing request in PKCS#10 format for the specified alias. The request is written to the specified file or to the standard output stream. The request should be sent to a certificate authority (CA), which authenticates the requestor and sends back a signed certificate authenticating the requestor's public key. This signed certificate can then be imported into the keystore with the -import command. This command uses the following options: -alias, -file, -keypass, -keystore, -sigalg, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

-delete

Deletes a specified alias from a specified keystore. This command uses the following options: -alias, -keystore, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

-export

Writes the certificate associated with the specified alias to the specified file or to standard output. This command uses the following options: -alias, -file, -keystore, -rfc, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

-genkey

Generates a public/private key pair and a self-signed X.509 certificate for the public key. Self-signed certificates are not often useful by themselves, so this command is often followed by -certreq. This command uses the following options: -alias, -dname, -keyalg, -keypass, -keysize, -keystore, -sigalg, -storepass, -storetype, -v, and -validity.

-help

Lists all available keytool commands and their options. This command is not used with any other options.

-identitydb

Reads keys and certificates from a Java 1.1 identity database managed with javakey and stores them into a keystore so they can be manipulated by keytool. The identity database is read from the specified file or from standard input if no file is specified. The keys and certificates are written into the specified keystore file, which is automatically created if it does not exist yet. This command uses the following options: -file, -keystore, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

-import

Reads a certificate or PKCS#7-formatted certificate chain from a specified file or from standard input and stores it as a trusted certificate in the keystore with the specified alias. This command uses the following options: -alias, -file, -keypass, -keystore, -noprompt, -storepass, -storetype, -trustcacerts, and -v.

-keyclone

Duplicates the keystore entry of a specified alias and stores it in the keystore under a new alias. This command uses the following options: -alias, -dest, -keypass, -keystore, -new, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

-keypasswd

Changes the password that encrypts the private key associated with a specified alias. This command uses the following options: -alias, -keypass, -new, -storetype, and -v.

-list

Displays (on standard output) the fingerprint of the certificate associated with the specified alias. With the -v option, prints certificate details in human-readable format. With -rfc, prints certificate contents in a machine-readable, printable-encoding format. This command uses the following options: -alias, -keystore, -rfc, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

-printcert

Displays the contents of a certificate read from the specified file or from standard input. Unlike most keytool commands, this one does not use a keystore. This command uses the following options: -file and -v.

-selfcert

Creates a self-signed certificate for the public key associated with the specified alias and uses it to replace any certificate or certificate chain already associated with that alias. This command uses the following options: -alias, -dname, -keypass, -keystore, -sigalg, -storepass, -storetype, -v, and -validity.

-storepasswd

Changes the password that protects the integrity of the keystore as a whole. The new password must be at least six characters long. This command uses the following options: -keystore, -new, -storepass, -storetype, and -v.

Options

The various keytool commands can be passed various options from the following list. Many of these options have reasonable default values. keytool interactively prompts for any unspecified options that do not have defaults:

-alias name

Specifies the alias to be manipulated in the keystore. The default is "mykey".

-dest newalias

Specifies the new alias name (the destination alias) for the -keyclone command. If not specified, keytool prompts for a value.

-dname X.500-distinguished-name

Specifies the X.500 distinguished name to appear on the certificate generated by -selfcert or -genkey. A distinguished name is a highly qualified name intended to be globally unique. For example:

CN=David Flanagan, OU=Editorial, O=OReilly, L=Cambridge, S=Massachusetts, C=US

The -genkey command of keytool prompts for a distinguished name if none is specified. The -selfcert command uses the distinguished name of the current certificate if no replacement name is specified.

-file file

Specifies the input or output file for many of the keytool commands. If left unspecified, keytool reads from the standard input or writes to the standard output.

-keyalg algorithm-name

Used with -genkey to specify what type of cryptographic keys to generate. In the default Java implementation shipped from Sun, the only supported algorithm is "DSA"; this is the default if this option is omitted.

-keypass password

Specifies the password that encrypts a private key in the keystore. If this option is unspecified, keytool first tries the -storepass password. If that does not work, it prompts for the appropriate password.

-keysize size

Used with the -genkey command to specify the length in bits of the generated keys. If unspecified, the default is 1024.

-keystore filename

Specifies the location of the keystore file. If unspecified, a file named .keystore in the user's home directory is used.

-new new-password-or-alias

Used with the -keyclone command to specify the new alias name and with -keypasswd and -storepasswd to specify the new password. If unspecified, keytool prompts for the value of this option.

-noprompt

Used with the -import command to disable interactive prompting of the user when a chain of trust cannot be established for an imported certificate. If this option is not specified, the -import command prompts the user.

-rfc

Used with the -list and -export commands to specify that certificate output should be in the printable encoding format specified by RFC-1421. If this option is not specified, -export outputs the certificate in binary format, and -list lists only the certificate fingerprint. This option cannot be combined with -v in the -list command.

-sigalg algorithm-name

Specifies a digital signature algorithm that signs a certificate. If omitted, the default for this option depends on the type of underlying public key. If it is a DSA key, the default algorithm is "SHA1withDSA". If the key is an RSA key, the default signature algorithm is "MD5withRSA".

-storepass password

Specifies a password that protects the integrity of the entire keystore file. This password also serves as a default password for any private keys that do not have their own -keypass specified. If -storepass is not specified, keytool prompts for it. The password must be at least six characters long.

-storetype type

Specifies the type of the keystore to be used. If this option is not specified, the default is taken from the system security properties file. Often, the default is Sun's "JKS" Java Keystore type.

-trustcacerts

Used with the -import command to specify that the self-signed certificate authority certificates contained in the keystore in the jre/lib/security/cacerts file should be considered trusted. If this option is omitted, keytool ignores that file.

-v

This option specifies verbose mode, if present, and makes many keytool commands produce additional output.

-validity time

Used with the -genkey and -selfcert commands to specify the period of validity (in days) of the generated certificate. If unspecified, the default is 90 days.

See Also: jarsigner, javakey, policytool

native2asciiJDK 1.1 and later
Converts Java Source Code to ASCII

Synopsis

native2ascii [ options ] [ inputfile [ outputfile ]]

Description

javac can only process files encoded in the eight-bit Latin-1 encoding, with any other characters encoded using the \uxxxx Unicode notation. native2ascii is a simple program that reads a Java source file encoded using a local encoding and converts it to the Latin-1-plus-ASCII-encoded-Unicode form required by javac.

The inputfile and outputfile are optional. If unspecified, standard input and standard output are used, making native2ascii suitable for use in pipes.

OPtions

-encoding encoding-name

Specifies the encoding used by source files. If this option is not specified, the encoding is taken from the file.encoding system property.

-reverse

Specifies that the conversion should be done in reverse--from encoded \uxxxx characters to characters in the native encoding.

See Also: java.io.InputStreamReader, java.io.OutputStreamWriter

policytoolJava 2 SDK 1.2 and later
Policy File Creation and Management Tool

Synopsis

policytool

Description

policytool displays a Swing user interface that makes it easy to edit security policy configuration files. The Java security architecture is based on policy files, which specify sets of permissions to be granted to code from various sources. By default, the Java security policy is defined by a system policy file stored in the jre/lib/security/java.policy file and a user policy file stored in the .java.policy file in the user's home directory. System administrators and users can edit these files with a text editor, but the syntax of the file is somewhat complex, so it is usually easier to use policytool to define and edit security policies.

Selecting the Policy File to Edit

When policytool starts up, it opens the .java.policy file in the user's home directory by default. Use the New, Open, and Save commands in the File menu to create a new policy file, open an existing file, and save an edited file, respectively.

Editing the Policy File

The main policytool window displays a list of the entries contained in the policy file. Each entry specifies a code source and the permissions that are to be granted to code from that source. The window also contains buttons that allow you to add a new entry, edit an existing entry, or delete an entry from the policy file. If you add or edit an entry, policytool opens a new window that displays the details of that policy entry.

Editing the Policy File

Every policy file has an associated keystore, from which it obtains the certificates it needs when verifying the digital signatures of Java code. You can usually rely on the default keystore, but if you need to specify the keystore explicitly for a policy file, use the Change Keystore command in the Edit menu of the main policytool window.

Adding or Editing a Policy Entry:

The policy entry editor window displays the code source for the policy entry and a list of permissions associated with that code source. It also contains buttons that allow you to add a new permission, delete a permission, or edit an existing permission.

Adding or Editing a Policy Entry: When defining a new policy entry, the first step is to specify the code source. A code source is defined by a URL from which the code is downloaded and/or a list of digital signatures that must appear on the code. Specify one or both of these values by typing in a URL and/or a comma-separated list of aliases. These aliases identify trusted certificates in the keystore associated with the policy file.

After you have defined the code source for a policy entry, you must define the permissions to be granted to code from that source. Use the Add Permission and Edit Permission buttons to add and edit permissions. These buttons bring up yet another policytool window.

Defining a Permission

To define a permission in the permission editor window, first select the desired permission type from the Permission drop-down menu. Then, select an appropriate target value from the Target Name menu. The choices in this menu are customized depending on the permission type you selected. For some types of permission, such as FilePermission, there is not a fixed set of possible targets, and you usually have to type in the specific target you want. For example, you might type "/tmp" to specify the directory /tmp, "/tmp/*" to specify all the files in that directory, or "/tmp/-" to specify all the files in the directory, and, recursively, any subdirectories. See the documentation of the individual Permission classes for a description of the targets they support.

Depending on the type of permission you select, you may also have to select one or more action values from the Actions menu. When you have selected a permission and appropriate target and action values, click the Okay button to dismiss the window.

See Also: jarsigner, keytool

serialverJDK 1.1 and later
Class Version Number Generator

Synopsis

serialver [-show] classname... 

Description:

serialver displays the version number of a class or classes. This version number is used for the purposes of serialization: the version number must change each time the serialization format of the class changes.

If the specified class declares a longserialVersionUID constant, the value of that field is displayed. Otherwise, a unique version number is computed by applying the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) to the API defined by the class. This program is primarily useful for computing an initial unique version number for a class, which is then declared as a constant in the class. The output of serialver is a line of legal Java code, suitable for pasting into a class definition.

Options

-show

When the -show option is specified, serialver displays a simple graphical interface that allows the user to type in a single classname at a time and obtain its serialization UID. When using -show, no class names can be specified on the command-line.

Environment

CLASSPATH

serialver is written in Java, so it is sensitive to the CLASSPATH environment variable in the same way the java interpreter is. The specified classes are looked up relative to this classpath.

See Also: java.io.ObjectStreamClass



Library Navigation Links

Copyright © 2001 O'Reilly & Associates. All rights reserved.







??????????????@Mail.ru