newform — change or reformat a text file
reads lines from the named
or standard input if no input file is named,
and reproduces the lines on standard output.
Lines are reformatted in accordance with
command line options in effect.
Command line options can appear in any order,
can be repeated, and can be intermingled with the optional
Command line options are processed in the order specified.
This means that option sequences such as
yield results different from
Options are applied to all files on the command line.
recognizes the following options:
except characters are appended to the end of a line.
characters from the beginning of the line
when the line length is greater than the effective line length (see
The default is to truncate the number of characters necessary
to obtain the effective line length.
The default value is used when
This option can be used to delete the sequence numbers from a
COBOL program as follows:
newform -l1 -b7 file-name
must be used to set the effective line length shorter
than any existing line in the file so that the
option is activated.
Change the prefix/append character to
The default character for
is a space.
except that characters are truncated from the end of the line.
Write the tab specification format line on the standard output
before any other lines are output.
The tab specification format line which is printed
will correspond to the format specified in the
option is specified, the line which is printed
contains the default specification of
Input tab specification:
expands tabs to spaces, according to the tab specifications given.
recognizes all tab specification forms
assumes that the tab specification is to be found
in the first line read from the standard input (see
expects no tabs; if any are found, they are treated as
Set the effective line length to
is not entered,
defaults to 72.
The default line length without the
option is 80 characters.
Note that tabs and backspaces are treated as single characters (use
to expand tabs to spaces).
Output tab specification:
replaces spaces with tabs, according to the tab specifications given.
The tab specifications are the same as for
means that no spaces will be converted to tabs on output.
to the beginning of a line
when the line length is less than the effective line length.
The default is to prefix the number of characters necessary
to obtain the effective line length.
Shear off leading characters on each line up to the first tab and
place up to 8 of the sheared characters at the end of the line.
If more than 8 characters (not counting the first tab) are sheared,
the eighth character is replaced by a
and any characters to the right of it are discarded.
The first tab is always discarded.
An error message and program exit occur if this option
is used on a file without a tab on each line.
The characters sheared off are saved internally until all other
options specified are applied to that line.
The characters are then added at the end of the processed line.
For example, to convert a file with leading digits,
one or more tabs, and text on each line, to a file beginning with the
text, all tabs after the first expanded to spaces,
padded with spaces out to column 72 (or truncated to column 72),
and the leading digits placed starting at column 73, the command would be:
newform -s -i -l -a -e file-name
returns one of the following values:
No errors encountered.
An error occurred.
All diagnostics are fatal.
- usage: ...
was called with a bad option.
- not -s format
There was no tab on one line.
- can't open file
- internal line too long
A line exceeds 512 characters
after being expanded in the internal work buffer.
- tabspec in error
A tab specification is incorrectly formatted,
or specified tab stops are not ascending.
- tabspec indirection illegal
read from a file (or standard input) must not contain a
referencing another file (or standard input).
normally only keeps track of physical characters;
however, for the
keeps track of backspaces in order to line up tabs
in the appropriate logical columns.
does not prompt the user if a
is to be read from the standard input (by use of
option is used,
and the last
option specified was
and was preceded by either a
the tab specification format line will be incorrect.