1.7. Controlling Case
print ucfirst("how do you do today?"); print ucwords("the prince of wales"); How do you do today? The Prince Of Wales
print strtoupper("i'm not yelling!"); // Tags must be lowercase to be XHTML compliant print strtolower('<A HREF="one.php">one</A>'); I'M NOT YELLING! <a href="one.php">one</a>
Use ucfirst( ) to capitalize the first character in a string:
print ucfirst('monkey face'); print ucfirst('1 monkey face'); Monkey face 1 monkey face
Note that the second line of output is not "1 Monkey face".
print ucwords('1 monkey face'); print ucwords("don't play zone defense against the philadelphia 76-ers"); 1 Monkey Face Don't Play Zone Defense Against The Philadelphia 76-ers
As expected, ucwords( ) doesn't capitalize the "t" in "don't." But it also doesn't capitalize the "e" in "76-ers." For ucwords( ), a word is any sequence of nonwhitespace characters that follows one or more whitespace characters. Since both ' and - aren't whitespace characters, ucwords( ) doesn't consider the "t" in "don't" or the "e" in "76-ers" to be word-starting characters.
Both ucfirst( ) and ucwords( ) don't change the case of nonfirst letters:
print ucfirst('macWorld says I should get a iBook'); print ucwords('eTunaFish.com might buy itunaFish.Com!'); MacWorld says I should get a iBook ETunaFish.com Might Buy ItunaFish.Com!
The functions strtolower( ) and strtoupper( ) work on entire strings, not just individual characters. All alphabetic characters are changed to lowercase by strtolower( ) and strtoupper( ) changes all alphabetic characters to uppercase:
print strtolower("I programmed the WOPR and the TRS-80."); print strtoupper('"since feeling is first" is a poem by e. e. cummings.'); i programmed the wopr and the trs-80. "SINCE FEELING IS FIRST" IS A POEM BY E. E. CUMMINGS.
When determining upper- and lowercase, these functions respect your locale settings.
1.7.4. See Also
For more information about locale settings, see Chapter 16; documentation on ucfirst( ) at http://www.php.net/ucfirst, ucwords( ) at http://www.php.net/ucwords, strtolower( ) at http://www.php.net/strtolower, and strtoupper( ) at http://www.php.net/strtoupper.
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