5.8. Bitwise Operators
the fact that all
are floating-point, the bitwise operators require numeric operands
that have integer values. They operate on these integer operands
using a 32-bit integer representation instead
of the equivalent floating-point representation. Four of these
operators perform Boolean algebra on the individual bits of the
operands, behaving as if each bit in each operand were a boolean
value and performing similar operations to those performed by the
logical operators we saw earlier. The other three bitwise operators
are used to shift bits left and right.
NaN if used with operands that are not integers or
that are too large to fit in a 32-bit integer representation.
32-bit integers by dropping any fractional part of the operand or any
bits beyond the 32nd. The
operators require a righthand operand between 0 and 31. After
converting this operand to a 32-bit integer as described earlier,
they drop any bits beyond the 5th, which yields a number in the
If you are not familiar with binary
numbers and the binary representation of decimal integers, you can
skip the operators described in this section. The purpose of these
operators is not described here; they are needed for low-level
manipulation of binary numbers and are not commonly used in
- Bitwise AND (&)
& operator performs a Boolean AND operation on
each bit of its integer arguments. A bit is set in the result only if
the corresponding bit is set in both operands. For example,
0x1234 & 0x00FF evaluates to
- Bitwise OR (|)
The | operator
performs a Boolean OR operation on each bit of its integer arguments.
A bit is set in the result if the corresponding bit is set in one or
both of the operands. For example, 9 | 10
evaluates to 11.
- Bitwise XOR (^)
The ^ operator
performs a Boolean exclusive OR operation on each bit of its integer
arguments. Exclusive OR means that either operand one is true or
operand two is true, but not both. A bit is set in this
operation's result if a corresponding bit is set in one (but
not both) of the two operands. For example, 9 ^ 10
evaluates to 3.
- Bitwise NOT (~)
The ~ operator is a
unary operator that appears before its single integer argument. It
operates by reversing all bits in the operand. Because of the way
~ operator to a value is equivalent to changing
its sign and subtracting 1. For example ~0x0f
evaluates to 0xfffffff0, or -16.
- Shift left (<<)
<< operator moves all bits in
its first operand to the left by the number of places specified in
the second operand, which should be an integer between 0 and 31. For
example, in the operation a
<< 1, the first bit (the
ones bit) of a becomes the second bit (the twos
bit), the second bit of a becomes the third, etc.
A zero is used for the new first bit, and the value of the 32nd bit
is lost. Shifting a value left by one position is equivalent to
multiplying by 2, shifting two positions is equivalent to multiplying
by 4, etc. For example, 7 << 1 evaluates to
- Shift right with sign (>>)
operator moves all bits in its first operand to the right by the
number of places specified in the second operand (an integer between
and 31). Bits that are shifted off the right are lost. The bits
filled in on the left depend on the sign bit of the original operand,
in order to preserve the sign of the result. If the first operand is
positive, the result has zeros placed in the high bits; if the first
operand is negative, the result has ones placed in the high bits.
Shifting a value right one place is equivalent to dividing by 2
(discarding the remainder), shifting right two places is equivalent
to integer division by 4, and so on. For example, 7 >>
1 evaluates to 3 and -7 >> 1
evaluates to -4.
- Shift right with zero fill (>>>)
operator is just like the >> operator,
except that the bits shifted in on the left are always zero,
regardless of the sign of the first operand. For example, -1
>> 4 evaluates to -1, but -1 >>>
4 evaluates to 268435455
Copyright © 2003 O'Reilly & Associates. All rights reserved.