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Dynamic HTML: The Definitive Reference, 2rd Ed.Dynamic HTML: The Definitive ReferenceSearch this book

Appendix B. HTML Character Entities

To display symbols and characters beyond the collection of common ASCII alphanumeric values (0-127), browsers recognize a special coding that lets you insert such characters into HTML document content. These entity characters start with an ampersand symbol (&) and end with a semicolon (;). Between those symbols goes a representation of the desired character in your choice of letters or numbers. For example, the numeric entity value for a copyright symbol is 169. An HTML statement using that symbol looks as follows:

<p style="text-align: center">&#169;2002 MegaCorp, Inc. All Rights Reserved.</p>

Because the numbering system is not easy to remember, entities also have case-sensitive word or abbreviation equivalents for their values. For the copyright symbol, for example, the entity is &copy;. This makes the code more readable, as in the following:

<p style="text-align: center">&copy;2002 MegaCorp, Inc. All Rights Reserved.</p>

This table lists every entity defined in the HTML 4 specification in alphabetical order. Recent browsers support the vast majority of these characters, but the user's operating system version and its internal character set also factors influence support.

Alpha entity

Numeric entity

Description

&Aacute; &#193;

Capital letter A with acute

&aacute; &#225;

Small letter a with acute

&Acirc; &#194;

Capital letter A with circumflex

&acirc; &#226;

Small letter a with circumflex

&acute; &#180;

Acute accent

&AElig; &#198;

Capital ligature AE

&aelig; &#230;

Small ligature ae

&Agrave; &#192;

Capital letter A with grave

&agrave; &#224;

Small letter a with grave

&alefsym; &#8501;

Alef symbol

&Alpha; &#913;

Capital letter alpha

&alpha; &#945;

Small letter alpha

&amp; &#38;

Ampersand

&and; &#8743;

Logical and

&ang; &#8736;

Angle

&Aring; &#197;

Capital letter A with ring above

&aring; &#229;

Small letter a with ring above

&asymp; &#8776;

Almost equal to

&Atilde; &#195;

Capital letter A with tilde

&atilde; &#227;

Small letter a with tilde

&Auml; &#196;

Capital letter A with diaeresis

&auml; &#228;

Small letter a with diaeresis

&bdquo; &#8222;

Double low-9 quotation mark

&Beta; &#914;

Capital letter beta

&beta; &#946;

Small letter beta

&brvbar; &#166;

Broken vertical bar

&bull; &#8226;

Bullet

&cap; &#8745;

Intersection

&Ccedil; &#199;

Capital letter C with cedilla

&ccedil; &#231;

Small letter c with cedilla

&cedil; &#184;

Cedilla

&cent; &#162;

Cent sign

&Chi; &#935;

Capital letter chi

&chi; &#967;

Small letter chi

&circ; &#710;

Modifier letter circumflex accent

&clubs; &#9827;

Black club suit (shamrock)

&cong; &#8773;

Approximately equal to

&copy; &#169;

Copyright sign

&crarr; &#8629;

Downwards arrow with corner leftwards (carriage return)

&cup; &#8746;

Union

&curren; &#164;

Currency sign

&dagger; &#8224;

Dagger

&Dagger; &#8225;

Double dagger

&darr; &#8595;

Downwards arrow

&dArr; &#8659;

Downwards double arrow

&deg; &#176;

Degree sign

&Delta; &#916;

Capital letter delta

&delta; &#948;

Small letter delta

&diams; &#9830;

Black diamond suit

&divide; &#247;

Division sign

&Eacute; &#201;

Capital letter E with acute

&eacute; &#233;

Small letter e with acute

&Ecirc; &#202;

Capital letter E with circumflex

&ecirc; &#234;

Small letter e with circumflex

&Egrave; &#200;

Capital letter E with grave

&egrave; &#232;

Small letter e with grave

&empty; &#8709;

Empty set/null set/diameter

&emsp; &#8195;

Em space

&ensp; &#8194;

En space

&Epsilon; &#917;

Capital letter epsilon

&epsilon; &#949;

Small letter epsilon

&equiv; &#8801;

Identical to

&Eta; &#919;

Capital letter eta

&eta; &#951;

Small letter eta

&ETH; &#208;

Capital letter ETH

&eth; &#240;

Small letter eth

&Euml; &#203;

Capital letter E with diaeresis

&euml; &#235;

Small letter e with diaeresis

&euro; &#128;[24]

Euro sign

&exist; &#8707;

There exists

&fnof; &#402;

Small f with hook

&forall; &#8704;

For all

&frac12; &#189;

Fraction one-half

&frac14; &#188;

Fraction one-quarter

&frac34; &#190;

Fraction three-quarters

&frasl; &#8260;

Fraction slash

&Gamma; &#915;

Capital letter gamma

&gamma; &#947;

Small letter gamma

&ge; &#8805;

Greater-than or equal to

&gt; &#62;

Greater-than sign

&harr; &#8596;

Left right arrow

&hArr; &#8660;

Left right double arrow

&hearts; &#9829;

Black heart suit

&hellip; &#8230;

Horizontal ellipsis

&Iacute; &#205;

Capital letter I with acute

&iacute; &#237;

Small letter i with acute

&Icirc; &#206;

Capital letter I with circumflex

&icirc; &#238;

Small letter i with circumflex

&iexcl; &#161;

Inverted exclamation mark

&Igrave; &#204;

Capital letter I with grave

&igrave; &#236;

Small letter i with grave

&image; &#8465;

Blackletter capital I

&infin; &#8734;

Infinity

&int; &#8747;

Integral

&Iota; &#921;

Capital letter iota

&iota; &#953;

Small letter iota

&iquest; &#191;

Inverted question mark

&isin; &#8712;

Element of

&Iuml; &#207;

Capital letter I with diaeresis

&iuml; &#239;

Small letter i with diaeresis

&Kappa; &#922;

Capital letter kappa

&kappa; &#954;

Small letter kappa

&Lambda; &#923;

Capital letter lambda

&lambda; &#955;

Small letter lambda

&lang; &#9001;

Left-pointing angle bracket (bra)

&laquo; &#171;

Left-pointing double angle quotation mark (guillemet)

&larr; &#8592;

Leftwards arrow

&lArr; &#8656;

Leftwards double arrow

&lceil; &#8968;

Left ceiling

&ldquo; &#8220;

Left double quotation mark

&le; &#8804;

Less-than or equal to

&lfloor; &#8970;

Left floor

&lowast; &#8727;

Asterisk operator

&loz; &#9674;

Lozenge

&lrm; &#8206;

Left-to-right mark

&lsaquo; &#8249;

Single left-pointing angle quotation mark

&lsquo; &#8216;

Left single quotation mark

&lt; &#60;

Less-than sign

&macr; &#175;

Macron (overline)

&mdash; &#8212;

Em dash

&micro; &#181;

Micro sign

&middot; &#183;

Georgian comma

&minus; &#8722;

Minus sign

&Mu; &#924;

Capital letter mu

&mu; &#956;

Small letter mu

&nabla; &#8711;

Nabla

&nbsp; &#160;

Nonbreaking space

&ndash; &#8211;

En dash

&ne; &#8800;

Not equal to

&ni; &#8715;

Contains as member

&not; &#172;

Not sign (discretionary hyphen)

&notin; &#8713;

Not an element of

&nsub; &#8836;

Not a subset of

&Ntilde; &#209;

Capital letter N with tilde

&ntilde; &#241;

Small letter n with tilde

&Nu; &#925;

Capital letter nu

&nu; &#957;

Small letter nu

&Oacute; &#211;

Capital letter O with acute

&oacute; &#243;

Small letter o with acute

&Ocirc; &#212;

Capital letter O with circumflex

&ocirc; &#244;

Small letter o with circumflex

&OElig; &#338;

Capital ligature OE

&oelig; &#339;

Small ligature oe

&Ograve; &#210;

Capital letter O with grave

&ograve; &#242;

Small letter o with grave

&oline; &#8254;

Overline

&Omega; &#937;

Capital letter omega

&omega; &#969;

Small letter omega

&Omicron; &#927;

Capital letter omicron

&omicron; &#959;

Small letter omicron

&oplus; &#8853;

Circled plus

&or; &#8744;

Logical or

&ordf; &#170;

Feminine ordinal indicator

&ordm; &#186;

Masculine ordinal indicator

&Oslash; &#216;

Capital letter O with stroke

&oslash; &#248;

Small letter o with stroke

&Otilde; &#213;

Capital letter O with tilde

&otilde; &#245;

Small letter o with tilde

&otimes; &#8855;

Circled times

&Ouml; &#214;

Capital letter O with diaeresis

&ouml; &#246;

Small letter o with diaeresis

&para; &#182;

Paragraph (pilcrow) sign

&part; &#8706;

Partial differential

&permil; &#8240;

Per mille sign

&perp; &#8869;

Up tack/orthagonal to/perpendicular

&Phi; &#934;

Capital letter phi

&phi; &#966;

Small letter phi

&Pi; &#928;

Capital letter pi

&pi; &#960;

Small letter pi

&piv; &#982;

symbol

&plusmn; &#177;

Plus-or-minus sign

&pound; &#163;

Pound sign

&prime; &#8242;

Prime/minutes/feet

&Prime; &#8243;

Double prime/seconds/inches

&prod; &#8719;

N-ary product (product sign)

&prop; &#8733;

Proportional to

&Psi; &#936;

Capital letter psi

&psi; &#968;

Small letter psi

&quot; &#34;

Quotation mark

&radic; &#8730;

Square root

&rang; &#9002;

Right-pointing angle bracket (ket)

&raquo; &#187;

Right-pointing double angle quotation mark (guillemet)

&rarr; &#8594;

Rightwards arrow

&rArr; &#8658;

Rightwards double arrow

&rceil; &#8969;

Right ceiling

&rdquo; &#8221;

Right double quotation mark

&real; &#8476;

Blackletter capital R

&reg; &#174;

Registered trademark sign

&rfloor; &#8971;

Right floor

&Rho; &#929;

Capital letter rho

&rho; &#961;

Small letter rho

&rlm; &#8207;

Right-to-left mark

&rsaquo; &#8250;

Single right-pointing angle quotation mark

&rsquo; &#8217;

Right single quotation mark

&sbquo; &#8218;

Single low-9 quotation mark

&Scaron; &#352;

Capital letter S with caron

&scaron; &#353;

Small letter s with caron

&sdot; &#8901;

Dot operator

&sect; &#167;

Section sign

&shy; &#173;

Soft hyphen (discretionary hyphen)

&Sigma; &#931;

Capital letter sigma

&sigma; &#963;

Small letter sigma

&sigmaf; &#962;

Small letter final sigma

&sim; &#8764;

Tilde operator

&spades; &#9824;

Black spade suit

&sub; &#8834;

Subset of

&sube; &#8838;

Subset of or equal to

&sum; &#8721;

N-ary sumation

&sup; &#8835;

Superset of

&sup1; &#185;

Superscript digit one

&sup2; &#178;

Superscript digit two (squared)

&sup3; &#179;

Superscript digit three (cubed)

&supe; &#8839;

Superset of or equal to

&szlig; &#223;

Small letter sharp s (ess-zed)

&Tau; &#932;

Capital letter tau

&tau; &#964;

Small letter tau

&there4; &#8756;

Therefore

&Theta; &#920;

Capital letter theta

&theta; &#952;

Small letter theta

&thetasym; &#977;

Small letter theta symbol

&thinsp; &#8201;

Thin space

&THORN; &#222;

Capital letter thorn

&thorn; &#254;

Small letter thorn

&tilde; &#732;

Small tilde

&times; &#215;

Multiplication sign

&trade; &#8482;

Trademark sign

&Uacute; &#218;

Capital letter U with acute

&uacute; &#250;

Small letter u with acute

&uarr; &#8593;

Upwards arrow

&uArr; &#8657;

Upwards double arrow

&Ucirc; &#219;

Capital letter U with circumflex

&ucirc; &#251;

Small letter u with circumflex

&Ugrave; &#217;

Capital letter U with grave

&ugrave; &#249;

Small letter u with grave

&uml; &#168;

Diaeresis

&upsih; &#978;

Upsilon with hook symbol

&Upsilon; &#933;

Capital letter upsilon

&upsilon; &#965;

Small letter upsilon

&Uuml; &#220;

Capital letter U with diaeresis

&uuml; &#252;

Small letter u with diaeresis

&weierp; &#8472;

Script capital P

&Xi; &#926;

Capital letter xi

&xi; &#958;

Small letter xi

&Yacute; &#221;

Capital letter Y with acute

&yacute; &#253;

Small letter y with acute

&yen; &#165;

Yen/yuan sign

&Yuml; &#376;

Capital letter Y with diaeresis

&yuml; &#255;

Small letter y with diaeresis

&Zeta; &#918;

Capital letter zeta

&zeta; &#950;

Small letter zeta

&zwj; &#8205;

Zero width joiner

&zwnj; &#8204;

Zero width nonjoiner

[24]This character's numeric entity does not render in IE 5 for Macintosh.



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