Term used to describe the science of sound as well as how sound
travels through particular environments. Sound waves reflect and
disperse off of various surfaces in our environment, such as a wall
or trees or even people. These sound waves travel through the air,
bouncing off objects before they reflect back to our ears. We rarely
ever hear the pure direct vibration of a sound wave before it is
masked or altered by the coloration of thousands of small
- Active Streaming File (ASF)
Microsoft's proprietary streaming media format.
- AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
Standard Macintosh file format commonly used on the Internet.
A type of quantization error or digital distortion that occurs during
analog to digital conversion. Sampling rates that are too low to
accurately reproduce a sound often cause aliasing or unwanted sound
artifacts such as a low rumbling or "woosh" noise.
- Ambient Soundscape or Loop
applied to a background audio track or continuous loop that helps set
a mood behind the visual content.
The maximum change in air pressure. Amplitude is universally measured
in decibels (dB). The metric is used both to measure the loudness of
a sound signal and to mark the maximum cut-off point for analog and
digital recording. This cut-off is the maximum level before
distortion and is called the 0dB point.
- Analog Distortion
The term commonly used in analog tape recording or tube amplification
when a signal goes above the "red" or maximum recording
level. Low-level analog distortion, in contrast to digital
distortion, enriches a sound with harmonics and compresses an audio
signal, raising the level of quieter sounds.
An online tutorial with an accompanying audio track.
The term used to describe a range of frequencies. Often bandwidth
determines the range of frequencies being amplified or reduced by an
equalizer. Generally, you are never boosting or reducing one single
frequency but instead a range of frequencies.
- Bandwidth Negotiation
A feature of RealNetworks' RealServer 5.0 that ensures that all
users receive the appropriate encoded content for the best audio
quality at their available bandwidth, from 28.8 Kbps modems to dual
- Batch Processor
A software utility for converting and processing multiple sound
files. A batch processor such as Wave Convert Pro (Mac, Windows) or
BarbaBatch (Mac) will import an entire folder of audio files,
normalize them, perform EQ enhancements, and convert them on the fly
to any popular format such as RealAudio.
- Beatnik Editor
An application for converting WAV, AIFF, SDII, AU, and standard MIDI
files into RMF files. The Beatnik Editor allows you to import unique
instruments or sounds to create an entirely new collection of sounds
in the Beatnik sound engine.
- Beatnik Plug-in
A plug-in that manages the playback of RMF files within a web
browser. The plug-in is available free at the Beatnik web site and is
supported by Netscape Navigator 3.0 and higher or Internet Explorer
3.0 and higher on both Macintosh and Windows platforms.
- Bidirectional Microphone
The term used to describe a microphone that captures sound directly
in front and in back of the capsule. For example, a bidirectional mic
can be used for recording a duet with musicians on both sides of the
The size of the binary numbers assigned to describe the dynamic value
of each sample. The higher the sampling rate and bit-depth, the more
accurate the sound reproduction. In particular, higher bit-depths
reproduce quieter sounds more accurately.
- Cardioid Microphone
A microphone that captures sound directly in front of the capsule,
providing maximum noise rejection. Cardioid mics are primarily used
for live concert vocal recording and amplification because of the
pick-up pattern's excellent feedback-rejection characteristics.
A RealAudio 3.0 utility that enables the creation of a binary event
file for synchronizing web pages with audio.
A RealMedia feature that allows multiple RealServers to be configured
in a cluster to work as a single machine, exceeding the connection
load of a single CPU.
An encoding algorithm that compresses and optimizes audio for
A dynamics processor that evens out and compresses incoming audio
signals that vary greatly in dynamic range, such as a singer going
from a soft whisper to a resounding scream. A compressor allows for
the hottest incoming signal without distortion to your sound card by
limiting the sounds that peak above the 0dB distortion point. By
reducing the amplitude of the loudest sounds with a compressor, you
can increase the overall input level of your microphone to capture a
"hotter" or louder signal.
- dB SPL
Decibels of sound pressure levels, a unit of measurement for the
loudness of sound.
- Decibel (dB)
A logarithmic unit of sound loudness, audio power, or audio voltage.
A dynamics processor or plug-in used to reduce sibilance, or the high
frequencies that contain excessive hissing or "S" sounds.
De-essers are commonly used to clean up voice-over recordings.
Sound wave reflections or echoes that strike the ear drum after 40
milliseconds of the original sound. Delay, as opposed to reverb, can
be heard as a second distinct sound or echo.
- Desktop Audio Recording
The term for hard-disk audio recording and editing on a desktop
computer as opposed to an outboard tape recording device.
- Destructive Editing
The process of permanently changing or altering the original master
file. When a destructive edit is performed, the sound file is
permanently altered and then rewritten to disk. In contrast,
nondestructive forms of editing never alter or rewrite over the
original sound file.
- Digital Audio
The term applied to sound that has been digitized into binary code.
Sound waves are converted to digital code by means of a circuit that
assigns a value or binary set of numbers that correspond to the shape
of the incoming electrical wave or current.
- Digital Audio Tape (DAT) Machine
A recording device for digital stereo mix-downs and mastering. DAT
two-track tapes look like miniaturized VHS tapes and are smaller and
more affordable than cumbersome and expensive analog tape reels.
- Digital Distortion
The term used to describe a signal that rises over the maximum 0dB
point. Digital distortion produces unpleasant noise and unwanted
"clicks" and "pops," which are also known as
artifacts. Digital encoding, unlike recording to analog tape, cannot
quantify signals above 0dB.
A microphone's capability to reject unwanted sounds coming from
off-axis directions. Each type of microphone has a particular
recording range or pick-up pattern.
- Director Shockwave
The term applied to Shockwave content authored with Macromedia
Director. Director Shockwave leverages the Lingo scripting language
to directly interact with the operating system and multimedia
functionality of a PC, enabling such capabilities as audio fade-ins
and fade-outs, volume and panning control, and audio synchronized
with animation and mouse rollovers.
An adjective used to describe an original sound or audio signal that
has not been processed or enhanced with effects such as reverb and
- Dynamic Range
The difference between the loudest point of a sound passage and the
softest point. Audio systems also have a dynamic range: the difference between the
loudest sound the system can record before distortion and the softest
signal that can be recorded without introducing noise. This range is
measured by the signal-to-noise ratio. The signal is the actual sound
you're after; noise is any hiss or other artifact introduced by
the amplifier, microphone, or other electrical components of the
format developed by Geo Interactive that allows the playback of any
type of media without plug-ins. Emblaze media playback is controlled
by a small Java applet that automatically downloads when viewed in
3.0 and later browsers. When a visitor enters a site containing
Emblaze content, the small, platform-independent, 50 KB Java applet
or Emblaze Player automatically downloads to the user's
computer, completely transparent to the web visitor.
The term used to describe the shape or contour of the initial attack
or ending decay of a sound. Each instrument or sound has a unique
envelope or fade-in and fade-out.
- Equalization (EQ )
The process of boosting or reducing the amplitude of particular sound
frequencies. All sounds are made up of an overall spectrum of
frequencies that are simultaneously resonating. Equalization is used
to boost or reduce a range of frequencies within the full sound
- Event Sounds
Short sounds embedded in an interactive movie or web page as opposed
to longer streaming audio tracks. Event sounds are triggered by user
input and are most commonly used as rollover button sounds.
A type of volume control knob or slider commonly found on mixing
The term used to describe the wailing or piercing sound that results
from a signal loop that occurs when an output signal is fed back into
- Field Recording
The term used for capturing sounds on location with portable
recording equipment, as opposed to studio recording in a controlled
An authoring environment and file format developed originally by
FutureWave Software and later by Macromedia for multimedia creation
and delivery over the Web. Macromedia Flash has become the de facto
standard for full-scale, high-impact web multimedia. Flash features
vector animation technology ideally suited for low-bandwidth
The art of providing audio realism to visuals in post production.
Foley sounds are often the first sounds added to a film soundtrack
and generally include footsteps, sounds of the actors'
clothing, and prop movements onscreen such as a closing doors or an
object falling to the floor. Foley artists try to emulate the sounds
of real life. The term foley artist originally comes from the time
when real life actors performed in a recording room making sounds and
noises, with various objects, to simulate the sounds of the action on
Rate or speed of a repeating waveform. A sound's frequency
determines its pitch. The faster the frequency, which is measured in
hertz (Hz) or cycles per second, the higher the pitch.
- Frequency Response
The range of frequencies that a device can reproduce or record. The
human ear has a frequency response of roughly 20 to 20,000 Hz.
- Frequency Spectrum
The complete range of frequencies audible to the human ear. Frequency
spectrum also refers to the range of frequencies present in a
The lowest harmonic of a given tone or musical sound. A pitch
consists of a dominant frequency, as well as multiples of this
frequency. These additional frequencies are the harmonics. It is the
number and characteristics of the harmonics that help create timbre.
- General MIDI
A MIDI standard developed to alleviate the problem of unpredictable
playback of MIDI compositions. General MIDI specifies that certain
note numbers or MIDI channels will play the same type of instrument,
such as a drum or piano, across various devices or synthesizers.
- Graphic Equalizer
A machine or dynamics processor that boosts or reduces the amplitude
of a range of frequencies. Graphic equalizers generally have sliding
levers, known as faders, representing the different ranges of
frequencies between 20 and 20,000 Hz -- the normal hearing range
of a human.
The term for small, premade sound effects and clips that are built
into the Beatnik plug-in.
The multiples of a given fundamental frequency. Harmonics affect the
characteristics of a particular sound.
- Hertz (Hz)
The basic unit for measuring frequency. One hertz is equal to one
cycle per second.
- High-Pass Filter
An equalization effect that removes all frequencies below a specified
point while preserving those that are above the cut-off point. This
effect is often used to remove lower bass sounds, such as a rumble of
an automobile engine or the sound of a jet plane flying overhead.
- HyperText Transfer Protocol (HT TP)
An Internet transmission protocol designed for transferring
documents, files, and email over the Internet; primarily suited for
the transfer of web pages.
The resistance to current flow. Sounds are colored by the material
and substances they travel through. A voice projected through a wall
will sound different than a voice projected directly into the ear. As
sound travels through the dense materials of a wall, the
high-frequency energy is absorbed into the wood leaving behind only
the lower frequencies. A voice spoken directly into the ear, on the
other hand, will produce an unbearably loud sound. Without the
impedance of a wall or other sound-absorbing materials, the energy of
the higher frequencies of the voice travel straight to the ear drum.
- Interactive Sound Design
The term applied to integrating sound into a non-linear interactive
media format such as a Flash movie or a CD-ROM.
- IP Multicasting
A RealServer feature that allows all users of a network or intranet
to listen to a single live stream, making efficient use of network
resources. Multicasting, instead of many simultaneous point-to-point
connections, delivers a stream to a certain point in the network
where it knows other users are requesting the same file.
A cross-platform programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.
- LAN (Local Area Network)
A computer network designed to serve a local facility that is no
larger than a few square miles.
- Lavaliere Clip-on Microphone
A thumbnail-sized microphone designed for inconspicuously capturing
close-proximity voices. Lavaliere microphones are commonly used for
video shoots and TV talk shows where the use of a large microphone on
a bulky stand is unacceptable.
A dynamics processor that limits or prevents signals from peaking
above a specified amplitude level. A limiter works by compressing all
sounds that peak above a specified threshold point. The average
levels of your sound files can be raised several dB beyond the
regular normalization level by using a limiter to compress the
highest volume peaks. Using simple normalization alone to maximize
the dynamic range has limitations. Because the normalization process
simply calculates the available headroom, you are limited by the
proximity of the loudest peak to the maximum cut-off point.
Macromedia Director's proprietary scripting language for
creating sophisticated interactive games and presentations.
- Liquid Audio
An Internet file format and suite of software applications that
provide a complete end-to-end solution for secure music delivery over
- Liquid Express
A software package specifically designed for audio professionals in
film, radio, television, music, and advertising that allows for the
secure real-time preview, approval, delivery, and archiving of
- Liquid Music Player
An application that allows users to preview and purchase CD-quality
Liquid Tracks on a Macintosh or Windows PC. It also allows you to see
album graphics, lyrics, liner notes, and promotions while listening,
as well as easily record an actual Red Book audio CD playable on any
home, car, or portable stereo system.
- Liquid Music Server
An application that lets you publish and host Liquid Tracks on the
Web. The Liquid Music Server also includes an SQL database and can
even hook into larger, industry-standard SQL databases, such as those
from Informix and Oracle.
- Live Encoding
The process of capturing and converting a live event for broadcasting
over the Web.
- Lossless Compression
A type of compression that squeezes or stuffs data into smaller-sized
data packets without permanently discarding information. Compared to
lossy forms of compression, lossless compression offers superior
audio quality but larger file sizes.
- Lossy Compression
A type of compression that intelligently discards data to achieve
smaller file sizes. Lossy forms of audio compression, similar to JPEG
image compression, permanently discard frequencies above and below
specified points by removing "unnecessary" or redundant
sound information. The client-side decoder or player then
decompresses the compressed file as the audio downloads to a
user's computer and fills in the missing information according
to the instructions set by the decoding algorithm.
The perception of the strength or weakness of a sound wave resulting
from the amount of pressure produced. Sound waves that have more
intensity or larger variations in air pressure produce louder sounds.
Low-intensity sound waves with smaller fluctuations in air pressure
produce quieter sounds. Loudness is not to be confused with
amplitude. Loudness refers to the human perception of sound;
amplitude refers to quantifiable measurements of air pressure
- Low-Pass Filter
An equalization effect that allows all the frequencies lower than a
specified frequency to pass through unaffected while filtering out
everything above the specified frequency cut-off point.
- Mic Pick-up Patterns
The term used to describe the three-dimensional area or range of a
microphone recording capsule. All microphones have a variation of one
or more of the following patterns: omnidirectional, bidirectional,
cardioid, and shotgun. Certain recording situations call for the use
of different pick-up patterns.
- Mic Pre-Amp
A device that boosts or amplifies the inherently weak signal of a
microphone for output to a mixer or sound card.
- Microphone (Mic)
A transducer device that converts air pressure waves into electrical
- MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
A language originally developed to connect various electronic music
devices. MIDI has since grown into an important compositional
language and tool. MIDI contains no sound data but merely describes
in the form of a "composer's score" how a device
should playback music. MIDI files are ideally suited for web
transmission since they are small, text-based "scores"
and not actual representations of sound itself.
- MIDI Sound Engine
Software that provides the necessary sound synthesis to generate
musical tones for MIDI playback.
- MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
A group of people that meet under ISO (the International Standards
Organization) to generate standards for digital video and audio
compression. The term MPEG also represents a multimedia compression
scheme and format.
A new MPEG format for low-bitrate coding of audio-visual
presentations. The MPEG-4 standard was designed for a spectrum of new
applications, including interactive multimedia communications,
videophone, mobile audio-visual communication, multimedia electronic
mail, remote sensing, electronic newspapers, interactive multimedia
databases, and games. MPEG-4 targets the very low bitrate
applications defined loosely as having sampling dimensions up to 176
x 144 x 10 Hz and coded bitrates between 4,800 and 64,000
A device that connects and routes all the input and output signals
from one component to another. Mixing boards also have
signal-processing capabilities such as equalization and reverb.
Mixers save you from the hassle of patching together different pieces
of equipment for common, day-to-day studio tasks.
- Multitrack Recording
The process of recording or capturing several simultaneous tracks of
A component of Windows NT Server and Microsoft's Windows Media
Technologies. NetShow services include a comprehensive suite of
authoring tools and streaming services for delivering audio, video,
animations, and other multimedia over the Internet. NetShow
presentations are played back with the Windows Media Player, a
universal player that plays most local and streamed media file types
including NetShow's native file format, Advanced Streaming
Format (ASF), as well as MPEG, WAV, AVI, QuickTime, and
The term applied to non-musical sounds that are mainly comprised of
random chaotic frequencies at random amplitudes, such as the roar of
a crashing wave or the sound of a computer hard drive.
- Noise Floor
The inherent background noise level in an audio signal. Poor-quality
audio equipment produces a higher noise floor.
- Nondestructive Editing
A form of audio editing that preserves the original sound file and
does not permanently change or rewrite over the original master file
but instead merely alters its playback. Nondestructive edits become
permanent once the final mix is recorded or "bounced" to
disk. With nondestructive editing, the original source files are
always preserved as separate sound files.
The process of increasing the overall level of a sound file by
boosting the loudest peak in the file up to the maximum 0dB point. If
you are working with pre-recorded material, you will want to
normalize your sound files before converting them to web formats.
Normalization maximizes the dynamic range of a sound file, enhances a
sound by making it more present or clear, and sets a uniform volume
or amplitude level for a group of sound files recorded or mixed at
different volume levels.
- Omnidirectional Microphone
A device that captures sounds from all angles. This type of mic is
commonly used for recording multiple instruments and voices.
The term used to describe the action of placing or mixing sounds in
the left or right channels during stereo playback. All mixers feature
a pan knob for adjusting the stereo playback parameters of an audio
- Parametric Equalizer
An equalizer that allows you to specify the bandwidth and range of
the frequencies you want to boost or lower. Unlike a graphic
equalizer, parametric equalizers feature several knobs for adjusting
bandwidth and gain instead of a horizontal row of faders. Parametric
equalizers provide greater flexibility for altering specific
The sensation of how high or low a sound is perceived. Pitch is
determined by a sound's frequency, or rate of repetition. The
faster the frequency, which is measured in hertz (Hz) or cycles per
second, the higher the pitch. The slower the frequency, the lower the
pitch. On home stereo equipment, high-frequency sounds are often
referred to as "treble" and low-frequency sounds as
"bass." Piercing sounds such as a siren or whistle are
composed of extremely rapid vibrations of air molecules.
Lower-pitched sounds such as a bass guitar consist of slower
vibrating sound waves.
- Pitch Shifting
The process of raising or lowering the pitch of a sound file. Use
time correction with pitch shifting if you want to preserve the same
length and file size as the original sound.
- Pop Screens
A circular hoop with a thin nylon material that rests directly
between the speaker's mouth and the microphone. Pop screens are
essential for reducing wind and explosive P's and S's
when recording voices.
A term for HTTP streaming from a standard web server as opposed to
UDP or RTSP streaming from a dedicated audio server.
Apple Computer's technology that enables the delivery and
playback of video, sound, music, 3D, and virtual reality on Macintosh
and Windows computers. QuickTime is also the leading video production
platform for both Windows and Mac.
A RealNetworks' utility that enables you to compress audio
files or input from an audio device into RealMedia clips.
A RealNetworks' format that works in conjunction with the
RealSystem 5.0 to enable broadcasting of streaming Flash vector
animation synchronized to RealAudio.
- RealMedia Clip (.rm)
The term used to describe media content such as audio or video,
encoded into the RealAudio, RealVideo, RealFlash, RealPix, or
- RealMedia Metafile (.ram)
A metafile located on your server that connects a web page to your
RealAudio, RealVideo, or RealFlash clips. The metafile contains the
URL of one or more clips located on the RealServer.
A RealNetworks' application that decodes incoming audio packets
that have been compressed with the RealEncoder back into the original
audio signal. The RealPlayer features random access controls such as
scroll, stop, start, and pause.
- RealPlayer Plug-in Metafile (.rpm)
The RealPlayer metafile is the same as the RealMedia metafile but
used with the RealPlayer plug-in for Netscape and Internet Explorer.
A RealNetworks' utility that enables you to compress and
convert video as well as audio files or live input from a video
device. RealPublisher is an enhanced version of RealEncoder and
offers web publishing features such as automatic HTML page creation
and easy uploading of HTML pages to either a standard HTTP web server
or a RealNetworks RealServer. RealPublisher is especially useful for
creating web pages that display an embedded RealPlayer.
RealNetworks' streaming media delivery system that works in
conjunction with a standard web server to stream encoded audio and
multimedia content over the Internet.
RealNetworks' streaming media software that allows users,
equipped with conventional multimedia PCs and voice-grade telephone
lines, to browse, select, and play back streaming multimedia on
- Real-Time Audio Captions
Long-playing streaming audio clips placed in a web page.
Rapid sound wave reflections that strike the ear drum within 40
milliseconds of the original sound. If a sound reflects off of a wall
that is close to our ears, we hear the reflections or reverb
instantly as part of the richness of the original sound wave decay.
If a sound bounces off a hard reflective surface that is far away, we
hear the reflection as a second distinct sound or echo. This type of
reflection is known as "delay."
- RMF (Rich Music Format)
A hybrid format developed by Headspace that offers the best of MIDI,
small, efficient music file that contains MIDI, sample, and copyright
information in a compressed, encrypted form optimized for playback on
the Web. RMF offers the universality, convenience, and small file
sizes of MIDI, the interactivity of Java, and a playback sound engine
that delivers superb audio quality.
- Room Tone
The natural ambient background sound in a given environment such as
subtle wind outdoors or the distant hum of an indoor generator or
- RTSP (RealTime Streaming Protocol)
An open, standards-based protocol for multimedia streaming. RTSP
supported by RealSystem G2 provides several advantages over UDP
transmission, including better support for synchronized media
A value assigned to represent a portion of an electrical waveform.
- Sample Rate
The number of samples of an electrical waveform taken per second.
A term used to describe Macromedia Director or Flash content that has
been converted for delivery over the Web with the Shockwave utility.
- Shotgun Mic
A microphone that contains a recording capsule embedded in a long
hollow tube. The capsule picks up a highly exaggerated hyper-cardioid
pattern of sounds far in front and back of the microphone.
Overemphasized or particularly loud high frequency noise such as the
sounds produced when annunciating S's, P's, and
T's. Cutting specific higher frequencies can usually lessen the
- Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
The difference in dB between the maximum input signal level and the
system noise level that is introduced to the output signal. High
fidelity audio equipment has a higher signal-to-noise ratio.
A time code standard for synchronizing audio to visuals set by the
Society of Motion Pictures and Television Engineers.
The vibration of air molecules in the atmosphere that can be sensed
by the ear. A sound wave is produced by a force that vibrates the
surrounding air molecules, such as a stick striking a wooden surface
or a guitar string being plucked. As the air molecules are set in
motion, they radiate outwards, colliding into other air molecules
like a chain of falling dominoes, until they strike the ear drum.
Each type of disturbance in the atmosphere produces a distinct
pattern of vibrations. These patterns of vibrating air molecules give
a sound its unique loudness, pitch, and timbre.
- Sound Design
The process of orchestrating all sounds including the dialogue, music
score, and sound effects into one cohesive soundtrack. Full-scale
film sound design came about in the late 1970s when film producers
and directors realized they could put a sound signature on an entire
film by hiring one person -- a sound designer -- to orchestrate
all the various audio components into one cohesive soundtrack.
The audio accompaniment to film, graphics, or text.
- Speed of Sound
The speed of sound is 770 MPH.
A RealSystem feature that enables you to split and route the audio
signal from one RealAudio Server to several other RealServers located
at different strategic points across the Internet. By allowing users
to connect to the closest RealServer, you ensure better quality and
- Studio Reference Speakers
Professional monitoring speakers that accurately reproduce a
"flat" transparent representation of a sound without
adding coloration, distortion, noise, or equalization. Home stereo
speakers, by contrast, are designed to boost the high and low audio
frequencies to provide a richer sound. Unlike home stereo speakers,
the goal of reference speakers is to give you not the most pleasant
sound, but the most accurate.
A RealSystem G2 technology for dynamic bandwidth allocation for more
efficient and reliable streaming. SureStream switches down to a lower
bandwidth without rebuffering the clip when a user's Internet
connection degrades or, presumably, if the user's bandwidth was
misjudged. RealEncoder G2 with SureStream generates one master file
that includes several different bandwidth settings.
- TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
A protocol that emphasizes the reliable transfer of data between
computers. TCP functions much like an error-correction traffic cop
methodically directing the flow of data packets to the same
destination, while making sure that everything that was sent arrives
at the proper address. TCP, as opposed to UDP, resends lost packets.
- Threshold of Compression
A term used to describe the point at which a signal rises above a
determined amplitude level or threshold setting and a compressor or
limiter begins to compress or reduce the signal.
The tone, "color," or texture of a sound. The term timbre
encompasses all of the qualities of a sound besides loudness and
pitch, such as smooth, rough, hollow, peaceful, mechanical, etc.
The attack and decay (or beginning and ending) characteristics of a
sound such as the quiver of a violin bow as it strikes the strings or
the brief squawk of a saxophone as the air begins to vibrate the
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
A protocol that facilitates the rapid transfer of data between
computers. UDP, unlike TCP, keeps directing traffic and does not
retransmit packets when data is lost or damaged. When a UDP audio
packet drops out, the server keeps sending information causing only a
brief glitch instead of a huge gap of silence.
A slightly tremulous effect imparted to a vocal or instrumental tone
for added warmth or expressiveness by slight and rapid variations in
- Voice-Over Artist
An artist who specializes in voice recording. A voice-over artist is
generally someone with a nice quality voice, good microphone
technique, and previous theatrical or radio experience.
- WAVE (.wav), Waveform Audio File Format
The native audio format for Windows developed by Microsoft and IBM.
The patterns of air pressure variations that move outward from a
point of impact. Waveforms are the "substance" of sound.
- Web Mastering
The discipline of optimizing sound files for Internet delivery.
Mastering for the Web is the final optimization process before
converting sound files to their respective web formats.
An adjective used to describe a processed audio signal.
Copyright © 2002 O'Reilly & Associates. All rights reserved.