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12.9 Special Characters

This section lists the following special characters:

  • Characters that reside on the standard fonts

  • Miscellaneous characters

  • Bracket-building symbols

  • Mathematics symbols

  • Greek characters

The characters in the first table below are available on the standard fonts. The characters in the remaining tables are available only on the special font.


Table 12.2: Characters on the Standard Fonts
Input Char Character Name
' ' Close quote
` ` Open quote
\(em  -- Em-dash (width of "m")
\(en - En-dash (width of "n")
\- - Minus in current font
- - Hyphen
\(hy - Hyphen
\(bu · Bullet
\(sq  Square
\(ru _ Rule
\(14 ¼ 1/4
\(12 ½ 1/2
\(34 ¾ 3/4
\(fi fi fi ligature
\(fl fl fl ligature
\(ff ff ff ligature
\(Fi ffi ffi ligature
\(Fl ffl ffl ligature
\(de ° Degree
\(dg [dagger] Dagger
\(fm ' Foot mark
\(ct ¢ Cent sign
\(rg ® Registered
\(co © Copyright

Table 12.3: Miscellaneous Characters
Input Char Character Name
\(sc § Section
\(aa ´ Acute accent
´ Acute accent
\(ga ` Grave accent
\` ` Grave accent
\(ul _ Underrule
\(-> -> Right arrow
\(<- <- Left arrow
\(ua -^ Up arrow
\(da -v Down arrow
\(br | Box rule
\(dd [dbldag] Double dagger
\(rh Graphic  Right hand
\(lh Graphic  Left hand
\(ci [circle] Circle

Table 12.4: Bracket-Building Symbols
Input Char Character Name
\(lt Graphic  Left top of big curly bracket
\(lk Graphic  Left center of big curly bracket
\(lb Graphic  Left bottom of big curly bracket
\(rt Graphic  Right top of big curly bracket
\(rk Graphic  Right center of big curly bracket
\(rb Graphic  Right bottom of big curly bracket
\(lc [ Left ceiling (left top) of big square bracket
\(bv | Bold vertical
\(lf [ Left floor (left bottom) of big square bracket
\(rc ] Right ceiling (right top) of big square bracket
\(rf ] Right floor (right bottom) of big square bracket

Table 12.5: Mathematics Symbols
Input Char Character Name
\(pl + Math plus
\(mi - Math minus
\(eq = Math equals
\(** * Math star
\(sl / Slash (matching backslash)
\(sr [v/] Square root
\(rn - Root en extender
\(>= >= Greater than or equal to
\(<= <= Less than or equal to
\(== == Identically equal
\(~~ ~ Approximately equal
\(ap ~ Approximates
\(!= != Not equal
\(mu × Multiply
\(di ÷ Divide
\(+- ± Plus-minus
\(cu U Cup (union)
\(ca [cap] Cap (intersection)
\(sb [subset] Subset of
\(sp [superset] Superset of
\(ib [subset/equal] Improper subset
\(ip [superset/equal] Improper superset
\(if [infinity] Infinity
\(pd d Partial derivative
\(gr [nabla] Gradient
\(no ¬ Not
\(is [integral] Integral sign
\(pt [proportional] Proportional to
\(es Ø Empty set
\(mo [isin] Member of
\(or | Or

12.9.1 Greek Characters

Characters with equivalents as uppercase English letters are available on the standard fonts; otherwise, the characters in Table 12.6 exist only on the special font.


Table 12.6: Greek Characters
Input Char Char Name Input Char Char Name
\(*a [alpha] alpha \(*A A ALPHA
\(*b [beta] beta \(*B B BETA
\(*g [gamma] gamma \(*G [Gamma] GAMMA
\(*d [delta] delta \(*D [delta] DELTA
\(*e [epsilon] epsilon \(*E E EPSILON
\(*z zeta \(*Z Z ZETA
\(*y [eta] eta \(*Y H ETA
\(*h [theta] theta \(*H [Theta] THETA
\(*i [iota] iota \(*I I IOTA
\(*k [kappa] kappa \(*K K KAPPA
\(*l [lambda] lambda \(*L [Lambda] LAMBDA
\(*m [mu] mu \(*M M MU
\(*n [nu] nu \(*N N NU
\(*c [xi] xi \(*C [Xi] XI
\(*o [omicron] omicron \(*O O OMICRON
\(*p [pi] pi \(*P [Pi] PI
\(*r [rho] rho \(*R P RHO
\(*s [sigma] sigma \(*S [Sigma] SIGMA
\(ts [sigma] terminal sigma      
\(*t [tau] tau \(*T T TAU
\(*u [upsilon] upsilon \(*U [Upsilon] UPSILON
\(*f Graphic  phi \(*F [Phi] PHI
\(*x [chi] chi \(*X X CHI
\(*q [psi] psi \(*Q [Psi] PSI
\(*w [omega] omega \(*W [Omega] OMEGA


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