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Previous: C.2 Listing of masterindex Shell Script Appendix C
Supplement for Chapter 12

C.3 Documentation for masterindex

This documentation, and the notes that follow, are by Dale Dougherty.

C.3.1 masterindex

indexing program for single and multivolume indexing.


masterindex [-master [volume]] [-page] [-screen] [filename..]


masterindex generates a formatted index based on structured index entries output by troff . Unless you redirect output, it comes to the screen.


-m or -master indicates that you are compiling a multivolume index. The index entries for each volume should be in a single file and the filenames should be listed in sequence. If the first file is not the first volume, then specify the volume number as a separate argument. The volume number is converted to a roman numeral and prepended to all the page numbers of entries in that file.

-p or -page produces a listing of index entries for each page number. It can be used to proof the entries against hardcopy.

-s or -screen specifies that the unformatted index will be viewed on the "screen". The default is to prepare output that contains troff macros for formatting.



See Also

Note that these programs require "nawk" (new awk): nawk (1), and sed (1V) .


The new index program is modular, invoking a series of smaller programs. This should allow me to connect different modules to implement new features as well as isolate and fix problems more easily. Index entries should not contain any troff font changes. The program does not handle them. Roman numerals greater than eight will not be sorted properly, thus imposing a limit of an eight-book index. (The sort program will sort the roman numerals 1-10 in the following order: I, II, III, IV, IX, V, VI, VII, VIII, X.)

C.3.2 Background Details

Tim O'Reilly recommends The Joy of Cooking (JofC) index as an ideal index. I examined the JofC index quite thoroughly and set out to write a new indexing program that duplicated its features. I did not wholly duplicate the JofC format, but this could be done fairly easily if desired. Please look at the JofC index yourself to examine its features.

I also tried to do a few other things to improve on the previous index program and provide more support for the person coding the index.

C.3.3 Coding Index Entries

This section describes the coding of index entries in the document file. We use the .XX macro for placing index entries in a file. The simplest case is:

.XX "entry"

If the entry consists of primary and secondary sort keys, then we can code it as:

.XX "primary, secondary"

A comma delimits the two keys. We also have a .XN macro for generating "See" references without a page number. It is specified as:

.XN "entry (See anotherEntry)"

While these coding forms continue to work as they have, masterindex provides greater flexibility by allowing three levels of keys: primary, secondary, and tertiary. You'd specify the entry like so:

.XX "primary: secondary; tertiary"

Note that the comma is not used as a delimiter. A colon delimits the primary and secondary entry; the semicolon delimits the secondary and tertiary entry. This means that commas can be a part of a key using this syntax. Don't worry, though, you can continue to use a comma to delimit the primary and secondary keys. (Be aware that the first comma in a line is converted to a colon, if no colon delimiter is found.) I'd recommend that new books be coded using the above syntax, even if you are only specifying a primary and secondary key.

Another feature is automatic rotation of primary and secondary keys if a tilde (~) is used as the delimiter. So the following entry:

.XX "cat~command"

is equivalent to the following two entries:

.XX "cat command"
.XX "command: cat"

You can think of the secondary key as a classification (command, attribute, function, etc.) of the primary entry. Be careful not to reverse the two, as "command cat" does not make much sense. To use a tilde in an entry, enter "~~".

I added a new macro, .XB, that is the same as .XX except that the page number for this index entry will be output in bold to indicate that it is the most significant page number in a range. Here is an example:

.XB "cat command"

When troff processes the index entries, it outputs the page number followed by an asterisk. This is how it appears when output is seen in screen format. When coded for troff formatting, the page number is surrounded by the bold font change escape sequences. (By the way, in the JofC index, I noticed that they allowed having the same page number in roman and in bold.) Also, this page number will not be combined in a range of consecutive numbers.

One other feature of the JofC index is that the very first secondary key appears on the same line with the primary key. The old index program placed any secondary key on the next line. The one advantage of doing it the JofC way is that entries containing only one secondary key will be output on the same line and look much better. Thus, you'd have "line justification, definition of" rather than having "definition of" indented on the next line. The next secondary key would be indented. Note that if the primary key exists as a separate entry (it has page numbers associated with it), the page references for the primary key will be output on the same line and the first secondary entry will be output on the next line.

To reiterate, while the syntax of the three-level entries is different, this index entry is perfectly valid:

.XX "line justification, definition of"

It also produces the same result as:

.XX "line justification: definition of"

(The colon disappears in the output.) Similarly, you could write an entry, such as

.XX "justification, lines, defined"


.XX "justification: lines, defined"

where the comma between "lines" and "defined" does not serve as a delimiter but is part of the secondary key.

The previous example could be written as an entry with three levels:

.XX "justification: lines; defined"

where the semicolon delimits the tertiary key. The semicolon is output with the key, and multiple tertiary keys may follow immediately after the secondary key.

The main thing, though, is that page numbers are collected for all primary, secondary, and tertiary keys. Thus, you could have output such as:

  justification  4-9
    lines 4,6; defined, 5

C.3.4 Output Format

One thing I wanted to do that our previous program did not do is generate an index without the troff codes. masterindex has three output modes: troff , screen , and page .

The default output is intended for processing by troff (via fmt ). It contains macros that are defined in /work/macros/current/indexmacs . These macros should produce the same index format as before, which was largely done directly through troff requests. Here are a few lines off the top:

$ masterindex ch01

.so /work/macros/current/indexmacs
.Se "" "Index"
.XF A "A"
.XF 1 "applications, structure of  2;  program  1"
.XF 1 "attribute, WIN_CONSUME_KBD_EVENTS  13"

The top two lines should be obvious. The .XC macro produces multicolumn output. (It will print out two columns for smaller books. It's not smart enough to take arguments specifying the width of columns, but that should be done.) The .XF macro has three possible values for its first argument. An "A" indicates that the second argument is a letter of the alphabet that should be output as a divider. A "1" indicates that the second argument contains a primary entry. A "2" indicates that the entry begins with a secondary entry, which is indented.

When invoked with the -s argument, the program prepares the index for viewing on the screen (or printing as an ASCII file). Again, here are a few lines:

$ masterindex -s ch01

applications, structure of  2;  program  1

Obviously, this is useful for quickly proofing the index. The third type of format is also used for proofing the index. Invoked using -p , it provides a page-by-page listing of the index entries.

$ masterindex -p ch01

Page 1
        structure of XView applications
        applications, structure of; program
        XView applications
        XView applications, structure of
        XView interface
        compiling XView programs
        XView, compiling programs
Page 2
        XView libraries

C.3.5 Compiling a Master Index

A multivolume master index is invoked by specifying the -m option. Each set of index entries for a particular volume must be placed in a separate file.

$ masterindex -m -s book1 book2 book3

xv_init() procedure  II: 4; III: 5
XV_INIT_ARGC_PTR_ARGV attribute  II: 5,6
XV_INIT_ARGS attribute  I: 6

Files must be specified in consecutive order. If the first file is not Volume 1, you can specify the number as an argument.

$ masterindex -m 4 -s book4 book5 

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