home | O'Reilly's CD bookshelfs | FreeBSD | Linux | Cisco | Cisco Exam    

UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

UNIX in a Nutshell: System V EditionSearch this book
Previous: Reference: lptest Chapter 2
UNIX Commands
Next: Reference: m4
 

ls



ls

 [

options

] [

names

]

If no names are given, list the files in the current directory. With one or more names , list files contained in a directory name or that match a file name . names can include filename metacharacters. The options let you display a variety of information in different formats. The most useful options include -F , -R , -l , and -s . Some options don't make sense together; e.g., -u and -c .

Options

-a

List all files, including the normally hidden . files.

-b

Show nonprinting characters in octal.

-c

List files by creation/modification time.

-C

List files in columns (the default format).

-d

List only the directory name, not its contents.

-f

Interpret each name as a directory (files are ignored).

-F

Flag filenames by appending / to directories, * to executable files, and @ to symbolic links. @ to symbolic links, and = to sockets.

-g

Like -l , but omit owner name (show g roup). Add group name to -l listing.

-i

List the inode for each file.

-l

Long format listing (includes permissions, owner, size, modification time, etc.).

-L

List the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link rather than the link itself.

-m

Merge the list into a comma-separated series of names.

-n

Like -l , but use GID and UID numbers instead of owner and group names.

-o

Like -l , but omit group name (show o wner).

-p

Mark directories by appending / to them.

-q

Show nonprinting characters as ? .

-r

List files in reverse order (by name or by time).

-R

Recursively list subdirectories as well as current directory.

-s

Print size of the files in blocks. in kilobytes.

-t

List files according to modification time (newest first).

-u

List files according to the file access time.

-x

List files in rows going across the screen.

-1

Print one entry per line of output.

Examples

List all files in the current directory and their sizes; use multiple columns and mark special files:



ls -asCF

List the status of directories /bin and /etc :



ls -ld /bin /etc

List C source files in the current directory, the oldest first:



ls -rt *.c

Count the files in the current directory:



ls | wc -l


Previous: Reference: lptest UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition Next: Reference: m4
Reference: lptest Book Index Reference: m4

The UNIX CD Bookshelf Navigation The UNIX CD BookshelfUNIX Power ToolsUNIX in a NutshellLearning the vi Editorsed & awkLearning the Korn ShellLearning the UNIX Operating System










??????????????@Mail.ru