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UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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UNIX Commands
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A line-oriented text editor; a superset of ed and the root of vi. See Sections 8 and 9 for more information.


-c command

Begin edit session by executing the given ex command (usually a search pattern or line address). If command contains spaces or special characters, enclose it in single quotes to protect it from the shell. For example, command could be ':set list' (show tabs and newlines) or / word (search for word ) or '$' (show last line). (Note: -c command was formerly + command .)


Run in LISP mode for editing LISP programs.


List filenames that were saved due to an editor or system crash.

-r file

Recover and edit file after an editor or system crash.


Edit in read-only mode to prevent accidental changing of files.


Suppress status messages (e.g., errors, prompts); useful when running an ex script. ( -s was formerly the - option.)

-t tag

Edit the file containing tag , and position the editor at its definition (see ctags for more information).


Invoke vi. Running vi directly is simpler.


Verbose; print non-terminal input on standard error. Useful for tracking shell scripts running ex.


Supply a key to encrypt or decrypt file using crypt .


Same as -x but assume that file began in encrypted form.


Either of the following examples will apply the ex commands in exscript to text file doc :

ex -s doc < exscript

cat exscript | ex -s doc

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