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Learning the Korn Shell

Learning the Korn ShellSearch this book
Previous: B.1 Invocation Options Appendix B
Reference Lists
Next: B.3 Built-in Shell Variables

B.2 Built-in Commands and Keywords

Here is a summary of all built-in commands and keywords.

Command Chapter Summary
: 7 Do nothing (just do expansions of arguments).
. 4 Read file and execute its contents in current shell.
alias 3 Set up shorthand for command or command line.
bg 8 Put job in background.
break 5

Exit from surrounding for , select , while , or until loop.

case 5 Multi-way conditional construct.
cd 1 Change working directory.

Skip to next iteration of for , select , while , or until loop.

echo 4 Expand and print arguments (obsolete).
exec 9 Replace shell with given program.
exit 5 Exit from shell.
export 3 Create environment variables.
eval 7 Process arguments as a command line.
fc 2 Fix command (edit history file).
fg 8 Put background job in foreground.
for 5 Looping construct.
function 4 Define function.
getopts 6 Process command-line options.
if 5 Conditional construct.
jobs 1 List background jobs.
kill 8 Send signal to process.
let 6 Arithmetic variable assignment.
newgrp Start new shell with new group ID.
print 1 Expand and print arguments on standard output.
pwd 1 Print working directory.
read 7 Read a line from standard input.
readonly 6 Make variables read-only (unassignable).
return 5 Return from surrounding function or script.
select 5 Menu generation construct.
set 3 Set options.
shift 6 Shift command-line arguments.
time Run command and print execution times.
trap 8 Set up signal-catching routine.
typeset 6 Set special characteristics of variables.
ulimit 10 Set/show process resource limits.
umask 10 Set/show file permission mask.
unalias 3 Remove alias definitions.
unset 3 Remove definitions of variables or functions.
until 5 Looping construct.
wait 8 Wait for background job(s) to finish.
whence 3 Identify source of command.
while 5 Looping construct.

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