Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Min

*220*
*26*
*73MB*

*English*
*Pages 1056*
*Year 2011*

*Table of contents : Content: Front Cover Dedication Contents Searching References in the Thermoptim Unit Foreword by John W. Mitchell Foreword by Alain Lambotte About the Author General introduction Mind Maps List of Symbols Conversion Factors 1. First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics 1. A New Educational Paradigm 2. First Steps in Thermodynamics: Absolute Beginners 3. First Steps in Thermodynamics: Entropy and the Second Law 2. Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components 4. Introduction 5. Thermodynamics Fundamentals 6. Presentation of Thermoptim 7. Basic Components and Processes8. Heat Exchangers 9. Examples of Applications 10. General Issues on Cycles, Energy and Exergy Balances 3. Main Conventional Cycles 11. Introduction: Changing Technologies 12. Internal Combustion Turbomotors 13. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines 14. Stirling Engines 15. Steam Facilities (General) 16. Classical Steam Power Cycles 17. Combined Cycle Power Plants 18. Cogeneration and Trigeneration 19. Compression Refrigeration Cycles, Heat Pumps 20. Liquid Absorption Refrigeration Cycles 21. Air Conditioning 22. Optimization by Systems Integration4. Innovative Advanced Cycles, including Low Environmental Impact 23. External Class Development 24. Advanced Gas Turbines Cycles 25. Evaporation, Mechanical Vapor Compression, Desalination, Drying by Hot Gas 26. Cryogenic Cycles 27. Electrochemical Converters 28. Global Warming and Capture and Sequestration of CO2 29. Future Nuclear Reactors 30. Solar Thermodynamic Cycles 31. Other than Solar NRE cycles 32. Heat and Compressed Air Storage 33. Calculation of Thermodynamic Solar Installations 5. Technological Design and Off-design Operation 34. Technological Design and Off-design Operation, Model Reduction35. Technological Design and Off-design Behavior of Heat Exchangers 36. Modeling and Setting of Displacement Compressors 37. Modeling and Setting of Dynamic Compressors and Turbines 38. Case Studies*

Renaud Gicquel

ENERGY SYSTEMS A New Approach to Engineering Thermodynamics With access to the Thermoptim™ Software

ENERGY SYSTEMS

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ENERGY SYSTEMS A NEW APPROACH TO ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS RENAUD GICQUEL École des Mines de Paris, MINES ParisTech, France

www. thermoptim.org

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2011 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20111214 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-1538-3 (eBook - PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

To my wife and companion, To our three daughters

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Contents Searching References in the Thermoptim Unit Foreword by John W. Mitchell Foreword by Alain Lambotte About the Author General introduction Structure of the book Objectives of this book A working tool on many levels Mind Maps List of Symbols Conversion Factors

xxiv xxv xxvii xxix xxxi xxxi xxxiii xxxiv xxxv xli xlix

1 First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

1

1

A New Educational Paradigm 1.1 Introduction 1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifications 1.3 Specifics of applied thermodynamics teaching 1.4 A new educational paradigm 1.5 Diapason modules 1.6 A three-step progressive approach 1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim 1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal 1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching potential 1.10 Conclusion References

3 3 4 4 5 7 9 10 10 11 12 12

2

First Steps in Thermodynamics: Absolute Beginners 2.1 Architecture of the machines studied 2.1.1 Steam power plant 2.1.2 Gas turbine 2.1.3 Refrigeration machine 2.2 Four basic functions 2.3 Notions of thermodynamic system and state 2.4 Energy exchange between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings 2.5 Conservation of energy: first law of thermodynamics 2.6 Application to the four basic functions previously identified 2.6.1 Compression and expansion with work 2.6.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters 2.6.3 Heat exchange 2.6.4 Combustion chambers, boilers 2.7 Reference processes 2.7.1 Compression and expansion with work 2.7.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters 2.7.3 Heat exchange 2.7.4 Combustion chambers, boilers

13 13 13 14 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20

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3

2.8 Summary reminders on pure substance properties 2.9 Return to the concept of state and choice of state variables to consider 2.10 Thermodynamic charts 2.10.1 Different types of charts 2.10.2 (h, ln(P)) chart 2.11 Plot of cycles in the (h, ln(P)) chart 2.11.1 Steam power plant 2.11.2 Refrigeration machine 2.12 Modeling cycles with Thermoptim 2.12.1 Steam power plant 2.12.2 Gas turbine 2.12.3 Refrigeration machine 2.13 Conclusion

20 21 21 22 22 23 24 26 29 30 31 31 32

First Steps in Thermodynamics: Entropy and the Second Law 3.1 Heat in thermodynamic systems 3.2 Introduction of entropy 3.3 Second law of thermodynamics 3.3.1 Limits of the first law of thermodynamics 3.3.2 Concept of irreversibility 3.3.3 Heat transfer inside an isolated system, conversion of heat into work 3.3.4 Statement of the second law 3.4 (T, s) Entropy chart 3.5 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines 3.6 Irreversibilities in industrial processes 3.6.1 Heat exchangers 3.6.2 Compressors and turbines 3.7 Plot of cycles in the entropy chart, qualitative comparison with the carnot cycle 3.7.1 Steam power plant 3.7.2 Gas turbine 3.7.3 Refrigeration machine 3.8 Conclusion

35 35 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 40 41 41 41

2 Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components 4

viii

Introduction 4.1 A two-level methodology 4.1.1 Physical phenomena taking place in a gas turbine 4.1.2 Energy technologies: component assemblies 4.1.3 Generalities about numerical models 4.2 Practical implementation of the double analytical-systems approach 4.3 Methodology 4.3.1 Systems modeling: the General System 4.3.2 Systems-analysis of energy technologies 4.3.3 Component modeling 4.3.4 Thermoptim primitive types 4.3.5 Thermoptim assets References

41 41 43 44 45

47 49 49 49 50 51 52 54 54 55 56 57 62 62

Contents

5

6

Thermodynamics Fundamentals 5.1 Basic concepts, definitions 5.1.1 Open and closed systems 5.1.2 State of a system, intensive and extensive quantities 5.1.3 Phase, pure substances, mixtures 5.1.4 Equilibrium, reversible process 5.1.5 Temperature 5.1.6 Symbols 5.2 Energy exchanges in a process 5.2.1 Work δW of external forces on a closed system 5.2.2 Heat transfer 5.3 First law of thermodynamics 5.3.1 Definition of internal energy U (closed system) 5.3.2 Application to a fluid mass 5.3.3 Work provided, shaft work τ 5.3.4 Shaft work and enthalpy (open systems) 5.3.5 Establishment of enthalpy balance 5.3.6 Application to industrial processes 5.4 Second law of thermodynamics 5.4.1 Definition of entropy 5.4.2 Irreversibility 5.4.3 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines 5.4.4 Fundamental relations for a phase 5.4.5 Thermodynamic potentials 5.5 Exergy 5.5.1 Presentation of exergy for a monotherm open system in steady state 5.5.2 Multithermal open steady-state system 5.5.3 Application to a two-source reversible machine 5.5.4 Special case: heat exchange without work production 5.5.5 Exergy efficiency 5.6 Representation of substance properties 5.6.1 Solid, liquid, gaseous phases 5.6.2 Perfect and ideal gases 5.6.3 Ideal gas mixtures 5.6.4 Liquids and solids 5.6.5 Liquid-vapor equilibrium of a pure substance 5.6.6 Representations of real fluids 5.6.7 Moist mixtures 5.6.8 Real fluid mixtures References Further reading

63 63 64 65 66 66 66 67 67 67 68 69 70 70 71 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 81 82 83 84 85 86 86 86 87 87 88 93 95 96 97 117 124 136 136

Presentation of Thermoptim 6.1 General 6.1.1 Initiation applets 6.1.2 Interactive charts 6.1.3 Thermoptim’s five working environments 6.2 Diagram editor 6.2.1 Presentation of the editor

137 137 138 139 139 142 142

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6.3

6.4

6.5 7

x

6.2.2 Graphical component properties 6.2.3 Links between the simulator and the diagrams Simulation environment 6.3.1 Main project screen 6.3.2 Main menus 6.3.3 Export of the results in the form of text file 6.3.4 Point screen 6.3.5 Point moist properties calculations 6.3.6 Node screen Extension of Thermoptim by external classes 6.4.1 Extension system for Thermoptim by adding external classes 6.4.2 Software implementation 6.4.3 Viewing available external classes 6.4.4 Representation of an external component in the diagram editor 6.4.5 Loading an external class 6.4.6 Practical realization of an external class Different versions of Thermoptim

Basic Components and Processes 7.1 Compressions 7.1.1 Thermodynamics of compression 7.1.2 Reference compression 7.1.3 Actual compressions 7.1.4 Staged compression 7.1.5 Calculation of a compression in Thermoptim 7.2 Displacement compressors 7.2.1 Piston compressors 7.2.2 Screw compressors 7.2.3 Criteria for the choice between displacement compressors 7.3 Dynamic compressors 7.3.1 General 7.3.2 Thermodynamics of permanent flow 7.3.3 Similarity and performance of turbomachines 7.3.4 Practical calculation of dynamic compressors 7.3.5 Pumps and fans 7.4 Comparison of the various types of compressors 7.4.1 Comparison of dynamic and displacement compressors 7.4.2 Comparison between dynamic compressors 7.5 Expansion 7.5.1 Thermodynamics of expansion 7.5.2 Calculation of an expansion in Thermoptim 7.5.3 Turbines 7.5.4 Turbine performance maps 7.5.5 Degree of reaction of a stage 7.6 Combustion 7.6.1 Combustion phenomena, basic mechanisms 7.6.2 Study of complete combustion 7.6.3 Study of incomplete combustion

142 144 146 146 148 149 149 153 155 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 163 163 164 164 166 174 175 177 177 182 185 185 185 186 192 197 199 199 199 200 201 201 203 203 204 205 206 206 213 216

Contents

8

7.6.4 Energy properties of combustion reactions 7.6.5 Emissions of gaseous pollutants 7.6.6 Calculation of combustion in Thermoptim 7.6.7 Technological aspects 7.7 Throttling or flash 7.8 Water vapor/gas mixtures processes 7.8.1 Moist process screens 7.8.2 Moist mixers 7.8.3 Heating a moist mixture 7.8.4 Cooling of moist mix 7.8.5 Humidification of a gas 7.8.6 Dehumidification of a mix by desiccation 7.8.7 Determination of supply conditions 7.8.8 Air conditioning processes in a psychrometric chart 7.9 Examples of components represented by external classes 7.9.1 Nozzles 7.9.2 Diffusers 7.9.3 Ejectors References Further reading

225 234 235 239 241 242 242 243 245 245 248 251 253 255 256 256 260 264 268 269

Heat Exchangers 8.1 Principles of operation of a heat exchanger 8.1.1 Heat flux exchanged 8.1.2 Heat exchange coefficient U 8.1.3 Fin effectiveness 8.1.4 Values of convection coefficients h 8.2 Phenomenological models for the calculation of heat exchangers 8.2.1 Number of transfer units method 8.2.2 Relationship between NTU and ε 8.2.3 Matrix formulation 8.2.4 Heat exchanger assemblies 8.2.5 Relationship with the LMTD method 8.2.6 Heat exchanger pinch 8.3 Calculation of heat exchangers in Thermoptim 8.3.1 “Exchange” processes 8.3.2 Creation of a heat exchanger in the diagram editor 8.3.3 Heat exchanger screen 8.3.4 Simple heat exchanger design 8.3.5 Generic liquid 8.3.6 Off-design calculation of heat exchangers 8.3.7 Thermocouplers 8.4 Technological aspects 8.4.1 Tube exchangers 8.4.2 Plate heat exchangers 8.4.3 Other types of heat exchangers 8.5 Summary References Further reading

271 271 273 274 275 275 276 276 278 282 283 287 287 288 288 289 290 290 292 292 294 296 296 297 298 299 299 299

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Examples of Applications 9.1 Steam power plant cycle 9.1.1 Principle of the machine and problem data 9.1.2 Creation of the diagram 9.1.3 Creation of simulator elements 9.1.4 Setting points 9.1.5 Setting of processes 9.1.6 Plotting the cycle on thermodynamic chart 9.1.7 Design of condenser 9.1.8 Cycle improvements 9.1.9 Modification of the model 9.2 Single stage compression refrigeration cycle 9.2.1 Principle of the machine and problem data 9.2.2 Creation of the diagram 9.2.3 Creation of simulator elements 9.2.4 Setting points 9.2.5 Setting of processes 9.3 Gas turbine cycle 9.3.1 Principle of the machine and problem data 9.3.2 Creation of the diagram 9.3.3 Creation of simulator elements 9.3.4 Setting points 9.3.5 Setting of processes 9.4 Air conditioning installation 9.4.1 Principle of installation and problem data 9.4.2 Supply conditions 9.4.3 Properties of the mix (outdoor air/recycled air) 9.4.4 Air treatment 9.4.5 Plot on the psychrometric chart

10 General Issues on Cycles, Energy and Exergy Balances 10.1 General issues on cycles, notations 10.1.1 Motor cycles 10.1.2 Refrigeration cycles 10.1.3 Carnot cycle 10.1.4 Regeneration cycles 10.1.5 Theoretical and real cycles 10.1.6 Notions of efficiency and effectiveness 10.2 Energy and exergy balance 10.2.1 Energy balances 10.2.2 Exergy balances 10.2.3 Practical implementation in a spreadsheet 10.2.4 Exergy balances of complex cycles 10.3 Productive structures 10.3.1 Establishment of a productive structure 10.3.2 Relationship between the diagram and the productive structure 10.3.3 Implementation in Thermoptim 10.3.4 Automation of the creation of the productive structure 10.3.5 Examples 10.3.6 Conclusion References xii

301 301 301 302 306 307 308 309 311 315 316 318 318 319 323 324 325 327 327 327 330 331 331 335 335 336 337 338 339 341 341 342 342 343 343 344 344 345 345 346 347 350 350 350 351 353 355 357 365 365

Contents

3 Main Conventional Cycles

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11 Introduction: Changing Technologies 11.1 Limitation of fossil resources and geopolitical constraints 11.2 Local and global environmental impact of energy 11.2.1 Increase in global greenhouse effect 11.2.2 Reduction of the ozone layer 11.2.3 Urban pollution and acid rain 11.3 Technology transfer from other sectors 11.4 Technological innovation key to energy future References Further reading

369 370 373 373 375 376 379 380 381 381

12

Internal Combustion Turbomotors 12.1 Gas turbines 12.1.1 Operating principles 12.1.2 Examples of gas turbines 12.1.3 Major technological constraints 12.1.4 Basic cycles 12.1.5 Cycle improvements 12.1.6 Mechanical configurations 12.1.7 Emissions of pollutants 12.1.8 Outlook for gas turbines 12.2 Aircraft engines 12.2.1 Turbojet and turboprop engines 12.2.2 Reaction engines without rotating machine References Further reading

383 383 383 385 386 390 398 405 411 411 413 413 431 436 437

13

Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines 13.1 General operation mode 13.1.1 Four- and two-stroke cycles 13.1.2 Methods of cooling 13.2 Analysis of theoretical cycles of reciprocating engines 13.2.1 Beau de Rochas ideal cycle 13.2.2 Diesel cycle 13.2.3 Mixed cycle 13.2.4 Theoretical associated cycles 13.3 Characteristic curves of piston engines 13.3.1 Effective performance, MEP and power factor 13.3.2 Influence of the rotation speed 13.3.3 Indicated performance, IMEP 13.3.4 Effective performance, MEP 13.3.5 Specific consumption of an engine 13.4 Gasoline engine 13.4.1 Limits of knocking and octane number 13.4.2 Strengthening of turbulence 13.4.3 Formation of fuel mix, fuel injection electronic systems 13.4.4 Real cycles of gasoline engines 13.5 Diesel engines 13.5.1 Compression ignition conditions

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13.5.2 Ignition and combustion delays 13.5.3 Air utilization factor 13.5.4 Thermal and mechanical fatigue 13.5.5 Cooling of walls 13.5.6 Fuels burnt in diesel engines 13.5.7 Real cycles of diesel engines 13.6 Design of reciprocating engines 13.7 Supercharging 13.7.1 General 13.7.2 Basic principles 13.7.3 Conditions of autonomy of a turbocharger 13.7.4 Adaptation of the turbocharger 13.7.5 Conclusions on supercharging 13.8 Engine and pollutant emission control 13.8.1 Emissions of pollutants: Mechanisms involved 13.8.2 Combustion optimization 13.8.3 Catalytic purification converters 13.8.4 Case of diesel engines 13.9 Technological prospects 13.9.1 Traction engines 13.9.2 Large gas and diesel engines References Further reading

470 472 473 474 474 474 476 478 478 478 480 480 482 482 482 483 486 489 491 491 495 496 496

14

Stirling Engines 14.1 Principle of operation 14.2 Piston drive 14.3 Thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engines 14.3.1 Theoretical cycle 14.3.2 Ideal Stirling cycle 14.3.3 Paraisothermal Stirling cycle 14.4 Influence of the pressure 14.5 Choice of the working fluid 14.6 Heat exchangers 14.6.1 Cooler 14.6.2 Regenerator 14.6.3 Boiler 14.7 Characteristics of a Stirling engine 14.8 Simplified Stirling engine Thermoptim model References Further reading

499 500 502 503 503 504 506 508 508 509 509 509 509 510 512 513 513

15

Steam Facilities (General) 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Steam enthalpy and exergy 15.3 General configuration of steam facilities 15.4 Water deaeration 15.4.1 Chemical deaeration 15.4.2 Thermal deaeration 15.5 Blowdown

515 515 515 517 518 518 519 519

Contents

15.6

Boiler and steam generators 15.6.1 Boilers 15.6.2 Steam generators 15.6.3 Boiler operation 15.6.4 Optimization of pressure level 15.7 Steam turbines 15.7.1 Different types of steam turbines 15.7.2 Behavior in off-design mode 15.7.3 Degradation of expansion efficiency function of steam quality 15.7.4 Temperature control by desuperheating 15.8 Condensers, cooling towers 15.8.1 Principle of operation of cooling towers 15.8.2 Phenomenological model 15.8.3 Behaviour models 15.8.4 Modeling a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim References Further reading

520 520 522 523 524 525 525 527 528 529 529 530 530 533 539 539 540

16

Classical Steam Power Cycles 16.1 Conventional flame power cycles 16.1.1 Basic Hirn or Rankine cycle with superheating 16.1.2 Energy and exergy balance 16.1.3 Thermodynamic limits of simple Hirn cycle 16.1.4 Cycle with reheat 16.1.5 Cycle with extraction 16.1.6 Supercritical cycles 16.1.7 Binary cycles 16.2 Technology of flame plants 16.2.1 General technological constraints 16.2.2 Main coal power plants 16.2.3 Emissions of pollutants 16.3 Nuclear power plant cycles 16.3.1 Primary circuit 16.3.2 Steam generator 16.3.3 Secondary circuit 16.3.4 Industrial PWR evolution Reference Further reading

541 541 541 545 546 547 548 550 551 553 554 555 557 557 558 559 561 564 564 564

17

Combined Cycle Power Plants 17.1 Combined cycle without afterburner 17.1.1 Overall performance 17.1.2 Reduced efficiency and power 17.2 Combined cycle with afterburner 17.3 Combined cycle optimization 17.4 Gas turbine and combined cycles variations 17.5 Diesel combined cycle 17.6 Conclusions and outlook References Further reading

567 568 568 569 570 570 575 575 575 576 576

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Cogeneration and Trigeneration 18.1 Performance indicators 18.2 Boilers and steam turbines 18.3 Internal combustion engines 18.3.1 Reciprocating engines 18.3.2 Gas turbines 18.4 Criteria for selection 18.5 Examples of industrial plants 18.5.1 Micro-gas turbine cogeneration 18.5.2 Industrial gas turbine cogeneration 18.6 Trigeneration 18.6.1 Production of central heating and cooling for a supermarket 18.6.2 Trigeneration by micro turbine and absorption cycle References Further reading

577 578 579 580 580 581 583 583 583 584 589 589 589 595 595

19

Compression Refrigeration Cycles, Heat Pumps 19.1 Principles of operation 19.2 Current issues 19.2.1 Stopping CFC production 19.2.2 Substitution of fluids 19.3 Basic refrigeration cycle 19.3.1 Principle of operation 19.3.2 Energy and exergy balances 19.4 Superheated and sub-cooled cycle 19.4.1 Single-stage cycle without heat exchanger 19.4.2 Single-stage cycle with exchanger 19.5 Two-stage cycles 19.5.1 Two-stage compression cycle with intermediate cooling 19.5.2 Compression and expansion multistage cycles 19.6 Special cycles 19.6.1 Cascade cycles 19.6.2 Cycles using blends 19.6.3 Cycles using ejectors 19.6.4 Reverse Brayton cycles 19.7 Heat pumps 19.7.1 Basic cycle 19.7.2 Exergy balance 19.8 Technological aspects 19.8.1 Desirable properties for fluids 19.8.2 Refrigeration compressors 19.8.3 Expansion valves 19.8.4 Heat exchangers 19.8.5 Auxiliary devices 19.8.6 Variable speed References Further reading

597 597 598 598 599 601 601 603 606 606 606 607 607 608 614 614 615 617 622 624 625 626 627 627 628 631 631 633 633 633 634

20 Liquid Absorption Refrigeration Cycles 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Study of a NH3-H2O absorption cycle xvi

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20.3 Modeling LiBr-H2O absorption cycle in Thermoptim References

642 643

21 Air Conditioning 21.1 Basics of an air conditioning system 21.2 Examples of cycles 21.2.1 Summer air conditioning 21.2.2 Winter air conditioning References Further reading

645 645 647 648 649 652 652

22 Optimization by Systems Integration 22.1 Basic principles 22.1.1 Pinch point 22.1.2 Integration of complex heat system 22.2 Design of exchanger networks 22.3 Minimizing the pinch 22.3.1 Implementation of the algorithm 22.3.2 Establishment of actual composite curves 22.3.3 Plot of the Carnot factor difference curve (CFDC) 22.3.4 Matching exchange streams 22.3.5 Thermal machines and heat integration 22.4 Optimization by irreversibility analysis 22.4.1 Component irreversibility and systemic irreversibility 22.4.2 Optimization method 22.5 Implementation in Thermoptim 22.5.1 Principle 22.5.2 Optimization frame 22.6 Example 22.6.1 Determination of HP and LP flow rates 22.6.2 Matching fluids in heat exchangers References Further reading

653 654 654 655 658 659 660 663 663 665 670 671 671 674 676 676 677 682 683 684 690 690

4

Innovative Advanced Cycles, including Low Environmental Impact

23 External Class Development 23.1 General, external substances 23.1.1 Introducing custom components 23.1.2 Simple substance: example of DowTherm A 23.1.3 Coupling to a thermodynamic properties server 23.2 Flat plate solar collectors 23.2.1 Design of the external component 23.3 Calculation of moist mixtures in external classes 23.3.1 Introduction 23.3.2 Methods available in the external classes 23.4 External combustion 23.4.1 Model of biomass combustion 23.4.2 Presentation of the external class

691 693 693 693 696 697 699 699 702 702 703 707 707 710 xvii

Contents

23.5

23.6

23.7

23.8

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Cooling coil with condensation 23.5.1 Modeling a cooling coil with condensation in Thermoptim 23.5.2 Study of the external class DehumidifyingCoil Cooling towers 23.6.1 Modeling of a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim 23.6.2 Study of external class DirectCoolingTower External drivers 23.7.1 Stirling engine driver 23.7.2 Creation of the class: visual interface 23.7.3 Recognition of component names 23.7.4 Calculations and display External class manager

710 711 712 715 716 719 721 721 722 723 723 724

24 Advanced Gas Turbines Cycles 24.1 Humid air gas turbine 24.2 Supercritical CO2 cycles 24.2.1 Simple regeneration cycle 24.2.2 Pre-compression cycle 24.2.3 Recompression cycle 24.2.4 Partial cooling cycle 24.3 Advanced combined cycles 24.3.1 Air combined cycle 24.3.2 Steam flash combined cycle 24.3.3 Steam recompression combined cycle 24.3.4 Kalina cycle References

727 727 732 732 733 734 736 737 737 739 741 741 750

25 Evaporation, Mechanical Vapor Compression, Desalination, Drying by Hot Gas 25.1 Evaporation 25.1.1 Single-effect cycle 25.1.2 Multi-effect cycle 25.1.3 Boiling point elevation 25.2 Mechanical vapor compression 25.2.1 Evaporative mechanical vapor compression cycle 25.2.2 Types of compressors used 25.2.3 Design parameters of a VC 25.3 Desalination 25.3.1 Simple effect distillation 25.3.2 Double effect desalination cycle 25.3.3 Mechanical vapor compression desalination cycle 25.3.4 Desalination ejector cycle 25.3.5 Multi-stage flash desalination cycle 25.3.6 Reverse osmosis desalination 25.4 Drying by hot gas References

751 751 751 752 753 754 754 755 755 757 757 758 758 758 759 761 764 766

26 Cryogenic Cycles 26.1 Joule-Thomson isenthalpic expansion process 26.1.1 Basic cycle 26.1.2 Linde cycle 26.1.3 Linde cycles for nitrogen liquefaction

767 767 767 769 770

Contents

26.2 Reverse Brayton cycle 26.3 Mixed processes: Claude cycle 26.4 Cascade cycles References

772 773 774 775

27 Electrochemical Converters 27.1 Fuel cells 27.1.1 SOFC modeling 27.1.2 Improving the cell model 27.1.3 Model with a thermocoupler 27.1.4 Coupling SOFC fuel cell with a gas turbine 27.1.5 Change in the model to replace H2 by CH4 27.2 Reforming 27.2.1 Modeling of a reformer in Thermoptim 27.2.2 Results 27.3 Electrolysers 27.3.1 Modeling of a high temperature electrolyser in Thermoptim 27.3.2 Results References

777 777 780 782 784 784 786 789 789 792 792

28 Global Warming and Capture and Sequestration of CO2 28.1 Problem data 28.2 Carbon capture and storage 28.2.1 Introduction 28.2.2 Capture strategies 28.3 Techniques implemented 28.3.1 Post-combustion techniques 28.3.2 Pre-combustion techniques 28.3.3 Oxycombustion techniques References

797 797 798 798 800 801 801 804 814 825

29 Future Nuclear Reactors 29.1 Introduction 29.2 Reactors coupled to Hirn cycles 29.2.1 Sodium cooled fast neutron reactors 29.2.2 Supercritical water reactors 29.3 Reactors coupled to Brayton cycles 29.3.1 Small capacity modular reactor PBMR 29.3.2 GT-MHR reactors 29.3.3 Very high temperature reactors 29.3.4 Gas cooled fast neutron reactors 29.3.5 Lead cooled fast reactors 29.3.6 Molten salt reactors 29.3.7 Thermodynamic cycles of high temperature reactors 29.4 Summary References

827 827 829 829 830 830 831 832 833 834 834 834 835 840 840

30 Solar Thermodynamic Cycles 30.1 Direct conversion of solar energy 30.1.1 Introduction

841 841 841

793 794 795

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30.1.2 Thermal conversion of solar energy 30.1.2 Thermodynamic cycles considered 30.2 Performance of solar collectors 30.2.1 Low temperature solar collectors 30.2.2 Low temperature flat plate solar collector model 30.2.3 High temperature solar collectors 30.2.4 Modeling high temperature concentration collectors 30.3 Parabolic trough plants 30.3.1 Optimization of the collector temperature 30.3.2 Plant model 30.4 Parabolic dish systems 30.5 Power towers 30.6 Hybrid systems References 31 Other than Solar NRE cycles 31.1 Solar ponds 31.1.1 Analysis of the problem 31.1.2 Plot of the cycle in the entropy chart 31.1.3 Exergy balance 31.1.4 Auxiliary consumption 31.2 Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) 31.2.1 OTEC closed cycle 31.2.2 OTEC open cycle 31.2.3 Uehara cycle 31.3 Geothermal cycles 31.3.1 Direct-steam plants 31.3.2 Simple flash plant 31.3.3 Double flash plant 31.3.4 Binary cycle plants 31.3.5 Kalina cycle 31.3.6 Combined cycles 31.3.7 Mixed cycle 31.4 Use of biomass energy 31.4.1 Introduction 31.4.2 Modeling thermochemical conversion References

855 855 856 857 857 857 858 859 861 862 864 865 865 867 868 869 870 872 873 873 875 878

32 Heat 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5

879 879 880 881 881 883 883

and Compressed Air Storage Introduction Methodological aspects Cold storage in phase change nodules Project Sether (electricity storage as high temperature heat) Compressed air storage devices 32.5.1 CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) concept 32.5.2 Peaker concept of Electricite de Marseille Company 32.5.3 Hydropneumatic energy storage HPES References

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Contents

33 Calculation of Thermodynamic Solar Installations 33.1 Specific solar problems 33.2 Estimation of the solar radiation received by a solar collector 33.3 Cumulative frequency curves of irradiation 33.3.1 Curve construction 33.3.2 Curve smoothing 33.3.3 Estimation of CFCS from empirical formulas 33.3.4 Interpolation on tilt 33.4 Hourly simulation models 33.5 Simplified design methods 33.5.1 Principle of methods 33.5.2 Usability curves References

889 889 891 893 894 894 895 896 896 897 897 897 899

5

901

Technological Design and Off-design Operation

34 Technological Design and Off-design Operation, Model Reduction 34.1 Introduction 34.2 Component technological design 34.2.1 Heat exchangers 34.2.2 Displacement compressors 34.2.3 Expansion valves 34.2.4 Practical example: design of a cycle 34.3 Off-design calculations 34.3.1 Principle of computing coupled systems in Thermoptim 34.3.2 Off-design equations of the refrigerator 34.3.3 After processing of simulation results 34.3.4 Effect of change in UA 34.4 Development of simplified models of systems studied 34.4.1 Model reduction principle 34.4.2 Model reduction example 34.5 Methodological difficulties References

903 903 905 906 908 909 909 914 914 915 916 917 919 919 920 921 922

35 Technological Design and Off-design Behavior of Heat Exchangers 35.1 Introduction 35.1.1 General 35.1.2 Reminders on the NTU method 35.2 Modeling of heat transfer 35.2.1 Extended surfaces 35.2.2 Calculation of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers 35.2.3 Calculation of the Nusselt number 35.2.4 Calculation of multi-zone exchangers 35.3 Pressure drop calculation 35.3.1 Gas or liquid state pressure drop 35.3.2 Two-phase pressure drop 35.4 Heat exchanger technological screen 35.4.1 Heat exchanger technological screen 35.4.2 Correlations used in Thermoptim 35.5 Model parameter estimation

923 923 923 924 925 925 926 927 929 933 933 934 935 935 935 937

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Contents

35.5.1 35.5.2 References

xxii

Direct setting from geometric data Identification of exchanger parameters

937 940 941

36 Modeling and Setting of Displacement Compressors 36.1 Behavior models 36.1.1 Operation at rated speed and full load 36.1.2 Operation at partial load and speed 36.2 Practical modeling problems 36.2.1 Technological screen of displacement compressors 36.2.3 Identification of compressor parameters 36.2.4 Calculation in design mode 36.2.5 Calculation in off-design mode 36.2.6 Fixed Vi screw compressors References

943 943 945 947 948 948 949 949 949 949 950

37 Modeling and Setting of Dynamic Compressors and Turbines 37.1 Supplements on turbomachinery 37.1.1 Analysis of the velocity triangle 37.1.2 Degree of reaction of one stage 37.1.3 Theoretical characteristics of turbomachinery 37.1.4 Real characteristics of turbomachinery 37.1.5 Factors of similarity 37.2 Pumps and fans 37.3 Dynamic compressors 37.3.1 Performance maps of dynamic compressors 37.3.2 Analysis of performance maps of dynamic compressors 37.3.3 Technological screen of dynamic compressors 37.4 Turbines 37.4.1 Performance maps of turbines 37.4.2 Isentropic efficiency law 37.4.3 Stodola’s cone rule 37.4.4 Baumann rule 37.4.5 Loss by residual velocity 37.4.6 Technological screen of turbines 37.4.8 Identification of turbine parameters 37.5 Nozzles References

951 952 952 953 954 956 959 961 963 963

38 Case Studies 38.1 Introduction 38.2 Compressor filling a storage of compressed air 38.2.1 Modeling of the heat exchanger 38.2.2 Design of the driver 38.2.3 Analysis of the cooled compressor 38.2.4 Use of the model to simulate the filling of a compressed air storage 38.3 Steam power plant 38.3.1 Introduction, results

981 981 982 982 984 985

965 970 971 972 973 975 977 978 979 979 979 980

989 990 990

Contents

38.4

38.5

Index

Refrigeration machine 38.4.1 Introduction, results 38.4.2 Principle of resolution Single flow turbojet 38.5.1 Introduction, results 38.5.2 Presentation of the external class

995 995 996 998 999 1003 1005

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SEARCHING REFERENCES IN THE THERMOPTIM-UNIT PORTAL (www.thermoptim.org) [CRC_ln_0]

xxiv

“In order to facilitate the use of the portal in relation with this book, we have adopted the following convention: The small Thermoptim logo that appears in the margin of this page is used when a reference is made to the portal. Just below is written a code which can be entered in the portal search engine to find the resource quoted. The codes are of the kind “CRC_we_8” for a worked example, “CRC_pa_5” for a practical application, or “CRC_ln_9” for a simple link. If you enter “CRC_*”, the search engine lists all the resources which are referenced in the book. This way of doing is much simpler than entering the full URL of the resource you are looking for.”

Foreword by John W. Mitchell This is an ambitious book that presents a new approach to teaching energy systems. The author, Renaud Gicquel, has introduced two new paradigms to teaching the subject. The first is that the study of energy systems is initiated at the system level rather than the mechanism level. The second paradigm is the use of software that is integral to the study of systems and, ultimately, to learning the underlying thermodynamic principles. The success of these paradigms is demonstrated through the adoption of this approach by over 120 institutions of higher education in France and worldwide. The book is divided into five main sections. The first section, titled First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics, covers the entire subject of energy systems, with the first chapter describing the pedagogic approach used in the rest of the book. The second chapter focuses on the system level and illustrates the teaching philosophy. This chapter gives students exposure to those components that comprise a complete energy systems such as a steam power plant, and what each component does. The emphasis is on understanding the concepts underlying the operation of each component, such as the change of phase from liquid to vapor in the boiler. Process diagrams are introduced to further understanding. Complete system models are created and the performance determined using the software Thermoptim. By starting at the system level students early on become familiar with the vocabulary, components, and performance of a system before they become enmeshed in the thermodynamic relations used to compute properties and energy flows. Stressing conceptual understanding rather than calculation reinforces the important basic ideas. The pedagogical approach is a significant departure from the typical methods used in teaching thermodynamics. Traditionally, one starts with basic conservation equations and property relations, with calculations geared toward determining values for a process rather than for the performance of a system as a whole. Emphasis is on a detailed understanding of the relations that govern thermodynamic behavior. Typically, applications to system follow late in the study after all the underpinning has been developed. While traditional approaches have been used successfully for many years, educational research has established that alternate approaches can improve learning. Context is one key driver for student learning, and the book’s approach wherein students start with models of actual systems commonly used for power and refrigeration establishes relevance to engineering practice. Ideas from problembased learning, in which students are confronted with a problem to solve and then learn what is needed to obtain a solution, are also incorporated. Student motivation and conceptual understanding are important to mastering thermodynamic fundamentals that underlie performance. The second paradigm is that the learning of thermodynamics is intertwined with the software. Thermoptim allows students to quickly create realistic system models and explore a number of “What if” questions, such as what is the effect on power if the steam temperature in the boiler is raised a certain number of degrees. The component models are built on the fundamental relations, and the familiarity students gain working with models and observing behavior aids them in their later study of thermodynamics. Further, using simulation models from the start provides a bridge to engineering practice in which realistic situations require software for solution. It is essential that the student and practitioner understand the thermodynamic relations necessary to form a model, as is covered in later sections of the book, but it is not necessary to develop a model from basic relations each time. This intimately linking of software to content is in the vanguard of modern books on engineering topics. The second section of the book is Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components. With the background in systems, thermodynamics, and Thermoptim from the first

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Foreword

section, the rigorous study of thermodynamics proceeds rapidly. The first law, second law and property relations are introduced, following traditional approaches to teaching thermodynamics, except that now the context of the material is clear, motivating the student. The coverage extends to a number of real property effects that are often not emphasized in traditional thermodynamic books; there are sections on the property relations for moist air, solutions, and mixtures. The Thermoptim framework allows real property variations to be included in system analysis. Models are constructed in Thermoptim analogous to the way they are in a real system, and a chapter is devoted to discussing model building. Conduits connect components through fluid transport, carrying information from one component to the next. In the steam power plant, for example, the pipe transporting steam from the turbine exhaust to the condenser carries with it all of the state information on the steam that the actual pipe would. Information is transported automatically, which reduces the need for the student to keep track of all properties at every point. Evaluation of the state of fluids throughout the system is accomplished analogous to measurement stations in a real system. The natural analog between the simulation and the real system facilitates learning. The remaining chapters in this section cover a number of more advanced topics, such as different types of compression processes, complete and incomplete combustion, psychrometrics, heat exchangers, and second law topics (exergy/availability). As with the earlier thermodynamic material, the presentation is rigorous and includes effects that are often not taught in first courses, but that are included in the Thermoptim components available for simulation. Worked examples are included so that students can explore the subject using the available models. The last three sections of the book are devoted to different heating, cooling, and power systems. The first of these is a strong and detailed exposition of conventional cycles. Gas turbine, internal combustion engine (spark ignition and diesel), steam power and co-generation plants, mechanical and absorption refrigeration systems are discussed from both thermodynamic and practical points of view. The last two sections deal with innovative cycles, with an emphasis on low environmental impact. Such topics as the Kalina cycle, desalinization, cryogenics, fuel cells, solar power, and sequestering carbon dioxide are discussed. These last three sections are beyond what would be covered in undergraduate courses, but the combination of references and Thermoptim components make these sections valuable for research projects and advanced study. As with the beginning chapters, the emphasis is always on conceptual understanding, with the implementation incorporated into Thermoptim. This is a comprehensive book on energy systems with an almost encyclopedic coverage of the details of the equipment and systems involved in power production, refrigeration, and air-conditioning. The integration of technical content with advanced software allows a range of users from students who are beginning their study to those involved in research on promising cycles. From a teaching perspective, the initial focus on the system level combined with the simulation tool Thermoptim serves to quickly bring students up to speed on applications, and provides motivation for further study. This book promises to be one that engineers will keep on their desks for ready reference and study. John W. Mitchell Kaiser Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin, USA

xxvi

Foreword by Alain Lambotte By an innovative approach to thermodynamics and a progressive study of systems – ranging from the simplest to the most complex – Energy Systems comprises three books in one: a guide for beginners, a reference book for advanced learners, and a support for development for professionals. I have been using the French version for several years personally, to develop training content and validate skill levels in the electricity utility company where I am engaged with. My target audience consists of two groups: officials who have left university or the Haute École for some years and therefore have a certain ‘distance’ towards mathematics, and of fresh graduates, for whom ‘thermodynamics is math’, and who have little evocative image of the underlying physical reality. This book, by its content and its character, is an encouraging and stylish manifesto of a new teaching practice of engineering thermodynamics. In contrast to existing teaching methods on the matter, it spares the reader mathematical contingencies, the aggregation of knowledge, and the immutable laws of thermodynamics in the first steps. Instead, learning by reflection has priority over the memorization of scientific knowledge that is not immediately essential. Mathematical relationships illustrate the point, but are not the heart of the matter. This is ideal for the technicians and engineers we train, who often have a much lower accurate mathematical level at their disposal than when they were still students. The approach is fully systems-oriented. It allows both basic learning and the development of innovative thought. After the author has explained the setup, quite naturally and visually, there is place for reflection and numerous applications. Technologies are presented simply at first, and subsequently with increasing detail. This makes the adequacy of the author’s approach multiple: beginners, professionals and experts will all find answers to their questions. In combination with the www.thermoptim.org portal and the possibilities this offers Energy Systems is an appealing textbook and developing tool for students, teachers, researchers and practitioners. The exhaustive character, through the given systems and models and through the enormous amount of tools in the Thermoptim portal and simulator, allows the reader to easily self-develop new models to fulfil his or her needs. These can range from basic notions to the most advanced concepts in energy systems. All factors together make this set a very powerful reference that allows easier implementation into practice than any existing books on the subject. Although I use Energy Systems & Thermoptim, and even over-indulge in it, I am far from having been around the concept. Usage has changed my approach to thermodynamics, both in my engineering work and in preparing course content. The development of a much more accessible and user-friendly approach than encountered earlier made using it a pleasure, both personally and in training. Last but not least, it widely opens the doors to creativity, which is a major requirement for our energy future. Alain Lambotte Content Manager, Competence and Training Center Electricity Utility, Belgium

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About the Author Active as a full professor since 1986, Dr Renaud Gicquel has taught a wide variety of energy subjects, such as applied thermodynamics and global energy issues and energy system modeling. His current research activities are focused on the optimization of complex thermodynamic plants (heat exchanger networks, cogeneration, combined cycles) and on the use of information and communication technologies for scientific instruction. Renaud’s special interest and passion is the combination of thermodynamics and energy-powered system education with modern information technology tools. To this end, he has developed various software packages to facilitate the teaching and learning of applied thermodynamics and the simulation of energy systems: • • •

Thermoptim (Thermo-Calc) professional software, 2000 Interactive Thermodynamic Charts, 2000 Diapason e-learning modules, 2004, www.thermoptim.org

The origin of this book comes from earlier works, Introduction to Global Energy Problems (1992, Economica, in French) and the original Energy Systems (2 volumes, 2001, Presses de l’École des Mines in French). These have formed the basis for refinement of the Thermoptim Software and a 3 volume 2nd edition of Energy Systems in French. The latter was very well received by more than a hundred higher education institutes in France, and this current English edition was prepared. The three volumes were merged and melted together and reorganized into 5 major parts. More tools and directions were further added to make it suited and attractive for classroom use anywhere in the word, in combination with Thermoptim. With a new approach to teaching and learning applied thermodynamics, including a large number of educational resources, Renaud Gicquel has made a major tour de force to significantly ease the learning of engineering thermodynamics. Together with the wealth of information, e-learning modules, examples and exercises of the Thermoptim portal, this work will provide any student and professional working on this subject with excellent tools to master the subject up to advanced level. Career Renaud Gicquel is Professor at the École des Mines de Paris (Mines ParisTech). He was trained as a mining engineer at the École des Mines and got his Ph.D. degree in engineering from the Paris VI University. He started his career as a Special Assistant to the Secretary General of the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy in 1980 in New York. He then became the Deputy Director in charge of Dwellings at the Energy Division of the Marcoussis Laboratories of the Compagnie Générale d’Electricité until January 1982, and was in charge of multilateral issues in the International Affairs Service of the Ministry for Research and Technology in Paris in 1982. From 1983 to 1985, he was Adviser for International Issues of the National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS). In 1986, he founded with Michel Grenon the Mediterranean Energy Observatory (OME), based in Sophia Antipolis. In 1990, Dr Gicquel created the ARTEMIS group, a research body for thermal energy research, together with the University of Nantes and ISITEM (now Polytech) in Nantes. He acted as a coordinator while fulfilling the position of Deputy Director at the École des Mines de Nantes (EMN) from 1991 as well. In 1987 he was apppointed head of the Centre of Energy Studies of the École des Mines de Paris.

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General Introduction As indicated by its title, this book deals with energy systems, i.e. energy conversion technologies (ECTs) considered as systems based on sets of elementary components coupled together. Although it mainly addresses thermodynamic energy conversion, it covers a very large field, including a variety of cycles: conventional as well as innovative power plants, gas turbines, reciprocating engines, Stirling engines, combined cycles, cogeneration, refrigeration cycles, new and renewable energy conversion, combustion, Generation I to IV nuclear energy conversion, evaporation, desalination, fuel cells, CO2 capture and sequestration, air conditioning etc. We have developed over the past twenty-five years a new way of teaching thermodynamics applied to energy conversion now used in more than one hundred and twenty higher education institutions, at both undergraduate and graduate levels (engineering schools, universities) as well as in vocational training. The change in the education paradigm we have introduced is based on a shift of knowledge acquired by students. The writing of equations describing changes undergone by fluids is drastically reduced, the calculations being performed by a simulator such as Thermoptim (www.thermoptim. org) without learners needing to know the details. They devote most of the time on the one hand learning technologies, and secondly reflecting on the architecture of both conventional and innovative thermodynamic cycles, graphically building and setting models of various energy technologies. The new teaching method has the distinction of being at the same time much simpler than conventional approaches for the introduction to the discipline, and much more useful for confirmed students who can go further in their studies thanks to a powerful and open modeling environment. They can work on real-world complex innovative cycles currently being studied in laboratories and companies. This book seeks to meet the expectations that students may have throughout their training. Therefore: first, it allows beginners, whether in initial or vocational training, to easily understand design principles of energy systems, to get an overview of the different technologies available for their achievement, and to conduct by themselves realistic calculations using computerized tools; secondly, it provides its advanced readers with a statement as complete as possible of the whole discipline, with advanced methods allowing them to analyze these systems, as well as guidance in choosing equations if they wish to build their own models. ●

●

This book must then conciliate simple explanations for beginners and in-depth analyses for advanced readers, which may appear paradoxical: it offers a profound break in the implementation of methodological tools, while essentially retaining a conventional presentation of the discipline; it says that it is possible to learn thermodynamics without writing a single equation or programming a single line of code, yet is full of examples of equations and computer models.

●

●

It follows that the structure of the book is not entirely conventional.

STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK Given the width of the field covered, it was decided to split the book into five main Parts.

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General introduction

Moreover, the goals we set ourselves have led us to identify three major transverse themes that are found throughout the presentations: theoretical foundations (whose presentation has been simplified as much as possible); an original modeling approach; a detailed presentation of technologies. ● ● ●

Part 1, especially dedicated to beginners and fellow teachers, introduces in a very simple way basic concepts necessary to understand elementary thermodynamic cycles (steam power plants, gas turbines, refrigerators). For the simplest mono-functional components such as compression, expansion, heat exchange etc., the foundations of the first two themes are presented in Part 2 and implemented in Part 3, in addition to the presentation of technologies, to which we decided to devote a significant account given the ignorance of a large number of students in this subject. Part 4, which complements the two previous ones by introducing advanced cycles, including low environmental impact ones, addresses in addition a new issue related to the study of systems operating under varied conditions: time management of energy use with thermal and pneumatic storage and time (e.g. hourly) simulation of systems (including solar). Finally, Part 5 is devoted to a particularly difficult topic: the study of technological design and off-design operation. Specific features have been implemented in the Thermoptim software, mainly through the mechanism of external classes, which allows users to customize models as they wish. Some indications are also given on model reduction techniques which allow us to derive simplified models (e.g. polynomials) from a Thermoptim project. Specifically, the overall structure of the book is: Part 1 is mainly dedicated to beginners and vocational trainees, and may also provide guidance to fellow teachers who wish to change their pedagogy. It is divided into three chapters. The first one introduces the new educational paradigm and software tools allowing us to implement it, while the other two, titled First Steps in Thermodynamics (Absolute beginners and Second law), provide an illustration in the form of a lightweight educational presentation of thermodynamic basic cycles, initially without resorting to entropy and then by introducing it in a simple manner; After recalling thermodynamics fundamentals, Part 2 establishes the main equations allowing one to calculate the behavior of basic components used in most energy technologies (compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, throttling devices, heat exchangers etc.). A structured approach to energy conversion technologies (ECTs) modeling with Thermoptim is given, followed by the presentation of the main features of the software and by four practical worked examples. Part 2 contains the essential elements for understanding how components that come into play in ECTs can be modeled. It also explains how to approach cycle studies and establish exergy balances; Part 3 discusses how the foundations laid in the first Part can be applied to the main conventional cycles. Classical ECTs are reviewed, analyzed as systems implementing the components whose operation has been studied previously. The link is made between knowledge and technological achievements, which are presented in more details than in the other parts; Part 4 is intended primarily for confirmed readers who wish to perform advanced modeling. After explaining how to design external classes, it completes Part 3 by addressing innovative advanced cycles, including low environmental impact ones, most of them involving such external classes. Two chapters are then devoted to time management of energy; Part 5 deals with Thermoptim extensions that have been introduced to conduct technological design and off-design operation studies.

●

●

●

●

●

The whole book is illustrated by numerous examples (about 135) of cycles modeled with Thermoptim, which provide the reader with models whose structure or settings he may customize

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General introduction

as he wishes to perform various simulations. The files of these examples are available for teachers, but not for their students. The list of these examples, of varying difficulty, is given in a portal called Thermoptim-UNIT (www.thermoptim.org) with some comments and suggestions on ways in which they can be used educationally, depending on the context and the objectives pursued by teachers. More generally, many digital resources for teaching energy systems have been gradually collected into this portal whose content is freely accessible, with few exceptions, including solutions of some exercises and problems, among which are those presented in this book. A brief presentation of these resources is given in Chapter 1 of Part 1.

OBJECTIVES OF THIS BOOK For beginners, the major interest of Thermoptim is that it can help them to model complex energy systems simply, without having to write an equation or program. It discharges its users of many problems, including computational ones, and enables them to make analyses that they could not pursue otherwise, especially when starting out. It becomes possible, when learning the discipline, to focus on a qualitative approach, the calculations required for quantitative studies being performed by the software. Note that the name of this tool has a double meaning: it does allow one to optimize thermodynamic systems, but above all it allows one to learn this discipline with optimism… Under these conditions, energy systems operation can be studied using a completely new pedagogy, where only a small number of elements must be considered: firstly those used to describe the systems studied, and secondly those used to set the simulator components. If done this way, it is not necessary, at least initially, to take into account the details of the equations allowing calculation of the process involved: Thermoptim automatically does this. Learning the discipline is limited to these basic concepts and their implementation in the package. The memorization effort and cognitive load required for beginners are greatly reduced, allowing them to focus their attention on understanding the basic phenomenological concepts and their practical implementation. Thus Thermoptim permits, without writing a single line of code, to calculate energy systems from simple to complex. However, the ambition of this work does not end there: it is also to provide its readers with enough information so they can make custom models, either by introducing specific component models not available in the Thermoptim core, which involves showing them how to derive their equations, or by using the software advanced features. In summary, we pursue four objectives: allow students firstly to understand the functioning of various components at stake in energy systems and how they are assembled, emphasizing the technological aspects; show how it is possible through the use of Thermoptim to model and calculate them very simply but with great precision, and make the reader familiar with this working environment; establish the constitutive equations representing the operation of key technologies, and provide readers who want to model these for themselves with sufficient evidence for them to do, including using the external class mechanism that allows them to add to Thermoptim their own components or sets of algorithms for controlling complex projects; provide the reader with methodological guidance, simple or advanced, for analyzing the systems he studies. In this spirit, a significant place is devoted to exergy methods that are increasingly regarded as among the best suited to perform optimization studies, as they can take into account both the amount of energy put into play and its quality. ●

●

●

●

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General introduction

A WORKING TOOL ON MANY LEVELS This book can be read and used as a working tool on several levels: for an introduction to the discipline with an illustration of its implementation in Thermoptim: you can then simply understand the different technologies, the physical phenomena that are involved and the methodologies recommended, possibly using the package somewhat blindly; for a deepening of the field, it presents not only the calculation principles and the basic equations, but also explains how to build exergy balance-sheets, by hand or automatically, implement the pinch method, perform technological design and off-design operation analyses etc.; for software users, this book is a scientific complement to the documentation provided with the tool, allowing those interested to better understand how the calculations are made and even to personalize it. ●

●

●

It follows that the book is deliberately composed of a series of sections that are on different planes, some more theoretical, others more applied and technological, and others methodological, concerning in particular the use of Thermoptim. In this way, readers wishing to do an overview of the book will be guided through the research of basic concepts needed, especially to use the software properly, while those who wish to invest further in the discipline will benefit from a consistent and progressive presentation. Pedagogically, this book and Thermoptim can be used in various contexts, under both a traditional approach (neo-behaviorist or objectivist) and a more recent constructivist approach. We hope it will help colleagues to overcome difficulties that they may face in their practice. For supporters of a conventional approach, Thermoptim allows them particularly to enrich the classical presentation by accurate simulations and to make students study multiple and realistic examples. In a constructivist approach, the book and the software are in addition tools allowing students to work independently to explore a wide field and analyze very open topics: for beginners, it is a structured environment that reduces the cognitive load while acquiring the vocabulary and basic concepts encapsulated in the screens. Once this vocabulary is learned, cooperative learning with peers and teachers is strengthened; very quickly, it becomes possible to work on realistic problems and not caricatures (as conventionally internal combustion engines with perfect air as working fluid). In addition, during internships, students using Thermoptim are fully operational in the company where they work, which is very exciting for them and leads them to engage more thoroughly; for experienced users, Thermoptim allows them to study very complex systems (for example, Areva Framatome used Thermoptim to optimize combined cycles and cogeneration thermodynamic cycles coupled with high temperature nuclear reactors, see Section 29.3.7.3 of Part 4).

●

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The reader will understand that we seek above all to make as accessible as possible the study of energy systems, demonstrating very concretely how realistic models can be developed to represent them. This bias has led us to voluntarily limit our discussion of scientific issues to key points, especially regarding the fundamentals of thermodynamics and heat transfer. As a result, the book loses in generality what it gains in ease of use: know-how is privileged compared to knowledge itself. Readers interested in further developments may if they wish refer to documents given in the bibliography. Experienced engineers will find a coherent body of theory and practice through which they can become quickly operational, without having to get personally involved in solving equations or in the development of a computer modeling environment. Explanation of icons (see table of contents for icons used). Discuss with author how to best explain.

xxxiv

Mind Maps This book includes seven mind maps whose role is to help readers easily find information on a given topic. These knowledge maps are explanatory figures which summarize in a graphical way the main issues pertaining to the topic, with the indication of the chapter(s) of the book where they are dealt with. After the General introduction, you will find a first map presenting the main features of the Thermoptim software, and four ones devoted to thermodynamic cycles: – – – –

Rankine cycles for steam power plants; Refrigeration cycles; Gas turbine cycles New and renewable energy cycles.

At the end of Chapters 2 and 3 of Part 1, two other maps summarize the different steps of the lightweight educational presentation of thermodynamic cycles.

xxxv

Thermoptim Diagram editor Use of external components Chapter 6 Part 2

Simulator Work environnements Chapter 6 Part 2

External substances

Systemic optimization method

External processes External nodes Drivers

Thermodynamic charts

Programming of external classes Chapter 23 Part 4

Productive structure editor

Extension mechanism

Thermodynamic properties of substances Chapter 5 Part 2

Java development environnement

Points: state of a fluid particle Compression

Pinch systemic optimization method Chapter 22 Part 3 Technological design Off-design operation Part 5

Expansion

Thermoptim

Advanced features

Thermoptim core: primitive types Chapter 6 Part 2

Processes Chapter 7 Part 2

Moist processes Mixer Nodes

Diapason sessions Documentation

Getting started examples Model library

Throttling Combustion

Productive structures Chapter 10 Part 2

Reference manuals

Exchange

Various resources Thermoptim-Unit portal

Divider Separator or dryer

Heat exchangers Chapter 8 Part 2

Hot "exchange" process Cold "exchange" process

Prelims.indd xxxvii

Rankine cycles for steam power plants Pressurized fluidized bed Chapter 16 Part 3

Pump Steam generator Heat exchanger

IGCC Chapters 16 Part 3 and 28 Part 4

Condenser Components Chapters 7 and 8 Part 2 Chapter 15 Part 3 Chapters 35, 36 and 37 Part 5

Combined cycles Chapter 17 Part 3 Chapter 24 Part 4

Fire tube Boiler Water tube Impulse Turbine Reaction Feedwater tank (deaerator)

Cogeneration CHP Chapter 18 Part 3 Kalina cycle Chapter 24 Part 4 Uehara cycle Chapter 31 Part 4 Oxycombustion Chapter 28 Part 4

Advanced cycles

Lightweight presentation Chapter 2 Part 1

Rankine / Hirn cycle Steam power plant cycle / Thermoptim model

Basic example Chapter 9 Part 2 Detailed model Chapter 16 Part 3 Off-design operation Chapter 38 Part 5

Solar power plants Chapter 30 Part 4

Reheat and extraction cycles

NRE cycles Chapter 31 Part 4 Variants Chapter 16 Part 3

Supercritical cycles PWR cycles Binary cycles

Prelims.indd xxxviii

Vapor compression refrigeration cycles Lightweight presentation Chapter 2 Part 1

Refrigeration cycle / Thermoptim model

Basic example Chapter 9 Part 2 Detailed model Chapter 19 Part 3 Off-design operation Chapters 34 and 38 Part 5

Pure refrigerants Blends

Cycle with superheating and subcooling

Refrigerants Chapter 5 Part 2 Chapter 19 Part 3

Cycle with heat exchanger

Piston Scroll

with intermediate cooling Compressor

Screw

Components Chapters 7 and 8 Part 2 Chapters 35, 36 and 37 Part 5

Centrifugal Evaporator

Vapor compression refrigeration

Variants Chapter 19 Part 3

Two-stage cycles

with total injection with partial injection with medium pressure evaporator

Heat pumps

Heat exchanger

Condenser

Cascade cycles Expansion valve

Cycles with ejectors Cooled gas turbine Chapter 12 Part 3 Trigeneration Chapter 18 Part 3 Advanced cycles Cryogenics Chapter 26 Part 4 Antisublimation (CCS) Chapter 28 Part 4

Linde Claude

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Prelims.indd xxxix

Gas turbine cycles Combined cycles Chapter 17 Part 3 Chapter 24 Part 4

Dynamic compressor Components Chapters 7 and 8 Part 2 Chapter 37 Part 5

IGCC Chapter 28 Part 4 Cogeneration / CHP Chapter 18 Part 3

Turbine Heat exchanger Lightweight presentation Chapter 2 Part 1

Humid Air Turbine Chapter 24 Part 4 Brayton cycle / Thermoptim model

Supercritical CO2 cycles Chapters 24 and 29 Part 4 Solar power plants Chapter 30 Part 4

Combustion chamber

Basic example Chapter 9 Part 2 Analytical model Chapter 12 Part 3

Advanced cycles Closed cycle GT

Gas turbine (GT)

SOFC fuel cell coupled to a GT Chapter 27 Part 4

Regenerative GT GT with intercooler GT with sequential combustion

Oxycombustion Chapter 28 Part 4 High temperature nuclear reactors HTR Chapter 29 Part 4 Trigeneration Chapter 18 Part 3 Reverse Brayton cycle Chapter 19 Part 3

Variants Chapter 12 Part 3

GT with intercooling, sequential combustion and regeneration Steam Injection GT Cooled GT Single flow Turbojet

Turbofan Turboprop

Prelims.indd xl

New and renewable energy cycles Estimation of solar radiation Cumulative frequency curves of irradiation Hourly simulation models

Calculation of thermodynamic solar installations Chapter 32 Part 4

Single flash Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Chapter 31 Part 4

Simplified methods

Closed cycle

Direct steam

Solar energy

Evacuated collectors

Single flash New and Renewable Energies

SEGS Parabolic troughs Fresnel mirrors

Double flash

Kalina / Uehara

Flat plate collectors

ISCCS

Open cycle

Technologies Chapter 30 Part 4

Double flash Geothermal energy Chapter 31 Part 4

Binary cycle Kalina

Micro-turbine

Combined cycle

Parabolic dish Stirling

Mixed cycle Power towers

Combustion Solar Pond Chapter 31 Part 4

Biomass conversion Chapters 23 and 31 Part 4

Co-combustion Gasification

11/3/2011

List of Symbols A a Ac Bo C C C C Cs Cr Cp cp Cr Cv cv D D D/V dh e e f f F F F f f f f G g g Gh H h h h h hf i i i I I

area hydrogen available for combustion free flow area Boiling number concentration speed fluid velocity concentration factor speed of sound volumetric efficiency molar heat capacity at constant pressure specific heat capacity at constant pressure Volumetric efficiency molar heat capacity at constant volume specific heat at constant volume diameter diffuse irradiation blowdown rate hydraulic diameter excess air thickness friction coefficient surface factor thrust molar flow rate molar Helmholtz energy mass Helmholtz energy fugacity annual leakage of refrigerant residual gas rate molar Gibbs energy mass Gibbs energy acceleration due to gravity global irradiation molar enthalpy mass enthalpy heat transfer coefficient calorimetric coefficient height difference enthalpy of formation octane number intermittency factor van’t Hoff factor of the solute current density direct irradiation

m2 m2 m s−1 m s−1 m s−1 J mol−1 K−1 J kg−1 K−1 J mol−1 K−1 J kg−1 K−1 m W m−2 m m

N mol s−1 J mol−1 J kg−1 Pa % J mol−1 J kg−1 m s−2 W m−2 J mol−1 J kg−1 J K−1 m−2 J kg−1 bar−1 m J mol−1

A W m−2

List of Symbols

Is k k k km K Keb Kp K0 l L L Le M m Ma mc n n N nc N0 Nu NTU P Pr p P Q q′ R R r r R RR Re R/P S s S Sb Sc Sc s T t t t′ tr

xlii

specific impulse polytropic coefficient dissociation rate interaction coefficient mixing entropy kinetic energy ebullioscopy constant equilibrium constant cone or Stodola constant calorimetric coefficient enthalpy of evaporation length Lewis number molar mass mass Mach number specific fuel consumption number of moles life expectancy rotation speed number of cylinders Avogadro’s number Nusselt number number of transfer units pressure Prandtl number wetted perimeter power heat specific enthalpy (moist gas) universal constant ratio of heat capacity rates of a heat exchanger ideal gas constant compression ratio richness relative roughness Reynolds number ratio reserves/annual production molar entropy mass entropy surface salt concentration in the feedwater tank salt concentration in the boiler Schmidt number volumetric efficiency thermodynamic temperature temperature dry bulb temperature wet bulb temperature dew point

s

J mol−1 K−1 J kg−1 K kg mol−1 J m−3 J kg−1 m kg mol−1 kg g kWh−1 year rpm 6 1023 mol/g

Pa or bar m W J kg−1 J kg−1 8,314 J mol−1 K−1 J K−1

year J mol−1 K−1 J kg−1 K−1 m2 mg/l or °f mg/l or °f

K °C or K °C °C °C

List of Symbols

TA TAC TH Toe u U U U v v V V V vspec Van Vfn W w W x x x x xh xq y y z Z z

total alkali total alkali total hardness ton of oil equivalent specific internal energy molar internal energy peripheral speed heat transfer coefficient volume specific volume volume molar volume voltage specific volume airflow required or neutral air volume smoke developed or neutral volume of smoke specific mechanical energy specific humidity power density length vapor quality mole fraction mole fraction in liquid phase (mixtures) specific exergy specific heat-exergy mass fraction mole fraction in vapor phase (mixtures) global mole fraction (mixtures) compressibility factor altitude

d δ Δ

exact differential differential form variation

Indices a c c c c cc d d dg f g g h

related to admission related to the critical point corrected related to compressor cold related to combined cycle related to availability related to expansion related to the dry gas related to fuel related to the gas turbine related to the gas phase hot

°f °f °f t J kg−1 J mol−1 m s−1 W K−1 m−2 m3 m3 kg−1 m3 m3 mol−1 V m3 kg−1 m3 kg−1 m3 kg−1 J kg−1 kg water kg−1 of dry air W kg−1 m

J kg−1 J kg−1

m

xliii

List of Symbols

i l mm p p r r r s s s sat t t v vap

related to inlet related to the liquid phase related to the moist mixture related to polytropic related to products reduced (relative to the critical value) related to discharge related to reactants related to saturation related to isentropic related to the output related to saturation total related to the turbine related to the steam cycle related to the vapor

Greek symbols α recycling factor α Baumann coefficient β annual CO2 emissions per electric kWh δ Rateau coefficient Δ specific diameter ε degree of reaction ε relative humidity RH ε effectiveness ε steam fraction ε volume ratio at the end and start of combustion ε initial expansion ratio ε roughness φ heat flux γ ratio of thermal capacities η efficiency, effectiveness ϕ flow factor λ calorimetric coefficient λ volumetric efficiency λ air factor λ thermal conductivity λ ratio of the combustion pressure to the compression pressure Λ power factor μ calorimetric coefficient μ Rateau coefficient μ viscosity μi molar chemical potential ω acentric factor ω rotation speed π heat created by irreversibilities πi internal pressure ratio

xliv

kg kWh−1

m J kg−1

J m−3 W K−1 m−1

J bar−1 kg s−1 m−1 J mol−1 rd s−1 J kg−1

List of Symbols

π θ θ ρ ρ τ τ τ τ Ω ξ ξ ψ

osmotic pressure Carnot factor ratio of the turbine inlet temperature to the compressor inlet temperature density volumetric compression ratio specific shaft work hydrogen utilization rate optical efficiency recirculation rate coefficient of work mass fraction of fuel burned temperature ratio in a Stirling engine enthalpy factor

Acronyms AACAES AATE AFC AFR AICVF API ASHRAE AZEP BDC BWR CAES CC CC CCHP CCS CFB CFDC CF CFC CFC CFR CHAT CHP CI CLC COP CSTB CT CTI DCS deNOx ECT EGR

Pa or bar

kg m−3 J kg−1

Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines Alkaline Fuel Cell air fuel ratio Association des Ingénieurs en Chauffage et Ventilation de France American Petroleum Institute American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air conditioning Engineers Advanced Zero Emission Process bottom dead center Boiling Water Reactor Compressed Air Energy Storage combined cycle composite curve combined, cooling, heating, and power generation Carbon capture and storage circulating fluidized bed Carnot factor difference curve heat-power ratio chlorofluorocarbons cumulative frequency curves Cooperative Fuel Research Committee Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine Combined Heat and Power component irreversibilities Chemical Looping Combustion Coefficient of Performance Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment combustion turbine Cooling Technology Institute distillation and condensation system destructive nitrogen oxides energy conversion technology exhaust gas recirculation

xlv

List of Symbols

EPC EPR GCC GDP GFR GIF GT GT-MHR GWP HAT HCFC HFC HHV HP HPES HRSG HT HTR HX ICE IGCC IPCC IHX IMEP IP IHPTET ISCCS LFR LPM LHV LMTD LNG LP LT MCFC MED MEP MFP MIEC MIT MON MP MPP MPS MSF MSR MSR MSWI MVC NCG

xlvi

main cryogenic stage European Pressurized Reactor grand composite curve gross domestic product gas cooled fast neutron reactor Generation IV International Forum gas turbine Gas Turbine-Modular Helium cooled Reactor Global Warming Potential humid air turbine hydrochlorofluorocarbon hydrofluorocarbons higher heating value High pressure hydro pneumatic energy storage Heat Recovery Steam generator high temperature high temperature reactor heat exchanger internal combustion engine integrated coal gasification combined cycle Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate heat exchanger indicated mean effective pressure intermediate pressure Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System lead cooled fast neutron reactor locus of minimum pinches lower heating value logarithmic mean temperature difference Liquefied Natural Gas low pressure low temperature Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell multi-effect desalination mean effective pressure mean friction pressure Mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane Massachusetts Institute of Technology motor octane number mean pressure mean pumping pressure solid rocket motor Multi-stage flash desalination moisture separator reheater molten salt reactor Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator mechanical vapor compression non-condensable gases

List of Symbols

NOx NPSHR NRE NTU OECD ODP WMO OPEC ORC OTEC PAFC PBMR PC PC PDU PFBC PEMFC PF PT PT PWR RO PURPA UNEP R&D RH RON SCWR SEGS SFR SG SHF SHR SI SOx SOFC SRBC ST STIG STL TDC TEWI THESE THI UHC VHTR VOC WFBC

nitrogen oxides Net Positive Suction Head Required new and renewable energies Number of Transfer Units Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ozone depletion potential World Meteorological Organization Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Organic Rankine Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Pebble Bed Modular Reactor pulverized coal parabolic collectors productive and dissipative unit Pressurized fluidized bed circulating Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell pulverized fuel power towers parabolic trough Pressurized Water Reactor reverse osmosis Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act United Nations Environment research and development relative humidity research octane number supercritical water reactors Solar Electric Generating Systems sodium cooled fast neutron reactor Steam Generator sensible heat factor sensible heat ratio systemic irreversibilities sulfur oxides Solid Oxide Fuel Cell steam recompression bottoming cycle steam turbine steam injection gas turbine latent heat storage top dead center total equivalent warming impact THermal Energy Storage of Electricity time horizon of integration Unburned hydrocarbons very high temperature reactor volatile organic compounds water flashing bottoming cycle

xlvii

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Conversion Factors To obtain

Multiply

by

reverse factor

meter (m)

inch (in)

2.540000E − 02

3.937008E + 01

centimeter (cm) meter (m)

inch (in) foot (ft)

2.540000E + 00 3.048000E − 01

3.937008E − 01 3.280840E + 00

square meter (m2) square centimeter (cm2)

square inch (in2) square inch (in2)

6.451600E − 04 6.451600E + 00

1.550003E + 03 1.550003E − 01

cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3)

cubic foot (ft3) cubic inch (in3)

2.831685E − 02 1.638706E − 05

3.531466E + 01 6.102376E + 04

meter per second (m/s) meter per second (m/s) meter per second (m/s) meter per second (m/s) kilometer per hour (km/h)

foot per second (ft/s) inch per second (in/s) kilometer per hour (km/h) mile per hour (mi/h) mile per hour (mi/h)

3.048000E − 01 2.540000E − 02 2.777778E − 01 4.470400E − 01 1.609344E + 00

3.280840E + 00 3.937008E + 01 3.600000E + 00 2.236936E + 00 6.213712E − 01

radian per second (rad/s)

rpm (revolution per minute) (r/min)

1.047198E − 01

9.549292E + 00

gram (g) kilogram (kg)

ounce (oz) pound (lb)

2.834952E + 01 4.535924E − 01

3.527397E − 02 2.204622E + 00

kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)

pound per cubic foot (lb/ft3)

1.601846E + 01

6.242797E − 02

kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)

pound per cubic inch (lb/in3)

2.767990E + 04

3.612730E − 05

pascal (Pa)

pound-force per square foot (lbf/ft2)

4.788026E + 01

2.088543E − 02

pascal (Pa)

pound-force per square inch (psi) (lbf/in2)

6.894757E + 03

1.450377E − 04

pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa)

bar (bar) atmosphere, standard (atm)

1.000000E + 05 1.013250E + 05

1.000000E − 05 9.869233E − 06

watt (W) watt (W)

British thermal unit per hour (Btu/h) British thermal unit per second (Btu/s)

2.930711E − 01 1.055056E + 03

3.412141E + 00 9.478170E − 04

watt (W)

ton of refrigeration (12 000 Btu/h)

3.516853E + 03

2.843451E − 04

joule per kilogram kelvin [J/(kg · K)]

British thermal unit per pound degree Fahrenheit [Btu/(lb · °F)]

4.186800E + 03

2.388459E − 04

watt per square meter (W/m2) British thermal unit per square foot hour [Btu/(ft2 · h)]

3.154591E + 00

3.169983E − 01

watt per square meter (W/m2) British thermal unit per square foot second [Btu/(ft2 · s)]

1.135653E + 04

8.805507E − 05

joule per square meter (J/m2)

1.135653E + 04

8.805507E − 05

British thermal unit per square foot (Btu/ft2)

xlix

Conversion Factors

To obtain

Multiply

by

reverse factor

joule per cubic meter (J/m3)

British thermal unit per cubic foot (Btu/ft3)

3.725895E + 04

2.683919E − 05

joule per kilogram (J/kg)

British thermal unit per pound (Btu/lb)

2.326000E+03

4.299226E − 04

joule per kelvin (J/K)

British thermal unit per degree Fahrenheit (Btu/°F)

1.899101E+03

5.265649E − 04

watt per square meter kelvin [W/(m2 · K)]

British thermal unit per hour square foot degree Fahrenheit [Btu/(h · ft2 · °F)]

5.678263E+00

1.761102E − 01

watt per square meter kelvin [W/(m2 · K)]

British thermal unit per second square foot degree Fahrenheit [Btu/(s · ft2 · °F)]

2.044175E+04

4.891949E − 05

joule (J)

watt hour (W · h)

3.600000E+03

2.777778E − 04

joule (J)

British thermal unit (Btu)

1.055056E+03

9.478170E − 04

joule (J)

foot pound-force (ft · lbf)

1.355818E+00

7.375621E − 01

kelvin (K)

degree Celsius (°C)

TK = t°C + 273.15

t°C =T − 273.15

degree Celsius (°C)

degree Fahrenheit (°F)

t °C =

kelvin (K)

degree Fahrenheit (°F)

TK =

t °F + 459.67 1.8

T°F = 1.8 tK − 459.67

kelvin (K)

degree Rankine (°R)

TK =

T°R 1.8

T°R = 1.8 TK

degree Celsius (°C)

kelvin (K)

t°C =TK − 273.15

These values have been obtained from NIST Guide to the SI1

1

l

http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/appenB9.html

t °F − 32 1.8

t°F = 1.8 t°F + 32

TK = t°C + 273.15

1 First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

(h, P) chart for R134a

64

32

16 Pressure P (bar)

3 3

3a2

2

8

4

2

11

4 4

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

Part 1, especially dedicated to beginners and fellow teachers, introduces in a very simple way basic concepts necessary to understand elementary thermodynamic cycles (steam power plants, gas turbines, refrigerators).

CH001.indd 1

11/2/2011

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1 A New Educational Paradigm Abstract: The change in education paradigm we have introduced is based on a shift of knowledge acquired by students. The writing of equations describing changes undergone by fluids is drastically reduced, the calculations being performed by a simulator such as Thermoptim (www.thermoptim.org) without learners needing to know the details. They devote most of the time on the one hand learning technologies, and secondly reflecting on the architecture of both conventional and innovative thermodynamic cycles, graphically building and setting models of various energy technologies. This chapter introduces this new educational paradigm and software tools allowing one to implement it. The main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim are listed and a short comparison with other tools with teaching potential is made. Keywords: education paradigm, ICT, initial training, vocational training, simulators.

1.1

INTRODUCTION

The teaching of applied thermodynamics has always been considered difficult, and recent developments have resulted in making this task even harder if one is content to use traditional approaches in this field. We are indeed facing a new challenge, especially if we aim at making our students capable of handling today’s problems that are more complex than those that their predecessors faced: initial training: to teach students with a lighter scientific background due to the evolution of programs, in a reduced number of hours; vocational training: this represents a growing stream of enrolled students, learners often do not have all the basics of mathematics and physics that are considered pre-requisites, and they do not have enough time to acquire them. ●

●

The classical approach being increasingly difficult to put into practice, many teachers try to change their teaching methods, but the task is difficult. The educational use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) including simulators may be the solution to this problem, insofar as it meets a number of rules, but it is not enough: we must also reconsider the content taught, especially for beginners. We have developed over the past twenty-five years a new way of teaching thermodynamics applied to energy conversion, now used in more than one hundred and twenty higher education institutions, at both undergraduate and graduate levels (engineering schools, universities) or in vocational training.

3

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

This educational method has been gradually developed by the author when teaching at Mines ParisTech (École des Mines de Paris). As such, it stems in direct continuity from the courses offered by his predecessors, namely MM. Georges Brun, Professor from 1942 to 1968, and Paul Reboux, Professor from 1972 to 1992. It keeps in several places the presentational logic they found to be the most relevant, and which still remains valid. However the proposed approach, which uses the Thermoptim software, is original compared to the pedagogy that was in use in their time, and which obviously did not use the opportunities offered by ICT.

1.2

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE EVOLUTION OF TRAINING SPECIFICATIONS

The academic classical teaching in higher education is based on a disciplinary generalist deductive approach, which is to present a whole field of science and then to decline the applications of the discipline. Its advantage is that students thus trained are able, at the end of the course, to handle many problems and adapt to different situations, but such training requires a fairly long time and its cost is high. It does not generally respond well to the needs of vocational training where a learner seeks to acquire as quickly as possible and at minimum cost a knowledge allowing him to solve a specific real-world problem without necessarily having any knowledge of the discipline. He is generally more reluctant to plunge into the theory, either because he has forgotten his studies dating back a while, or because he acquired his skills in the field without extensive scientific training. What he seeks is a teaching method that goes to the essentials and provides him only with the answers to questions that interest him, minimizing the knowledge which has to be acquired, namely theoretical. He is often put off by the detours involved by the traditional disciplinary approach, which in any case his professional constraints do not allow him to follow. Over the years, due to various changes both in society and more specifically in the energy sector, particularly related to its environmental impact and oil crises, the vocational training needs in the field of energy conversion have much increased. The context of the initial training of engineers has also evolved considerably in recent years. Although their scientific and technical knowledge and ability to mobilize it to solve concrete problems are still among the features that continue to distinguish them most from other executives, like the latter they need more and more to pay attention to the non-technical dimensions of their job, i.e. people management, project economics, product marketing, environmental impact of technologies etc. In these circumstances, the time available to invest in technology and their motivation for doing so are now smaller than before. Moreover, the time devoted to technical subjects in the initial training programs of engineers is also declining gradually, practical work and projects being often the first sacrificed. This evolution of the training specifications forces us to renew the pedagogies that we are implementing, but fortunately we also have new assets because of the existence of virtual environments, even if all these developments strongly challenge teachers and raise questions about their teaching in an area where they are most often almost completely self-taught.

1.3 SPECIFICS OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TEACHING The general remarks we have just made become particularly acute when considering the particular case of thermodynamics applied to energy.

4

I. A NEW EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM

Our approach has in fact originated in the difficulties we encountered when we began teaching the discipline: we found ourselves in a situation of failure against targets that we set and which traditional teaching approaches could not achieve, namely to make our students capable, at the end of the course, to address the current energy challenges: reducing the environmental impact of technology, improving efficiencies in acceptable economic conditions . . . In caricature, one could say that traditional approaches are faced with a dilemma: the models which they lead to being either unrealistic, or incalculable. Given the difficulties in accurately estimating the thermodynamic properties of fluids, they usually lead to either making too simplistic assumptions, or adopting methods cumbersome to implement. This has two pitfalls that have the effect of demotivating students: the assumptions being too simplistic, they do not understand the practical relevance of the models they develop, these being very far from reality; the precise calculations of cycles being tedious, they are put off by the discipline. ●

●

Moreover, the time spent on the development of equations describing fluid properties and behavior of elementary components represents the bulk of the course, so that students can ultimately work only on basic discipline examples, without approaching the study of innovative cycles, for which they are not equipped in terms of methodology. Conventional methods thus lead to many failures, whether in initial or vocational training, and our experience has shown that the approach we recommend, and which will be developed in this book, achieves much better results.

1.4 A NEW EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM The change in education paradigm we have introduced is based on a shift in the knowledge acquired by students. The writing of equations describing changes undergone by fluids is drastically reduced, the calculations being performed by a simulator such as Thermoptim without learners needing to know the details. They devote most of the time on the one hand learning technologies, and secondly reflecting on the architecture of both conventional and innovative thermodynamic cycles, graphically building and setting models of various energy technologies. A tool like Thermoptim can supplement the traditional teaching of thermodynamics in a wide variety of educational activities, which can be grouped into two main categories: those of discovery and initiation, including exploration of predefined models, and those of model building which relate to students seeking to learn how to model energy systems by themselves. Depending on the objectives and especially the time available, teachers can focus on either of these. The screen of Figure 1.4.1 shows the 22 main equations which must be introduced in order to study, with reasonable accuracy, the performance of the simplest gas turbine in a conventional curriculum. It is of course possible to simplify, but the model becomes a caricature. Equations describing the compression appear at the top left, and those for expansion in the upper right. These are the simplest. The more complicated ones are at the bottom left: they determine the composition of exhaust gases at the combustion chamber outlet. And yet, for simplicity, we have firstly considered here a very simple fuel and secondly have omitted to give the equation for calculating the end of combustion temperature, which is an implicit equation including an integral, one of the bounds of which is unknown. In all cases, the gas properties require equations of the kind presented at the bottom of the figure. They are needed to calculate the energy properties of fluids put in. All things considered, at least forty equations must be taken into account to obtain a realistic model of the gas turbine.

5

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

FIGURE 1.4.1 Conventional modeling of a gas turbine

Of course, even if each of the equations is known, the risks of error are numerous in the development of the model and its resolution, especially since they are interconnected and the resolution of some of them must be done iteratively. Building a gas turbine model with Thermoptim is radically different from that which was traditionally implemented: we favor as we said a qualitative approach of phenomena, the calculations required for quantitative studies being conducted by software tools in a transparent manner for the learners, i.e. they have no need, at least initially, to know the details. The use of equations is reduced to a minimum when introducing the discipline, the cognitive effort being mainly devoted to understanding concepts and technologies as well as their implementation, and it is only once the student has acquired sufficient knowledge of the discipline that we consider the writing of equations becomes possible and relevant. Specifically, as shown in Figure 1.4.2, the model is constructed by assembling icons placed on a diagram editor working plan, the machine architecture being very close to its physical sketch. Each component is then set with a small number of characteristic values. The thermodynamic properties of fluids being encapsulated in the software, computing performance presents no difficulty, giving much greater precision than with the traditional approach. Using a tool like Thermoptim, the time to calculate a thermodynamic cycle is reduced to onefifth or one-sixth of before, and once the model established it is possible to perform sensitivity analysis and resolve in minutes what would take hours by conventional methods. In addition, there is no risk of programming error or incorrect reading of properties. This results in considerable time savings on one aspect of things not essential at the educational level, namely solving computational problems. Besides the time saved, the arduous nature of the work is greatly

6

I. A NEW EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM

FIGURE 1.4.2 Modeling with the new teaching method

reduced, resulting in a significant gain in student motivation, as they are no longer put off by cumbersome and tedious calculations. Moreover, considerable gains in precision are obtained and thus in calculation likelihood: there is no need to resort to oversimplifying assumptions for the sole purpose of making possible the calculations. A typical example is the study of internal combustion engines, which to our knowledge are ultimately considered, in almost all lessons taught in undergraduate and graduate courses in the world, to be traversed by air assumed to be a perfect gas. How with such assumptions could we hope motivating students who today are concerned about the environmental impact of these technologies: an air engine has never polluted and will never pollute!

1.5

DIAPASON MODULES

Feedback from the Thermoptim educational development showed there was an interest in complementing the simulator with other tools, in particular to introduce students to technology, which they largely ignore in their early learning. Thus, since September 2004, Thermoptim is supplemented by the Diapason modules (for Diaporamas Pédagogiques Animés et Sonorisés in French). The Diapason modules (Figure 1.5.1) are educational animated slide shows, each provided with a soundtrack. This is Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applied to education. Using this ICT application, you may make presentations of theories, methodologies or technologies.

7

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

FIGURE 1.5.1 Diapason module

These modules allow students to work by themselves at their own pace, alone or in groups, and access online at any time: the oral explanations given by the teacher in addition to written materials available to them; exercises using the simulator, which gives them the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the various cycles and their analysis methods. ● ●

These modules are structured in steps and sessions as well as in courses and programs. This gives rise to great possibilities in the conception of rich educational environments. Their specificity is the association of one soundtrack to the displayed slide. Thus, students may get audio explanations relative to the study context; these explanations may be about theory, or technology or even the practical use of the Thermoptim simulator. Hyperlinks may give access to various documents such as spreadsheets or files in pdf format. Based on double xml structure, these modules use as visual display a freeware Flash execution application supported by almost all recent Web navigators, which makes it possible to synchronize varied multi-media resources (images, sound tracks, pdf documents, swf animations, spreadsheets, hyperlinks, Thermoptim etc.) The principal interest of the Diapason modules is their excellent teaching effectiveness: When using these modules, students are more active than in the course room, in the sense that they regulate for themselves their rhythm of listening, but especially they choose for themselves the moments when they study, and are thus available when they do it; they learn better, more especially as they have any leisure to recap or to supplement information which is presented to them while resorting to the written documents; The sound tracks having an average duration of less than one minute, their attention can be constant when they study a step, and they pass to the following only after a rest period;

●

●

8

I. A NEW EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM

●

●

The teacher can chain educational activities in a very flexible way, combining at best procedural and declarative knowledge so that the latter is provided contextually at the time when the student needs it; The students can work at their own rhythm, alone or in groups, and they have access constantly to the oral explanations given by the teacher; in case of doubt or if they missed anything, they can refer to it without any difficulty.

Although the simulator and the Diapason modules are used differently by different training institutions, their implementation usually results in the adoption of hybrid methods alternating presentational and online training sessions. The organization and conduct of training of this type induces an evolution in the role of the teacher towards more tutoring.

1.6 A THREE-STEP PROGRESSIVE APPROACH This new method can in practice be divided into three main steps corresponding to a progression starting with a primarily qualitative and phenomenological approach, and finally leading some students to write complex equations: 1. The learning of basic concepts and tools, dedicated to reviewing basic thermodynamics concepts, to study basic thermodynamic cycles, to discover technologies and to learn how to use Thermoptim; 2. The reinforcement of the concepts viewed in step one, with theoretical complements concerning heat-exchangers and exergy, and the study of variations of basic cycles, combined cycles and cogeneration; 3. The in-depth analysis and personal practice regarding the study of innovative cycles, and some thoughts about the future of these technologies. These deep analyses and personal practice will concern mini-projects followed alone or within a group. The first step is to enable students to acquire the basic vocabulary and understand the essential operating concepts, allowing them to implement these in simple cases; they become familiar with the new domain and start putting into practice available tools such as Thermoptim. In doing so, they get confidence in their ability to master the knowledge that they begin to acquire, thereby creating a virtuous circle in terms of motivation. Given the reputation of thermodynamics, this psychological aspect is far from negligible. The second step enables them to anchor their knowledge by putting it into practice on the variants of elementary cycles, which allows them to make judgments about the performance criteria of real machines. This leads to favor intuitive rather than axiomatic presentation of these concepts, with greater emphasis on qualitative and phenomenological understanding rather than on equations. This bias is all the more justified because rigid definitions require many precautions of language that may seem very cryptic to a beginner. The first two steps are almost standard, even if their contents can vary slightly depending on the profile and prior knowledge of students: they allow students to acquire the basics of the discipline. They consist mainly of Diapason sessions that guide students step by step through the first lessons. Gradually, as their understanding of the discipline grows, students gain autonomy and can use complementary digital resources, such as those of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal presented in the next section. During the third step, students can customize their curriculum based on their interests and aspirations, and access methodology guides explaining how to tackle more difficult subjects. While previously they had very little interest in the internal functioning of components and in their

9

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

behavioral equations, they can if they wish start developing their own models by customizing the basic components available, or creating others.

1.7

MAIN PEDAGOGIC INNOVATIONS BROUGHT BY THERMOPTIM

The main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim are the following: First of all, as long and dull calculations are cancelled and most of the quantitative aspects are transferred to the computer, students have more time to train in essential thermodynamic qualitative and phenomenological notions and in technology; Thermoptim is based on the distinction of some elementary concepts, called primitive types, whose structure helps the students to clearly understand inter-relations; Using Thermoptim, beginners learn the vocabulary and the basic concepts encapsulated in the displayed screens whose design has been very carefully developed making sure that their content is as simple as possible. Once the vocabulary is known, cooperative learning with others students and the teacher is intensified; The diagram editor gathers in a synthetic manner, on one screen, all the pertinent information about one thermodynamic cycle. The synoptic view displays the graphic structure of the system, the inter-connections between the components, the values of the thermodynamic state variables, the global energy balance of the system etc.; Thermoptim is not only a very good courseware: it is also a powerful and professional simulator used by manufacturers such as EDF, CEA, Total or Areva-Framatome; Thermoptim puts students’ minds on a superior conceptual and methodological level as compared to traditional teaching. Therefore, there is not only a reduction of the cognitive load, but also a significant increase of the capacity to solve problems; Lastly, Thermoptim makes students truly operational. This is an important element in their motivation and consequently in their attention. ●

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●

●

●

●

●

1.8 DIGITAL RESOURCES OF THE THERMOPTIM-UNIT PORTAL The success of our new teaching approach has attracted institutional support from first the Grande École Virtuelle project of the Group of Schools of Mines (http://gemgev.industrie.gouv.fr/), and then from the UNIT consortium (www.unit.eu), which helped develop many freely available digital resources for teaching energy issues. We wish to express our sincere thanks for their help thus provided. With this support, in parallel with traditional book writing, we were able to develop multimedia presentations of some of the content of this work, dedicated for both training and scientific and technical information. The set of digital resources for teaching energy we could muster was gradually integrated into a portal whose content is freely available, called Thermoptim-UNIT (Figure 1.8.1). Its URL is: www. thermoptim.org. These resources comprise seven main categories: thematic pages presenting theoretical or technological syntheses, which firstly are brief introductions to the discipline, and also refer to different learning activities (online courses, exercises etc.); methodological guides whose main objective is to sensitize the reader to the various issues raised and suggest some ways to find appropriate solutions; about seventy-five Diapason sessions, which represent a set of approximately 1,200 screens (85% with sound-track, i.e. 12 h of listening); ●

●

●

10

I. A NEW EDUCATIONAL PARADIGM

FIGURE 1.8.1 Portal welcome window ● ●

●

●

written freely downloadable media (often excerpts from this book); guidance pages for practical works, which is a new educational resource type particularly interesting for two reasons: firstly they can provide students with personal activities of tutorials, exercises or projects, and secondly they help teachers to adapt and customize resources already developed; substance and component models, which allow us to represent substances or components not available in the Thermoptim core, in order to simulate innovative energy systems, including low environmental impact, such as fuel cells, concentration solar power plants etc.; some papers relative to pedagogy in applied thermodynamics, including a number of references or web links that have been helpful in our own thinking. They are far from exhaustive but can provide an introduction to the subject for a number of fellow teachers.

Compared to the previous ones, this new 2011 edition thus presents the particularity to rely on all the Thermoptim-UNIT portal digital resources, which we strongly recommend you to refer to (more specific references will be made in the text, as explained page xxiv of the preliminary pages).

1.9

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOOLS WITH TEACHING POTENTIAL

To our knowledge, and apart from our own developments, the only currently available tools with teaching potential in this field with which Thermoptim can be compared are as follows, and only the first two have been developed with a view to changing educational paradigms in applied thermodynamics: instructional software called CyclePad developed like an application of Qualitative Physics (Forbus & Whalley, 1994) to the teaching of thermodynamics, which has the advantage of being ●

11

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

●

●

●

●

able to assist students in their training in thermodynamic cycles, thanks to an inference engine written in Lisp that is able to guide modeling and to make diagnosis of errors, but which has on the other hand significant limitations in its potential for application; instructional software called TEST (The Expert System for Thermodynamics), which is a collection of Java applets developed by S. Bhattacharjee (2003), of the California State University at San Diego; software called Pinch (Favrat & Staine 1991), intended to illustrate thermal integration methods (see Chapter 22 of Part 3), developed at EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland); an equation solver intended for energy engineering (Klein & Alvarado, 1993, Mitchell & Braun, 2012), named EES (Engineering Equation Solver). It supposes, however, that the user is able to describe all the equations of the system which is to be studied, i.e. users are assumed to be able to quantify their problems as well as qualify them, which is seldom the case for a beginning student; Cycle-Tempo, a computer program developed by TU Delft (Delft University of Technology) as a modern tool for the thermodynamic analysis and optimization of systems for the production of electricity, heat and refrigeration (http://www.tudelft.nl).

1.10

CONCLUSION

Thermoptim and the new teaching approach that it enables have been more and more adopted in higher education in France and worldwide: it has been estimated that in 2008 more than 120 institutions and more than 7000 students have used it for a total of approximately 57,000 student-hours. This book will give numerous examples of the practical implementation of this new instructional paradigm. Chapters 2 and 3 of this Part, titled First Steps in Thermodynamics (Absolute Beginners and Second Law), provide an illustration in the form of a lightweight educational presentation of thermodynamic basic cycles, initially without resorting to entropy and then by introducing entropy in a simple manner. Their purpose is to discuss key concepts which should be presented to students in order to enable them to understand and study cycles of three basic energy technologies: steam power plant, gas turbine and refrigerating machine. The idea is to minimize the background in mathematics and physics necessary for understanding these cycles, in order to make them accessible to readers unfamiliar with the language of specialists in thermodynamics. We show in particular that the essential concepts can be presented without resorting to a function that can be difficult to master (entropy), which is then introduced in the last chapter.

REFERENCES Mitchell J. W. & Braun J. E., Principles of HVAC in Buildings, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, January 2012. Forbus, K. & Whalley, P. (1994). Using Qualitative Physics to Build Articulate Software for Thermodynamics Education. Proceedings of AAAI-94. 1175–1182. Favrat, D. & Staine, F. (1991). “An Interactive Approach to the Energy Integration of Thermal Processes” CALISCE ’91, EPFL. Klein, S.A. & Alvarado, F.L. (1993). EES Engineering Equation Solver, F-Chart Software, 4406 Fox Bluff Road, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562. Bhattacharjee S. (2003). The Expert System for Thermodynamics, A visual tour, Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N. J., U.S.A., ISBN 0-13-009235-5.

12

2 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Absolute Beginners Abstract: The purpose of this chapter is to discuss key concepts which should be presented to absolute beginners in order to enable them to understand and study the cycles of three basic energy technologies: steam power plant, gas turbine and refrigerating machine. We are talking of lightweight educational presentation as we seek to minimize the background in mathematics and physics necessary for understanding these cycles, our goal being to make them accessible to readers unfamiliar with the language of specialists in thermodynamics. We show in particular that essential concepts can be presented without resorting to a function that can be difficult to master, entropy, which will be introduced only in the second part of this presentation. The steam power plant and gas turbine are engines intended to convert heat into mechanical power, while the third cycle is a machine designed to extract heat at a temperature lower than the atmosphere thanks to a mechanical energy input. Keywords: lightweight educational presentation, steam power plant, gas turbine and refrigerating machine, thermodynamics work, heat exchange, enthalpy, first law of thermodynamics.

2.1 ARCHITECTURE OF THE MACHINES STUDIED Let us begin with a brief description of the operation and architecture of these machines.

2.1.1 Steam power plant The basic cycle of a steam power plant is essentially a boiler where the fuel (solid, liquid or gas) is burned for generating steam (usually superheated) which is then expanded in a steam turbine whose shaft provides the motor work (Figure 2.1.1).

13

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

Boiler

Turbine 3 4

2 Pump

Condenser

1

River water

FIGURE 2.1.1 Sketch of a steam power plant

The steam leaving the turbine is completely liquefied (water) in a condenser before a pump restores the boiler pressure. Since water is compressed in the liquid state, the compression work is almost negligible compared to the work recovered on the turbine shaft. The condenser cooling is provided by an external cold source, usually the outside air or water from a river as shown in Figure 2.1.1. The pump is generally centrifugal, multistage as it must provide a significant compression ratio. The boiler has three successive functions and behaves thus like a triple heat exchanger. It must: heat pressurized feedwater (in the economizer) to the vaporization temperature corresponding to the pressure; vaporize steam; and finally superheat steam at the desired temperature. ●

● ●

Steam turbines are mostly multistage axial turbines. The condenser is a heat exchanger whose particularity is to work at a pressure lower than the atmosphere, given the low vapor pressure of water at room temperature. We speak of cycle because, going through the four successive plant components, the working fluid undergoes a series of processes that lead it to return in its original state. More specifically, it is an external combustion cycle, allowing use of a variety of fuels (including uranium). In most countries, over 90% of the stock of thermal power plants until recently was composed of such plants.

2.1.2

Gas turbine

In its simplest and most common form (Figure 2.1.2), a gas turbine is composed of three elements: a compressor, usually centrifugal or axial, which is used to compress the intake air at a pressure between 10 and 30 bar in modern machines; a combustion chamber in which fuel is injected under pressure, combusted with air previously compressed (the latter in large excess in order to limit the burnt gases temperature at the turbine inlet); a turbine, usually axial, in which are expanded the high temperature gases exiting the combustion chamber. A significant proportion (60–70%) of the recovered work on the turbine shaft is used to drive the compressor. ●

●

●

14

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

fuel Combustion chamber 3 1

exhaust gases

2

4

air

Turbine

Compressor

FIGURE 2.1.2 Sketch of a gas turbine Condenser 2

3

Throttling valve

Compressor

4 1 Evaporator

FIGURE 2.1.3 Sketch of a compression refrigeration cycle

In this form the gas turbine is a continuous stream internal combustion engine. Note that the gas turbine term comes from the status of the working fluid, which remains gaseous, and not the fuel used, which can be both gaseous and liquid (gas turbines typically use natural gas or light petroleum distillates). To achieve compression ratios of 20 to 30, the compressor is multistage, with sometimes intermediate cooling to reduce the work consumed. The combustion chamber is normally constructed of refractory alloy. There are major technological constraints at the first stages of the expansion turbine, which are subject to the flow of burnt gas at high temperature. The parts most at risk are especially the rotor blades, which are very difficult to cool and in addition particularly sensitive to abrasion. It is therefore important to use a very clean fuel (no particles and chemicals that may form acids), and limit the temperature depending on the mechanical characteristics of the blades. Exhaust gases being released into the atmosphere, it is inappropriate to speak of a cycle. However we do say it, in everyday language.

2.1.3 Refrigeration machine In a refrigeration system (Figure 2.1.3), one seeks to maintain a cold chamber at a temperature below ambient. The idea is to evaporate a refrigerant at low pressure (and therefore low temperature) in a heat exchanger in contact with the cold chamber. For this, we need the refrigerant temperature to be lower than that of the cold chamber. The fluid is then compressed at a pressure such that its condensation temperature is greater than the ambient temperature. It is then possible to cool

15

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

the fluid by heat exchange with ambient air until it becomes liquid. The liquid is then expanded by isenthalpic throttling at low pressure and directed into the evaporator. The cycle is thus closed. In a domestic refrigerator, the evaporator usually consists of two corrugated flat plates welded against each other, the refrigerant flowing in the channels formed by the corrugations. It generally lines the “freezing” compartment of the refrigerator (the frost layer forms on it). The plate between the flow channels operates as a fin to increase the thermal contact between the refrigerant and the cold compartment. This evaporator is connected to the rest of the machine by two tubes that cross the insulated wall. One of them is connected to the compressor suction, the other to the expansion valve. The condenser is the black grill located on the refrigerator backside, consisting of coiled tubing supported by metal plates which firstly increase the heat exchange with the air, and secondly reinforce the mechanical rigidity. It is connected to the compressor outlet and expansion valve. In most cases, the compressor is not directly visible because it is contained in a metal block mounted on rubber cushions to prevent vibrations, out of which exit an electric wire and two input and output fluid pipes. Such a compressor, generally of piston type, is called a hermetic compressor, which has the advantage that the engine is directly cooled and lubricated by the working fluid, without need for oil. The expansion valve usually consists of a single capillary tube, and sometimes is a thermostatic valve.

2.2 FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS All three of these machines are crossed by thermodynamic fluids, steam or liquid water in the first, air and flue gases in the second, a refrigerant in the third. What is particularly remarkable is that even if the technical solutions implemented are varied, as we have seen, these fluids are subjected to only four different types of processes: compression; expansion with work production; expansion without work production; temperature change (heating and cooling). ● ● ● ●

Therefore four functions are sufficient to describe the operation of these machines: compression can occur with the fluid being liquid or gaseous. In the first case the component is a pump, in the second a compressor; expansion with work production is generally made through turbines; expansion without work production in valves; heating can be generated either in combustion chambers or boilers, or in heat exchangers. Cooling is usually done in heat exchangers.

●

● ● ●

This finding has a very broad bearing: in all engines, the fluid is always successively compressed, heated, expanded and cooled, and, in all refrigeration cycles, it is compressed, cooled, expanded and heated. Note finally, and this is very important in practice, that the flow of fluids through these components is either cyclical (in turbines, pumps and compressors), or continuous (in others). In what follows, we will show how to characterize these processes in terms of thermodynamics. To do this we will focus on a small amount of fluid and we will seek to determine the evolution of its thermodynamic properties in these processes. In practical terms, it suffices to know what is called its state at the component inlet and outlet in order to calculate the performance of the entire machine.

16

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

2.3

NOTIONS OF THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM AND STATE

It is necessary at this stage to introduce the concept of thermodynamic system, which represents a quantity of matter isolated from what we call the surroundings by a real or fictitious boundary. This system concept is very general in physics and is found especially in mechanics. The notion of state of a system represents “the minimum information necessary to determine its future behavior”. This state is defined by what is called a set of state variables allowing us to completely characterize the system at a given moment. In mechanics, the position coordinates and speed determine the state of a system. In thermodynamics, there are obviously several sets that meet this definition. The ones most used in the literature are the following pairs: (pressure, temperature), (pressure, volume), (temperature, volume). A state function is a quantity whose value depends only on the state of the system, not its history. In thermodynamics, we are led to distinguish two types of systems: closed systems that do not exchange matter with the surroundings, and open systems that do exchange. The presentation made earlier of the operation of components involved in the machines we want to study has shown that they operate in open systems, as fluids pass through them. This distinction is important because thermodynamic properties are expressed differently in closed and open systems.

2.4

ENERGY EXCHANGE BETWEEN A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

It is essential to note that thermodynamic systems involved in the components we are interested in, only exchange energy with the surroundings in two distinct forms: heat by heat exchange on the system boundaries. It is usually denoted by Q; work, by action of pressure forces on the boundaries, the work of gravity forces being neglected. This work is usually denoted W in closed and in open systems. ● ●

One can also easily show that in an open system, for an infinitely small change, and Q are given by the following equations: v dP

2.4.1

Q Cp dT v dP

2.4.2

The latter expression simply expresses an experimental fact, which is an essential basis of compressible fluid thermodynamics: heat Q exchanged with the surroundings is reflected in a linear change in the thermodynamic state of the system.

2.5

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The fundamental law that governs the behavior of thermodynamic systems is the conservation of energy, known as the first law.

17

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

For a closed system, it can be stated as follows: the energy contained in a system which is isolated, or evolving in a closed cycle, remains constant whatever processes it undergoes. The various forms that the energy of a system can take: mechanical energy, heat energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, are all equivalent under the first law. Let us recall that, in our case, only heat and work are taken into account. Calling W the work of external pressure forces and Q the heat exchanged with the surroundings, and neglecting the kinetic energies brought into play, the first law can be written for a closed system in the form: u W Q

2.5.1

u is an extensive quantity called the internal energy of the system. It is a state function. In this form, this law is very intuitive and readily accepted: it is a conservation law which states that energy (like mass) is neither lost nor created. The internal energy, however, has meaning only if the system is closed, and needs to be generalized when considering a system in which matter enters and/or out of which it flows. The work W exerted on a closed system can indeed be broken into two parts: one that is exerted on the mobile walls of the system if any, called shaft work , and one that is exerted on boundaries crossed by fluid coming out of the system and entering it. For open system components, which is the case for those that we are studying, this work, called transfer work, equals (Pv). We therefore have: W (Pv) Introducing a function called enthalpy h, such as h u (Pv), the first law is written in open systems: h Q The first law is expressed as follows in open systems: the enthalpy change of an open system is equal to the amount of shaft work exerted on the moving walls and heat exchanged with the surroundings. Enthalpy thus appears simply as a generalization in open systems of the internal energy of closed systems. In practical terms, just consider this state function as the energy associated with the system under consideration, neither more nor less.

2.6 APPLICATION TO THE FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS PREVIOUSLY IDENTIFIED We will show in this section that the enthalpy variation of the fluid flowing through them is sufficient to determine the energy involved in these four elementary processes. 2.6.1

Compression and expansion with work

Expansion can be made with and without work. In the first case, the machine most commonly used is the turbine. In the second case, it is a simple valve or a filter (see section 2.6.2). Machines doing the compression or expansion of a fluid have a very compact design for reasons of weight, size and cost. For similar reasons, they rotate very fast (several thousand revolutions per minute). Each parcel of fluid remains there very briefly. Moreover, fluids brought into play in compressors and turbines are often gas whose heat exchange coefficients have low values. Short residence time, small areas of fluid-wall contact, and low exchange coefficients imply that the heat exchange is minimal and that the operation of these machines is nearly adiabatic: Q 0.

18

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

In a compression or expansion adiabatic machine, shaft work is thus equal to the change in enthalpy of the fluid h. 2.6.2

Expansion without work: valves, filters

There is a class of devices, such as the expansion valve of the refrigeration machine, where and Q are both zero, i.e. h 0: they are static expanders such as valves and filters. The corresponding process is called an isenthalpic throttling or a flash expansion. 2.6.3

Heat exchange

Components which transfer heat from one fluid to another require large exchange areas, their heat fluxes being proportional to these areas. Technical and economic considerations lead to the adoption of purely static devices. For example, large bundles of tubes in parallel, traversed internally by one fluid while the other flows outside. is zero because of the absence of movable walls. In a heat exchanger, heat Q transferred or provided by one fluid to another is equal to its enthalpy change h. 2.6.4

Combustion chambers, boilers

In a combustion chamber or boiler, there are no movable walls either, and 0. Heat Q transferred to the fluid passing through is equal to the enthalpy change h.

2.7

REFERENCE PROCESSES

The previous section showed that the determination of the enthalpy change of the fluid flowing through them is enough to calculate the energy involved in these four elementary processes. But this information is not sufficient to characterize them completely. The physical analysis of their behavior helps to highlight the reference processes corresponding to the operation of components that would be ideal. It is then possible to characterize the actual process by introducing an imperfection factor, often called effectiveness or efficiency, which expresses its performance referred to that of the reference process. This way makes it much easier to understand the processes undergone by the fluid. The choice of reference processes is based on analysis of physical phenomena that take place in the components: it is an absolutely essential modeling choice. Lastly, as we shall see, the reference process is very useful when trying to plot the cycle studied on a thermodynamic chart. 2.7.1

Compression and expansion with work

In section 2.6.1 we saw that the compressors and turbines are machines in which heat exchanges with the outside are usually negligible; this is referred to as adiabatic. The reference process for compression or expansion with work is the perfect or reversible adiabatic. Its equation can be obtained by integrating the differential equation expressing that the heat exchanged is zero at any

19

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

time, i.e. 0 Cp dT – v dP. For a perfect gas, for which Pv rT, the corresponding curve is easily obtained. It is given by law Pv Const. with Cp/Cv.

2.7.2

Expansion without work: valves, filters

For throttling or expansion without work conserving enthalpy (h 0), the reference process is isenthalpic.

2.7.3

Heat exchange

As a first approximation, as the pressure drops are relatively low, heat exchange can be assumed to be isobaric. The reference process is thus isobaric.

2.7.4

Combustion chambers, boilers

Similarly, combustion chambers and boilers can usually be regarded as isobaric. Combustion takes place at constant pressure, therefore, which still surprises a number of students, who believe that the combustion raises pressure, even in open systems. To illustrate this, consider a fairly common example of boiler: a wall-mounted gas boiler in an apartment. The pressure will remain the same in both fluids, whether the hot water circuit at a pressure of 1 to 3 bar, or air circuit and smoke, at atmospheric pressure of course.

2.8

SUMMARY REMINDERS ON PURE SUBSTANCE PROPERTIES

Let us recall that a pure substance can be in one or more of three phases: solid, liquid or gaseous. When heating a liquid it turns to vapor, and we talk of vaporization. The temperature at which this change is realized depends on the pressure exerted on the substance considered. It remains constant as long as the vaporization is not complete, i.e. while its quality x is between 0 and 1. Let us recall that x is defined for a pure substance two-phase mixture as the ratio of vapor mass to total mass (vapor liquid). For this phase change to happen, it is necessary to provide or absorb energy, called latent heat of change of state. During the change of state, there are significant variations in the specific volume, the vapor being about 600 to 1000 times less dense than the liquid. This change in specific volume occurs at constant pressure and temperature. The critical point represents the state where the phase of pure vapor has the same properties as the pure liquid phase. At higher temperatures and pressures (supercritical), it is not possible to observe a separation between liquid and gas phases: the disk surface which separates the liquid and vapor phases disappears at the critical point. We call an ideal gas a gas whose internal energy and enthalpy depend only on the temperature, which simplifies the modeling: its equation of state is Pv RT. Many thermodynamic fluids in the vapor phase may be treated as ideal gases in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. This requires that the temperature-pressure combination deviates from the condensation zone as much possible (that is to say that the pressure is not “too” high or the temperature “too” low). Such conditions are commonly the case for gases known as “permanent”

20

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

at ambient temperature and pressure, as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the oxygen-nitrogen mixture that is dry air etc.

2.9

RETURN TO THE CONCEPT OF STATE AND CHOICE OF STATE VARIABLES TO CONSIDER

Now that we have introduced the first law, established its equation for open systems and showed just how it applies to the four basic changes experienced by fluids in machines that interest us, we can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different state variables that one can consider using. We have seen that several sets of state variables can be used to characterize a thermodynamic system. The most “natural” are temperature, pressure and volume, but there are others, like the enthalpy just defined, and secondly they are not fully satisfactory for of our goals, as we shall show. Pressure P is essential, both because it directly determines the mechanical stress of components, and because, as we have seen, the reference process for fluid heating and cooling is isobaric. Temperature T is also essential, but, unlike its predecessor, the isothermic process does not correspond to any process that concerns us. Moreover, the pair (P, T) is not sufficient to represent the process experienced by a fluid as it changes state, the two variables being linked by the saturation pressure or temperature law: it lacks the vapor quality x. Volume v intervenes very little in the analysis of interest, even in a closed system, because volume varies due to the existence of movable walls. In fact, its main practical interest is in the sizing of flow sections. Enthalpy h is a fundamental variable too, because it is directly related to energy exchanges that take place in the machines. For an ideal gas, it is a linear function of temperature, very easily deduced, and in the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone, it provides additional information on the quality. Finally, remember that the isenthalpic process is the reference process for an expansion without work. For our purposes, as part of this lightweight educational presentation, these remarks are sufficient to allow us to conclude that the pair (P, h) is a set of state variables of particular interest. We shall see the implications when we seek to plot the cycles of the machines we are studying in thermodynamic charts. The analysis of processes undergone by fluids during compression and expansion with work showed that their reference process is reversible adiabatic. We indicated that for a perfect gas it follows law Pv Const. Let us note, but incidentally given our focus for simplicity, that this law is that of the isentrope. Entropy s is also a state function widely used in thermodynamics, especially because the isentrope is the reference process for compression and expansion.

2.10 THERMODYNAMIC CHARTS Thermodynamic systems which we consider can be characterized by two state variables; they are called bivariant. This means that their thermodynamic properties can be plotted in a plane in the form of a thermodynamic chart. By highlighting the reference process of changes undergone by fluids and allowing us to calculate them, at least approximately, charts are among the basic tools of thermodynamics. Their interest is twofold: to help plot the cycles; to facilitate the estimation of the thermodynamic state of the various cycle points. ● ●

21

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

Because of the possibilities offered by software packages for calculating fluid properties that are increasingly common, the second interest tends to decline while the former retains its relevance. The display on a chart of a cycle calculated using a computerized tool helps ensure that it does not contain an abnormal point due to an error when entering data. A chart is presented in a graphical map with the plot of a number of remarkable curves, including families of state function iso-values.

2.10.1

Different types of charts

In practical terms, the main processes that can occur in industrial processes involving pure fluids are, as we have seen, compression, expansion, heat exchange and throttling. It is clear that the temperature T, pressure P and the steam quality x are state variables whose knowledge is necessary to study these processes and equipment design. The above remarks show that the enthalpy h is also very important. Finally, knowledge of the specific volume v is necessary to size the pipes, since it allows us to convert mass flow rate into volume rate. In conclusion, the most interesting quantities are in practice T, P, h, and additional information on x and v may be necessary. So the abscissas and ordinates of the charts that we can consider should be chosen among them (recall that we exclude here the entropy). The pair (T, h) is rarely retained because the isobaric and reversible adiabatic are represented by curves with inflection points that make their use difficult. In addition, variations of T and h are proportional when the fluid follows the ideal gas law. Except for permanent gases, i.e. whose state is very far from their saturation conditions, the pair (T, P) is insufficient, because T and P are bound by the saturation law in the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone. It would however be quite suitable to represent gas turbine cycles. The pair (P, h) is increasingly used, usually with a logarithmic scale for pressures. Its widespread use has been promoted by refrigeration engineers, and it will be studied further. Finally, the pair (P, v), Clapeyron chart, has a certain educational value, especially for the study of changes in closed systems. Its main drawback is its low visibility, the area of vapors being reduced and energy functions not appearing directly. In conclusion, as this lightweight educational presentation does not include entropy, the pair (P, h) appears the best suited. 2.10.2

(h, ln(P)) chart

In the (h, ln(P)) chart (Figure 2.10.1) the enthalpy is the abscissa and pressure the ordinate, usually on a logarithmic scale. The saturation curve separates the plane in several zones. Its summit is the critical point C, the left side, bottom, representing the incipient boiling (bubble curve), and its right side down, the saturated vapor (dew point curve). Under this curve is the two-phase liquid-vapor equilibrium zone, and in the rest of the plan, that of simple fluid. For this chart to be used, it is equipped with reversible adiabatic curves, isotherms, isovolumes, and in the mixed zone, iso-quality curves. In the “liquid” zone on the left of the chart, isotherms have a very strong negative slope: the compression of a liquid involves a very small work. In the two-phase zone, pressure and temperature are related by the law of saturation pressure, and isotherms are horizontal. The enthalpy increases enormously, corresponding to the heat of vaporization that must be supplied to the fluid.

22

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

(h, P) chart for water C

256 128 64 32 Isotherm T 227°C

16

v

3 g m /k

e

adi aba tic

urv e

lum

vo o-

Iso-q

uality

x

0.5

Is

Dew po int curv e

22

0.12

Re ver sib le

4

Bu bbl ec

Pressure P (bar)

8

500

0

1,000

1,500

2,000 Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

2,500

3,000

3,500

FIGURE 2.10.1 Water (h, ln(P)) chart

In the zone to the right of the saturation curve, the isotherms are curved downward, close to vertical for values of low pressure. Indeed, the behavior of vapor then approaches that of an ideal gas, whose enthalpy depends only on temperature. Heating or cooling (isobars) are reflected in this chart by a horizontal segment, an expansion without work (isenthalpic) by a vertical segment. A reversible adiabatic is an upward curve with a slope equal to the inverse of specific volume. They are much less inclined in the vapor zone than in the liquid zone. Iso-quality curves are contained inside the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone. They intersect at the critical point. Iso-volume curves converge in the liquid zone where they become independent of pressure.

2.11

PLOT OF CYCLES IN THE (h, ln(P)) CHART

We will now explain how to draw in the (h, ln(P)) chart the steam power plant and refrigerating machine cycles. We assume initially that the compressions and expansions are perfect, that is to say they follow the reversible adiabatic, then we shall explain how to take into account the irreversibilities in these machines. In practical terms, students should do the proposed activities in this section by hand, with diagrams on paper. These can either be printed directly from Thermoptim, but their accuracy is not great, or obtained commercially or in literature. We have not yet specified the numerical data for these cycles. We shall do it now, selecting values which can be easily plotted, and build them step by step in this chart.

23

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

(h, P) chart for water

256

T 377°C 2

128

T 327°C

3a

3

3b

T

°C 447 °C 427

32 T 227°C

16

T 177°C

8 4

c

ati

T 127°C

iab

d ea

2

l sib

Isotherm

r ve Re T 77°C

0

1,000

1,500

2,000 Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

.9 x0

0.8 x

0.7 x

x 0.6

.5 x0

.4 x0

0.3 x

x 0.2

T 27°C

4

500

Isotherm

Iso-qual

ible Re ver s

lity Isoqua x 0.1

1

ity

ad

iab

atic

Pressure P (bar)

T

T 277°C

64

2,500

3,000

3,500

FIGURE 2.11.1 Construction of the steam power plant cycle

We will not seek to represent the gas turbine cycle for two reasons: firstly because the gas (h, ln(P)) charts are little used in practice, and secondly because to estimate the thermodynamic properties of combustion products requires special care. In our opinion it is much easier for a beginner to directly model the machine with a tool such as Thermoptim as shown section 2.12, and the plot of the cycle in a chart is not always needed.

2.11.1

Steam power plant

At the condenser outlet (point 1, Figure 2.1.1), water is in the liquid state at a temperature of about 27 C, under low pressure (0.0356 bar). In Figure 2.11.1, the point is easy to find, at the intersection of the isotherm T 27 C and the saturation curve. The pump compresses water at about 128 bar, which represents a significant compression ratio (around 3600). The temperature T remaining approximately constant during compression (1-2), point 2 is located at the intersection of the isotherm T 27 C and the isobar P 128 bar (ordinate 128 bar). The pressurized water is then heated at high temperature in the boiler, heating comprising the following three steps: liquid heating from 27 C to about 330 C boiling point at 128 bar, just above isotherm T 327 C: process (2-3a). Point 3a lies on the vaporization curve at the same isobar; vaporization at constant temperature 330 C: process (3a-3b). Vaporization being carried out at constant pressure and temperature, it results on the chart in a horizontal segment 3a-3b. Point 3b is therefore on the descending branch of the vaporization curve, or dew point curve, at its intersection with the horizontal line of pressure 128 bar; ●

●

24

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

TABLE 2.11.1 ENTHALPY BALANCE OF SIMPLE STEAM CYCLE Flow-rate (kg/s)

h (kJ/kg)

1

Point

1

113

2

1

126

3a

1

1524

3b

1

2672

3

1

3189

4

1

1870

Process (1-2)

(kW)

h (kW) 13

(2-3a)

1398

1398

(3a-3b)

1148

1148

(3b-3) (3-4)

517 1319

cycle energy efficiency

1306

517 1319

1757

(4-1)

●

Q (kW)

13

1757

1306 42.64%

superheating from 330 C to 447 C, process (3b-3). Point 3 is still assumed to be the same pressure, but at a temperature T3 of 447 C. It is thus at the intersection of the horizontal P 128 bar and the isotherm T 447 C (only partially shown in the figure).

Point 3 is also on an inclined downwards concave curve corresponding to a reversible adiabatic. Process (3-4) is a reversible adiabatic expansion from 128 bar to 0.0356 bar. The point being in the mixed zone, the latter is within isotherm T 27 C. Point 4 is at the intersection of the inclined downwards concave curve and this isotherm. Quality x is between 0.7 and 0.8. Linear interpolation allows us to estimate its value, equal to 0.72. The enthalpies of the points can be read directly by projecting these points on the x-axis, and the energies involved can be easily deducted. This allows us in particular to determine the cycle efficiency. Table 2.11.1 provides these values. Note that reading the compression work in this chart is very imprecise and it is best estimated from the integration of v dP, very easy to make, v being constant. It is therefore h v P, P being expressed in Pa, v in m3/kg and h in J. As shown in this example, the representation of the cycle in the (h, ln(P)) chart is very easy to understand: the heat exchanges, almost isobaric, correspond to horizontal segments, and the compression and expansion are reversible adiabatic, less steep as they are located far from the liquid zone. Figure 2.11.2 shows the cycle in the chart, the points being connected. The efficiency here is the ratio of the mechanical work produced to the heat supplied by the boiler. In reality, the turbine is not perfect, and expansion follows an irreversible adiabatic. It is customary to characterize the actual process by its isentropic efficiency defined in the case of a turbine as the ratio of actual work to the reversible expansion work. Its value is typically about 0.85 to 0.9 in current applications. To find the real point 4, we first determine the value of the perfect machine work s, then we multiply it by , which gives the value of real work . The enthalpy of point 4 is equal to that of point 3 minus .

25

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

(h, P) chart for water 256

3b

3a

2

128

3

64 32 16

Pressure P (bar)

8 4 2

1

0

4

500

1,000

1,500

2,000 Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

2,500

3,000

3,500

FIGURE 2.11.2 Steam power plant cycle in the (h, ln(P)) chart

In this case, taking 0.9, we have: s h3 h4 1319 kJ/kg/K s 0.9 1319 1187 h4 3199 1187 2002 kJ/kg/K Point 4, which is still in the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone, is thus on isobar P 0.0356 bar, i.e. on isotherm T 27 C with abscissa h 2002 kJ/kg/K. Figure 2.11.3 shows the new look of the cycle (the previous cycle is plotted in dashed line). Here we have not considered the pressure drops in heat exchangers. It would of course be possible to do so by operating on the same principle as described, and changing the pressure between the inlets and outlets of heat exchangers. 2.11.2 Refrigeration machine The R134a compression refrigeration cycle operates between a suction pressure of 1.78 bar and a condenser pressure of 12 bar. At the evaporator outlet , the fluid is fully vaporized and thus point 1 (see Figure 2.11.4) is located at the intersection of the saturation curve and the isobar P 1.78 bar, or, equivalently, the isotherm T 13 C. It is then compressed at 12 bar along a reversible adiabatic. Point 1 being located approximately one third of the distance between two reversible adiabats on the chart, it is possible, by linear interpolation, to determine point 2 on isobar P 12 bar, between these two curves.

26

(h, P) chart for water

256 2

128

3

3b

3a

64 32 16 8 Pressure P (bar)

4 2

1

0

4

500

1,000

1,500

4

2,000 Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

2,500

3,500

3,000

FIGURE 2.11.3 Steam power plant cycle with irreversible expansion (h, P) chart for R134a

64

32

16 Pressure P (bar)

3

3a2

8

4

2

1

4

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 2.11.4 Refrigeration machine simplified cycle 27

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

TABLE 2.11.2 SIMPLE REFRIGERATION CYCLE ENTHALPY BALANCE Point

Flow rate (kg/s)

h (kJ/kg)

1

1.00

391

2

1.00

430

3a

1.00

422

3

1.00

266

4

1.00

266

(kW)

Q (kW)

Process (1-2)

h (kW)

40

40

(2-3a)

8

8

(3a-3)

157

157

125

125

(3-4) (4-1) cycle

40

40

Coefficient of Performance

3.14

The refrigerant cooling in the condenser by exchange with outside air comprises two stages: de-superheating (2-3a) in the vapor zone followed by condensation along the horizontal line segment (3a-3). Points 3a and 3 lie at the intersection of the saturation curve and the isobar P 12 bar, or, equivalently, the isotherm T 47 C. Point 3a is located on the right, at the limit of the vapor zone, and point 3 on the left, at the limit of the liquid zone. Expansion without work, and therefore an isenthalpic process, corresponds to the vertical segment (3-4), point 4 being located on the isobar P 1.78 bar, or, equivalently, the isotherm T 13 C, at abscissa h h3. Its quality reads directly from the corresponding iso-quality: it is x 0.4. The energies involved can easily be determined by projecting these points on the x-axis. This allows us in particular to calculate the coefficient of performance COP of the cycle, defined as the ratio of useful effect (the heat extracted at the evaporator) to the purchased energy (here the compressor work). Table 2.11.2 provides these values. This cycle differs from that of a real machine on several points: the actual compression is not perfect, so that the compression work is higher than that which would lead to reversible adiabatic; to prevent aspiration of liquid into the compressor, which could deteriorate it as the liquid is incompressible, the gas is superheated by a few degrees (typically 5 K) above the saturation temperature before entering the compressor; before entering the valve, the liquid is sub-cooled by a few degrees (typically 5 K), this first ensures that this device is not supplied with vapor, and second increases the refrigerator performance. ●

●

●

Here we can also characterize the actual compression by an isentropic efficiency, defined this time as the ratio of the work of the reversible compression to real work. Its value is typically around 0.7 to 0.85 in current applications. To find the real point 2, we determine the value of work s in the perfect machine, then divide it by , which gives the value of real work . The enthalpy of point 2 is equal to that of point 1 plus . In this case, taking 0.75, we have: s h2 h1 40 kJ/kg/K s/ 40/0.75 53 h2 391 53 444 kJ/kg/K

28

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

(h, P) chart for R134a

64

32

16 Pressure P (bar)

3 3

3a2

2

8

4

2

11

4 4

200

150

250

300

350

400

450

500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 2.11.5 Refrigeration machine with superheating and sub-cooling

The cycle changed to reflect superheating, subcooling and compressor irreversibilities is shown in Figure 2.11.5 (the previous cycle is plotted in dashed line). The COP of the machine is of course changed: it drops to 2.57 because of the compressor irreversibilities. The relevance of sub-cooling can easily be shown in the (h, ln (P)) chart because, for the same compression work, the effectiveness increases as the magnitude of the sub-cooling grows. It is however limited by the need for a coolant. We did not consider the pressure drops in the exchangers. It would of course be possible to do so.

2.12

MODELING CYCLES WITH THERMOPTIM

At this point, all the notions allowing us to model these cycles with Thermoptim have been presented, and examples in Chapter 9 of Part 2 can be treated by changing the settings, which have been chosen slightly differently so that they can be easily hand-drawn in charts. Before you start entering models in Thermoptim, we recommend you to study Diapason initiation session S07En_ init which introduces all the software concepts needed. The synoptic views that are obtained are given in Figures 2.12.1 to 2.12.3.

[CRC_ln_9]

29

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

FIGURE 2.12.1 Synoptic view of the steam power plant

FIGURE 2.12.2 Synoptic view of the gas turbine

2.12.1

Steam power plant

WORKED EXAMPLE Modeling of a steam power plant with Thermoptim The basic cycle of a steam power plant is essentially a boiler where the fuel is burned for generating steam (usually superheated) which is then expanded in a steam turbine whose shaft provides the motor work. The expanded steam is subsequently condensed and compressed by a pump before returning to the boiler. The modeling of this cycle in Thermoptim is presented step by step in sections 9.1.1 to 9.1.5 of Part 2, with slightly different settings. [CRC_we_1]

30

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

FIGURE 2.12.3 Synoptic view of the refrigeration machine with superheating and sub-cooling

2.12.2

Gas turbine

WORKED EXAMPLE Modeling of a gas turbine with Thermoptim A gas turbine is composed of three elements: a compressor, a combustion chamber and a turbine, in which are expanded the high temperature gases. The setup that we will retain is: a gas turbine burning natural gas without dissociation sucks 1 t/s of air at 15 C and 1 bar, compresses it at 16 bar in a 0.85 isentropic efficiency compressor, and expands the burnt gases in a 0.85 isentropic efficiency turbine. The temperature of the gases at the turbine inlet is 1150 C. The modeling of this cycle in Thermoptim is presented step by step in sections 9.3 of Part 2.

[CRC_we_2]

2.12.3 Refrigeration machine

WORKED EXAMPLE Modeling of a refrigeration machine with Thermoptim In a refrigeration machine a refrigerant is evaporated at low pressure, then compressed at a pressure such that it is then possible to cool it by heat exchange with ambient air until it becomes liquid. The liquid is then expanded by isenthalpic throttling at low pressure and directed into the evaporator. The modeling of this cycle in Thermoptim is presented step by step in sections 9.2 of Part 2, with slightly different settings.

[CRC_we_3]

31

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

2.13

CONCLUSION

The essentially qualitative and phenomenological approach used in this presentation proves that it is possible to introduce thermal machine cycles to students with a limited number of thermodynamic concepts, especially not including entropy. To sum up, the foundations of a lightweight educational presentation of thermodynamic cycles (Figure 2.13.1) appear to be the following (we have indicated in parentheses sections of Part 2 of

Steam power plant 1) Brief description of technologies

Gas turbine Refrigeration machine Compression Expansion with work Expansion without work

2) Four basic functions

Heating exchange Heating Combustion

Temperature change Cooling Closed

System 3) Thermodynamic concepts

Heat exchange

Open

Surroundings Boundaries State

Lightweight educational presentation of thermodynamic cycles

Closed system 4) First law conservation of energy

Open system

Internal energy u Enthalpy h

Application to the four basic functions Compression Reversible adiabatic Expansion with work Isenthalpic

5) Reference processes

Expension without work Heating

Isobaric

Combustion Cooling

6) Energy exchange

Work

8) Direct modeling in Thermoptim

Map of the lightweight educational presentation milestones Part 1

32

Heat exchange

Heat

7) Pure substance properties

FIGURE 2.13.1

Heat exchange

Choice of state variables Plot in the thermodynamic charts

2. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS

the book where these points are developed in order to facilitate a further deepening of concepts discussed): Brief description of technologies, with their architecture (sections 9.1.1, 9.2.1 and 9.3.1); Highlighting the four basic functions: compression, expansion with work production, expansion without work production, heat exchange (section 5.3.6); Introduction of the concepts of thermodynamic system and state, distinction between closed systems and open systems (sections 5.1.1, 5.1.2); The thermodynamic systems we are interested in only exchange energy with their surroundings in two distinct forms: heat and work (Section 5.2); The fundamental law that governs the behavior of thermodynamic systems is that of conservation of energy, known as the first law (sections 5.3.1 to 5.3.4); Its application to the four basic processes shows that the determination of the enthalpy change of the fluid flowing through them is enough to calculate the energy they bring into play, whether work or heat (section 5.3.6); Brief reminders on pure substance properties and their graphic representation in thermodynamic charts (sections 5.6.1 and 5.6.6.1); Highlighting reference processes relevant to these functions for perfect machines (sections 7.1.2, 7.5, 7.7); Reflecting on the choice of state variables most appropriate for students with a light background in mathematics and physics, showing the educational potential of the (h, ln(P)) chart; Representation of the steam power plant and refrigeration machine cycles in these charts; Direct modeling of the cycles in Thermoptim (sections 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3). ● ●

●

●

●

●

●

●

●

● ●

All these milestones, with the exception of the two penultimate ones, are valid whether or not we use entropy. It is not for us to minimize the relevance of this state function: we consider only that it may be preferable not to introduce it at the beginning of training when students do not have the required culture. If they do, we of course have no objection to use it, quite the contrary. Without speaking of entropy, we insist instead on the adiabatic character of compressors and turbines, and the importance of the reversible adiabatic process as a reference for these machines. Without needing to say its name, the value of the entropy for cycle studies underlies therefore our approach, and its formal introduction at a later stage (e.g. in the second part of this presentation) is facilitated when the students have become familiar with all the new concepts presented here.

33

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3 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Entropy and the Second Law Abstract: The purpose of this chapter is to discuss key concepts which should be presented to absolute beginners in order to enable them to understand and study the cycles of three basic energy technologies: steam power plant, gas turbine and refrigerating machine. We are talking of lightweight educational presentation as we seek to minimize the background in mathematics and physics necessary for understanding these cycles, our goal being to make them accessible to readers unfamiliar with the language of specialists in thermodynamics. In the first part of this presentation (Chapter 2), we introduced the basic concepts of thermodynamics without resorting to the notion of entropy, which can be difficult to master for some students. In this second part, we introduce it as simply as possible, and discuss the main implications of the second law of thermodynamics. Keywords: lightweight educational presentation, steam power plant, gas turbine and refrigerating machine, heat exchange, enthalpy, entropy, second law of thermodynamics.

3.1

HEAT IN THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS

In the first part, we indicated that the heat exchanged by a system with the surroundings is, for an infinitesimal process, given by the following expression: Q Cp dT v dP

3.1.1

It expresses an experimental fact, the essential basis of the thermodynamics of compressible fluids: heat Q exchanged with the surroundings is a linear function of the thermodynamic state of the system. This equation is however valid only if there is no irreversibility inside or at the boundary of the fluid mass. If any, the relationship becomes: Q Cp dT v dP

3.1.2

Q Cp dT v dP

3.1.3

We can then write:

35

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

, essentially a positive term, has a very simple physical meaning: it is the heat generated by mechanical friction within the fluid. A straightforward interpretation for isobaric heating is that the fluid temperature rise dT is greater than Q/Cp because of irreversibilities. Although it differs profoundly from heat received from the surroundings, it changes the thermodynamic state of the system in the same way. Q is the heat exchanged with the surroundings, counted positively if it is received by the system and negatively otherwise, and the heat dissipated by internal friction and shocks if any. It is always positive or zero. In practice, it is important to distinguish these two forms of heat, otherwise serious errors of reasoning can be made. In particular, processes without heat exchange with the surroundings, called adiabatic, are such that Q 0, whether the seat of irreversibility or not, that is to say whether is zero or not.

3.2 INTRODUCTION OF ENTROPY In the first part, we stressed how important in practice are reference processes corresponding to the processes that fluids would undergo in perfect machines. We have also shown that, for compressors and turbines, the reference process is the reversible adiabatic, the corresponding law for a perfect gas being given by Pv Const. with Cp/Cv. It is obtained by solving the differential equation Q 0 Cp dT v dP, which is quite simple replacing v by rT/P. Given the importance of this law, it is interesting to try to generalize it to find a formulation that is valid on the one hand for all fluids and not only perfect gases, and secondly for all the processes, whether or not they bring into play irreversibilities. Let us come back to the equation: Q Cp dT v dP

3.2.1

Q Cp dT v dP

3.2.2

which is also written:

This equation is an inexact differential and not an exact differential. We call an integrating factor an expression by which one multiplies an inexact differential in order to turn it into an exact differential. We can show that in the general case as for a perfect gas, 1/T is one of the simplest integrating factors for this equation. For the perfect gas, this integral expression is written: s s0 cp ln

T P r ln T0 P0

3.2.3

As can be seen, function s is a state function formally very close to the calorimetric equation providing heat exchanged by a system with its surroundings, as it can be deduced by using as integrating factor I 1/T. It is called the entropy of the system. In the (h, ln(P)) charts that we presented in the first part, the iso-value curves of the reversible adiabatic are those for which ds 0. They are called isentropic. The concept of entropy is thus introduced naturally, entropy being the state function closest to heat. There is no evidence in this approach, however, that this concept remains valid for nonperfect gases. With the more axiomatic definition we will give by introducing the second law, a perfect gas becomes a special case of the general theory.

36

3. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW

3.3

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

3.3.1 Limits of the first law of thermodynamics A major limitation of the first law of thermodynamics is the failure to take into account the quality of energy: indeed different forms of energy expressed in kWh are equivalent, but the possibilities of converting one form of energy into another are not. Thus, work can still be fully converted into heat, but the converse is not true. The work is one form of energy whose quality is among the best, and which can therefore be taken as a reference. We can rephrase this by saying that a possible indicator of the energy quality is its ability to be converted into work. The first law postulates the equivalence of different forms of energy, but it does not take into account an essential experimental fact, which is that when a system interacts with its surroundings, the energy processes that it undergoes can only take place in a privileged sense, that cannot be reversed without a qualitative change in the system.

3.3.2 Concept of irreversibility One can convert electricity into work using an electric motor of efficiency over 98%, or conversely convert mechanical work into electricity through a generator of equivalent efficiency, which means that these two forms of energy are about the same quality. In the example of power conversion work we have just given, we stated that the machines used had excellent efficiencies, close to but slightly lower than 1: experience indeed shows that, whatever precautions are taken, some energy is degraded. The first law teaches us that the total energy is conserved, but some of its quality declines and ultimately ends up as heat, because of friction, Joule losses etc. These losses are called irreversibilities, because the process work → electricity → work is not completely reversible: part of the initial work is converted into heat. Irreversibilities encountered in energy facilities that interest us, except those taking place in combustion reactions, can be grouped into two broad classes that we discuss briefly a little later: irreversibilities stemming from temperature heterogeneity; mechanical irreversibilities due to viscosity. ● ●

3.3.3

Heat transfer inside an isolated system, conversion of heat into work

In the particular case of heat, it is always experimentally verified without exception, that the transfer of heat between two media at different temperatures is from the warmer body (the one whose temperature is higher), to the colder (whose temperature is lower). Also a heterogeneous system composed of two media at different temperatures not isolated from each other always evolves towards a homogeneous state at intermediate temperature. Moreover, when attempting to convert heat into work, experience proves that it is first necessary to have two heat sources, one at high temperature, and the other at low temperature (Figure 3.3.1). Moreover, the larger the temperature difference between the sources, the greater the amount of work that can be converted from one kWh of heat. Temperature thus also appears as a possible indicator of the heat quality. A further remark can be made at this stage: it is the existence of a temperature difference between two bodies that allows for work production.

37

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

Hot source at T1 Q1 Work W

Q2 Cold source at T2

FIGURE 3.3.1 Conversion of heat into work

3.3.4

Statement of the second law

The second law complements the first by introducing a function called entropy, which is used to quantitatively characterize the effects of irreversibilities taking place in a system and explain the phenomena we have just discussed. A rigorous and comprehensive presentation of the second law requires significant developments due to the precautions that must be taken first in writing assumptions and explanations of their connection with experience, and second in demonstrations which must be made. Given our objectives, this is not justified here, especially as for applied thermodynamic calculations of practical interest, the main advantage of this second law can be summarized in two points: first, entropy is, as we have shown, the state function most closely related to the heat Q exchanged with the surroundings. It thus intervenes implicitly or explicitly in many equations governing the operation of energy components; second, the generation of entropy alone allows us to quantify all the irreversibilities taking place in these components and their boundaries, which is fundamental. ●

●

The second law states that entropy s has the following properties: s is a function of the system state variables; in any elementary process involving heat exchange Q with the surroundings we have Q T ds, equality being satisfied if and only if the process is perfect (not irreversible). Writing:

● ●

ds =

Q + di s T

3.3.1

dis, positive or zero, is called “entropy generation”. This relationship can also be written, as we mentioned above: Q T ds

3.3.2

is called “uncompensated work” or “uncompensated heat”. It is positive for an irreversible process and zero otherwise.

3.4 (T, s) ENTROPY CHART In the first part of this lightweight presentation, we excluded entropy from variables we have considered to represent the fluid properties. Now that we have introduced this state function, it is natural to question its relevance in this regard.

38

3. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW

(T, s) entropy chart for water p

2.5

700

500 T

400

C e

n

iso-quality

rv

300

cu

tio

ra

tu

sa

200

lume

iso-vo

5

r ba

p

2.

.12

v0

isobar p 2.5 sa

tur

ati

on

0.5

iso

0

2

motor cycle

h 3000

x

100

alp nth ise

Temperature T (°C)

isob

ar

600

4

6

8

cycle running in reverse

cu

rve

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

s

FIGURE 3.4.1

FIGURE 3.4.2

Water (T, s) entropy chart

Types of cycles in the entropy chart

Experience shows that the entropy and Mollier charts, which use as coordinates pairs (T, s) and (h, s), are particularly interesting, especially the first, to which we limit our analysis here. In the entropy chart (Figure 3.4.1) entropy is the abscissa and temperature the ordinate. The vaporization curve again separates the plane into two areas, defining the two-phase zone and the zone of simple fluid. The critical point C is still at its maximum. One of the advantages of such a chart (see Figure 3.4.2) is that any perfect cyclic process is reflected in the plane (T, s) by a contour (), whose area A measures, depending on the sign, either the amount of heat Q brought into play, or the work provided or received . Indeed, Q 兰T ds by definition. As the cycle is closed, Q 0, and || A. The rule of signs is as follows: if the cycle is described clockwise, work is negative, thus transferred by the fluid to the surroundings: we talk of a motor cycle or of a cycle running forward; if the cycle is described counterclockwise it is the opposite: we talk of a refrigeration cycle, or of a cycle running in reverse. ●

●

Form of isobars To the left of the incipient boiling curve, liquid isobars are curved upward. Liquid isentropic compression having almost no effect on the temperature, liquid isobars are virtually merged with the ascending branch of the vaporization curve. The chart is very imprecise in this area and it is preferable to use a table or a program giving the thermodynamic properties along the vaporization curve. Inside the two-phase zone, temperature and pressure are bound by the saturated pressure law, and isobars are horizontal. Right of the vaporization curve, isobars are rising and, for an ideal gas, become exponential. They can be deduced from each other by horizontal translation. If the pressure exceeds the critical pressure, isobars are strictly ascending curves, which do not intersect the vaporization curve. Form of isenthalps In the vicinity of the saturation curve, isenthalps are curved downward, with a strong negative slope.

39

First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

Gradually as the distance from the vaporization curve increases, the gas approaches the corresponding ideal gas, and isenthalps become horizontal, as enthalpy is a sole function of temperature. Of course, the plot of an isentropic process is very simple in this chart: it is a vertical segment.

3.5 CARNOT EFFECTIVENESS OF HEAT ENGINES Motor thermal machines are designed to transform heat into mechanical energy. Let us assume that heat to transform is provided by an external source, said heat source, whose temperature T1 is set. A second source, known as cold, is required to evacuate part of the heat. Its temperature T2 is necessarily lower than T1. The second law is due to S. Carnot, who in 1824 showed that the efficiency of an ideal heat engine cycle is given by: 1 – T2/T1. Carnot has shown that this efficiency does not depend on the nature of the machine and fluids used, but only T1 and T2. In the (T, s) entropy chart, it is represented by the rectangle ABCD, described clockwise (Figure 3.5.1). AB is a segment of isotherm T1 described from left to right. The fluid receives heat (isothermal expansion in the case of a perfect gas); CD is a segment of isotherm T2 described from right to left. The fluid releases heat (isothermal compression in the case of a perfect gas); BC is a segment of isentropic S2 described from top to bottom (reversible adiabatic expansion in all cases); DA is a segment of isentropic S1 described from bottom to top (reversible adiabatic compression in all cases). ●

●

●

●

This relation is probably rightly one of the best known in thermodynamics. It is of great practical importance, given its implications: First, with the assumptions made (reverse cycle without friction and heat transfer without temperature differences), it is easy to show that this effectiveness is the highest that can be achieved by a simple fluid heat engine operating between the two sources at T1 and T2. It is therefore a maximum limit and real cycles generally have much lower efficiencies; Secondly, the Carnot effectiveness of all reversible machines operating between the two sources at T1 and T2 is the same and only depends on their temperatures, not on the working fluid used.

●

●

T

T T1

1

B

A

2

T2

S1

40

C

D S2

S

ΔH

FIGURE 3.5.1

FIGURE 3.6.1

Carnot cycle

Constant temperature heat exchanger

3. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW

3.6

IRREVERSIBILITIES IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

3.6.1 Heat exchangers In a heat exchanger, heat can only be transferred between two streams if a certain temperature difference exists between them. Indeed, for both technical and economic reasons, the exchange surfaces between these fluids are necessarily finite. It is then possible to show that the heat exchange is accompanied by an increase in entropy at the boundary between the two streams (at temperatures T1 and T2, Figure 3.6.1), given by: ⎛ T T2 ⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ Q dis ⎜⎜⎜ 1 ⎝ T1T2 ⎠⎟ Q being the heat absorbed by fluid 2. These irreversibilities are often described as external, because they take place at the boundary of the system. The larger the temperature difference between the fluids, the greater the entropy creation. In a heat exchanger, the energy (enthalpy) transferred by the hot fluid to the cold fluid is conserved, but because the transfer is taking place with temperature decrease, entropy increases. In energy systems, the temperature difference that must exist between two fluids that exchange heat generally constitutes an important source of irreversibility. 3.6.2 Compressors and turbines We stated above that the compression and expansion devices are generally adiabatic (Q 0). In an adiabatic reversible compressor or turbine, there is no creation of entropy. We say that evolution is isentropic, a very important concept in practice because it involves the reference process against which actual changes are characterized. In real machines, as we saw in the first part of this presentation, we can take into account irreversibilities by introducing what we called an isentropic efficiency, equal to the ratio of isentropic work to real work for compressors, and the reverse for turbines, i.e. the ratio of actual work to isentropic work.

3.7

PLOT OF CYCLES IN THE ENTROPY CHART, QUALITATIVE COMPARISON WITH THE CARNOT CYCLE

The Carnot cycle being the one that leads to the best effectiveness, it is almost always interesting to compare actual cycles to it. In this section, we perform such a comparison for each of the cycles that we studied in the first part of this presentation.

3.7.1 Steam power plant In the entropy chart (Figure 3.7.1), to increase readability, we have not shown iso-volumes. Points 1 and 2 showing compression in the liquid state are almost superimposed, and heating in the liquid state almost coincides with the liquid saturation curve. Vaporization is done in a horizontal line segment. The isobaric superheating (3) is the maximum peak of the cycle and the irreversible expansion is reflected by an increase of entropy, the point 4 being located within the vapor-liquid equilibrium zone (quality equal to 0.775).

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First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

(T, s) entropy chart for water A

800

B

700

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600

500 3

400 3a

3b

300

200

100 4 C

D

0

2

4 Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

6

8

FIGURE 3.7.1 Steam power plant and Carnot cycles in the entropy chart

In order to plot the Carnot cycle (A-B-C-D), we have assumed that T1 800 C and T2 15 C (in practice T1 is higher). The comparison of both cycles leads to the following comments: 1. the condenser (process 4-1) being a heat exchanger of finite size, condensing water cannot be at the same temperature as the cold source, which is a first difference with the Carnot cycle. However, we can consider that the heat exchange is nearly isothermal and irreversibilities are small; 2. compression (process 1-2) in the pump may at first approximation be assumed isentropic, its irreversibilities being low. However it deviates significantly from the Carnot cycle because the compression end temperature is about the same as that of the cold source, rather than that of the hot one; 3. we have seen that the isobaric pressurized water heating is done in three steps: liquid heating in the economizer up to the saturation temperature at the pressure considered (process 2-3a); vaporization at constant temperature in the vaporizer (process 3a-3b); superheating up to maximum temperature in the boiler cycle (process 3b-3). ●

● ●

Given the shape of isobars in the entropy chart, this isobaric heating process deviates much from the Carnot cycle which states that the heat engine exchanges heat at constant temperature with the hot source. In particular the temperature difference with the hot source is maximum in the economizer: heat at high temperature is used to warm water below 100 C. 4. turbine (process 3-4) has an isentropic efficiency close to 0.85. Again the difference with the Carnot cycle is significant. As illustrated in the figure, the shape of the steam power plant differs appreciably from that of the Carnot cycle: it looks rather like a triangle than a rectangle, and its surface is much smaller. There is room for improvement by conducting reheats that lead to so-called para-isothermal expansion, and extractions which allow to perform a partial regeneration.

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3. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW

(T, s) entropy chart for air

1,200

A

3

B

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800

600 4 2 400

200

C 0 0

0.2

0.4

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1

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1.4

FIGURE 3.7.2 Gas turbine and Carnot cycles in the entropy chart

3.7.2 Gas turbine In the entropy chart (Figure 3.7.2), irreversible compression and expansion result in an increase of entropy (air inlet-2, and 3-4). Heating in the combustion chamber is isobaric. However, as the working fluid composition changes during the combustion, the properties of the burnt gases are not exactly the same as those of air and we should not in principle plot points 3 and 4 on the same chart as points 1 and 2. There is indeed a change in entropy due to the combustion which explains why points 2 and 3 and points air inlet and 4 seem not to be on the same isobar. In order to plot the Carnot cycle (A-B-C-D), we have assumed that T1 1150 C and T2 15 C. The comparison of both cycles leads to the following comments: 1. compression (process 1-2) cannot be assumed to be isentropic, due to irreversibilities taking place in the compressor. It departs from the Carnot cycle; 2. combustion (process 2-3) takes place at constant pressure. Given the shape of the isobars on an entropy chart (similar to exponential), the difference is important between this process and the Carnot cycle which states that the heat engine exchanges heat at constant temperature with the hot source. 3. turbine (process 3-4) has an isentropic efficiency close to 0.9. Again the difference with the Carnot cycle is significant. 4. hot gases leaving the turbine are then discharged directly into the atmosphere, which is an important form of irreversibility, since their heat is lost. As illustrated in the figure, the shape of the gas turbine cycle differs appreciably from that of the Carnot cycle: it looks rather like a diamond than a rectangle, and its surface is much smaller. Improvements can be obtained by conducting cooled staged compression, staged expansion with reheats, regeneration and combined cycle arrangement.

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First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

3.7.3

Refrigeration machine

In the entropy chart (Figure 3.7.3), to increase readability, we have not shown the isovolumes. Point 1 (partly masked by point C), slightly superheated, is placed on isobar 1.8 bar right of the saturated vapor curve. Irreversible compression results in an increase of entropy. Cooling with outside air has three stages: de-superheating (2-3a) in the vapor phase, condensation along the horizontal segment (3a-3b), and a slight sub-cooling (3b-3) which almost coincides with the liquid saturation curve. Isenthalpic throttling (3-4) leads to an increase of entropy, point 4 being located within the zone of vapor-liquid equilibrium (quality equal to 0.363). In order to plot the reverse Carnot cycle (A-B-C-D), we have assumed that T1 40 C and T2 8 C. The comparison of both cycles leads to the following comments: 1. the evaporator being a heat exchanger of finite size, the refrigerant cannot be at the same temperature as the cold chamber, which is a first difference with the reverse Carnot cycle. However, we can consider that the heat exchange is nearly isothermal; 2. compression cannot be assumed to be isentropic, due to irreversibilities taking place in the compressor, which induces a new gap with the reverse Carnot cycle; 3. cooling and condensation of the refrigerant by heat exchange with ambient air generally cannot be isothermal, given the thermodynamic properties of refrigerants: you must first desuperheat the vapor, then condense it. Given the shape of isobars on an entropy chart, the difference with the reverse Carnot cycle is very important here; 4. the expansion of the condensed refrigerant could theoretically be close to isentropic, but the technological reality is different, and this for three reasons: firstly the expansion of a two-phase (T, s) entropy chart for R134a

80 2 60 3a

Temperature T (°C)

40

3 A

B

D 4

C

20

0

20

40

1

1.2

1.4

1.6 Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 3.7.3 Refrigeration machine and reverse Carnot cycles in the entropy chart

44

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3. FIRST STEPS IN THERMODYNAMICS: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW

mixture is done, unless special precautions are taken, with low isentropic efficiency; second, the work at stake is very low; and finally, especially for low-capacity refrigerators, there is no — suitable and cheap expansion machine. Therefore in practice one resorts to expansion valves or even simple capillary static devices that perform isenthalpic throttling. Again the gap with the reverse Carnot cycle is significant. As illustrated in the figure, the reverse Carnot cycle appears inside the actual refrigeration cycle. The main difference is the compression curve (1-2-3a) due to the shape of isobars in the vapor zone. The surface of the actual cycle is larger.

3.8

CONCLUSION

In the first part of this presentation, we have shown that it is possible to introduce thermal machine cycles to students without referring to entropy. In this second part, we have shown that this notion is particularly interesting because it allows us to take into account irreversibilities that take place in actual processes. Exchanged with surroundings 1) Heat Q Generated by irreversibilities 2) Introduction of entropy

Reversible adiabatic 1/T integrating factor

Energy quality Limits of the first principle

3) Second law of thermodynamics

Concept of irreversibility

Non-reversible processes Temperature heterogeneity Mechanical losses

Lightweight educational presentation of thermodynamic cycles (Part 2): entropy and second principle

Conversion of heat into work 4) Entropy charts 5) Carnot effectiveness 6) Irreversibilities in industrial processes

Heat exchangers Compressors turbines

7) Plot of cycles in the entropy chart

8) Qualitative comparison with the Carnot cycle

FIGURE 3.8.1 Map of the lightweight educational presentation milestones (Part 2)

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First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics

Qualitative comparison with the Carnot cycle can be made in the (T, s) entropy chart and provide guidance on possible improvements. The different steps that we recommend (Figure 3.8.1) are the following (we have indicated in parentheses sections of Part 2 of the book where these points are developed in order to facilitate a further deepening of concepts discussed): Heat in thermodynamic systems (section 5.2.2); Limits of the first law of thermodynamics (beginning of section 5.4); Concept of irreversibility (section 5.4.2); Heat transfer inside an isolated system, conversion of heat into work; Statement of the second law (section 5.4.1); Presentation of the (T, s) entropy chart (section 5.6.6.1); Carnot effectiveness of heat engines (section 5.4.3); Irreversibilities in industrial processes (section 5.4.2); Plot of cycles in the entropy chart (sections 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3); Qualitative comparison with the Carnot cycle. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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2 Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components (T, s) entropy chart for water p

2.5

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500 400

C e

n

iso-quality

rv

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cu

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isobar p 2.5 sa

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alp

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Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

Part 2 establishes the main equations allowing one to calculate the behavior of basic components used in most energy technologies (compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, throttling devices, heat exchangers etc.). A structured approach to energy conversion technologies (ECTs) modeling with Thermoptim is given, followed by the presentation of the main features of the software and by four practical worked examples

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4 Introduction Abstract: The approach proposed in this book is based on the observation that thermodynamics is much simpler in qualitative than in quantitative terms. To explain it, we first briefly introduce the operation of a gas turbine1, an engine whose principle is among the simplest. This will allow us to enter the heart of the matter by introducing a number of concepts needed for studying energy technologies: the fluids involved, the processes they undergo and the corresponding components, and finally assemblies of these components. This will show the relevance of a twofold methodological approach. We then show that this methodology involves two complementary approaches, the analytical approach used to represent each component, and the systems approach as regards the definition of the internal architecture of the system. The subsequent sections explain how the methodology proposed can be put in practice and present Thermoptim primitive types allowing one to model energy technologies according to it. Keywords: Analytical modeling, systems modeling, energy technologies, primitive types, Thermoptim.

4.1 A TWO-LEVEL METHODOLOGY 4.1.1 Physical phenomena taking place in a gas turbine The gas turbine, also called combustion turbine, is a heat engine which is currently very popular, given its excellent performance (efficiency greater than 35% when used alone, and 55% in combined cycle). As we have seen Section 2.1.2 of Part 1, this machine is composed of three elements (Figure 2.1.2 of Part 1), a compressor, a combustion chamber and a turbine. This very simple example is not representative, by far, of the operation of all internal combustion engines. It can however give a first idea of the complexity of the phenomena that take place, and therefore the knowledge necessary to calculate them: the various components of the machine are coupled. Their couplings come on the one hand from the fluid passing through them, and on the second hand from the mechanical connection between the compressor and turbine shafts; ●

1

We content ourselves here with a brief introduction of this technology, Chapter 12 of Part 3 being dedicated to it.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

●

●

●

●

●

working fluids are here gas mixtures: firstly the air and fuel and then burnt gases. They can in each case be considered as ideal gases, whose thermodynamic energy properties depend only on temperature; in other power plants such as steam power plants, the working fluid passes alternately from the liquid state to vapor. The ideal gas model is no longer sufficient and must be replaced by much more complex real fluids models, the energy properties depending on both pressure and temperature; the compression and expansion phases are of crucial importance in the functioning of the engine, because conversions of energy between the fluid and the drive shaft take place during them; combustion reaction is highly complex, currently still imperfectly known, but may nevertheless be approached by different methods, which calculate the energies involved and give an idea of the origin of pollutants; finally, the working fluids pass through the various engine components, and understanding their flow conditions requires advanced concepts in fluid mechanics (which are not discussed in this book).

4.1.2

Energy technologies: component assemblies

Like the gas turbine, energy technologies are assemblies of components through which flow thermodynamic working fluids which undergo changes of varying complexity. In some cases, such as in reciprocating diesel or gasoline engines, the same organ (cylinder and piston assembly) is brought successively to play the role of the compressor, combustor and expansion device. In summary, the study of an energy technology such as a gas turbine faces a double challenge: fluids that pass through its various components follow behavior laws that are relatively complex and undergo basic processes whose analysis can be difficult (non-linear laws, combustion, etc.); components are coupled together, so they cannot be calculated independently. ●

●

Note however that in the example shown the connections between components are very simple: the outlet of the compressor is the inlet of the combustion chamber and the output of the latter the entrance to the turbine. This simplicity of the interconnection network is general and suggests adopting a dual approach in the study of energy technologies, separating on the one hand the description of the interconnection network between components, and on the other hand the internal behavior analysis thereof. This procedure has many advantages as discussed later in this book. The approach proposed in the five parts of this book is thus based on the observation that thermodynamics is much simpler in the qualitative than quantitative terms. Energy technologies being assemblies of components through which flow thermodynamic fluids which undergo various processes, we greatly simplify things if we adopt a dual approach, starting by separating the representation of the overall system, usually quite simple, from the study of its components taken individually. The overall representation is very useful at the qualitative level: it is visual and helps us to understand the role played by each component in the complete system. When learning the subject, it is essential to fully assimilate the design principles of these technologies. Once one has in mind the internal structure of an engine or refrigerator, the study of the behavior of one of its components is made easier because we understand its place in the whole and how it contributes to the overall performance. If one has a proper graphical environment such as the Thermoptim diagram editor (Figure 2.12.2 of Part 1), the internal structure of the system can be described very easily. This gives a qualitative representation, very meaningful for the engineer, which can be quantified by setting the thermodynamic properties of the different components and then calculating them. This qualitative representation has furthermore the distinction of being largely independent of assumptions that are

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4. INTRODUCTION

adopted for the calculation of the various components: it is an invariant of the system. Thus, a given system architecture can be calculated with various component models. This double modeling approach involves two approaches often presented as exclusive but which are in this case complementary and mutually enriching: the analytical approach used to represent each component by a number of characteristic parameters, coupling variables and a set of appropriate equations; the systems approach as regards the definition of the internal architecture of the system (choice of components, description of their relationships). ●

●

Not only does such an approach significantly simplify the modeling process and facilitate subsequent use and maintenance of the model, but mostly it secures its construction by automating the establishment of linkages between the various component elements and ensuring consistency. This point is especially important when the system under study comprises a large number of components. This approach is moreover the only way to focus efforts on innovative study of cycles, which is now a research field both fascinating and essential for the future. The many interesting ideas that have been proposed recently, for example to develop cycles without CO2 emissions, are there to witness for the fruitfulness of this area of investigation, which it is essential to educate our students. 4.1.3

Generalities about numerical models

It seems particularly important to proceed in this manner as, due to the development of information technology, the way the engineer mobilizes his scientific knowledge has evolved in recent years. The time when he started from the fundamental equations and resolved them himself is now pretty much gone. Increasingly, he uses models that encapsulate the equations needed, and implements them in modeling environments to facilitate their assembly. Modeling thus playing an increasing role in his activity, it is important that he is able to choose wisely the models he uses and evaluates well their limitations. Developing a strong culture in modeling should increasingly emerge as an inevitable necessity in engineering education2. Beyond the immediate resolution of a given problem, modeling, if it is to be effective, must be economical, safe and reusable. Based on work in this field in recent decades, it appears that this implies that it is modular (note that the etymology of both words is the same), and the assembly of complex models is facilitated by appropriate tools: modeling environments. An environment for modeling energy technologies should if possible allow one to combine a systemic approach for global modeling, and an analytical or empirical thought process for developing component models. These two approaches turn out to be very complementary to model some technical systems. This requires: first identifying all the basic concepts necessary to solve a given class of problems. This raises the question of genericity: how, from a few basic primitive types, can we generate a large number of cases, what are the basic features that should be available, etc. The answer to this question is primarily a systems modeling one; second, primitive types being identified, establishing the corresponding models. The approach here is essentially analytical or empirical, connections and interrelationships between the modules being performed by coupling well-chosen variables. ●

●

2

For further details, the reader may refer to the document “Numerical models and modeling environments: tools to effectively mobilize scientific knowledge” available at: http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/basemethodologique/modelisation-systemes/modeles-numeriques, or to (Hagin, 2000).

[CRC_ln_1]

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A good modeling environment thus consists on the one hand of a set of primitive types, forming a sufficient basis for the generation of as many projects as possible, and on the other hand an interface allowing one to easily link these primitives to represent studied objects, and having additional features, including archival material. Numerical models are perhaps the most powerful basic tools to study complex systems. Modeling is a necessity and it does not supplant the experiment: it complements it by lowering the cost of studies and allowing one to understand operation modes otherwise inaccessible to direct observation. A numerical model is a simplified mathematical representation (or approximate abstract representation) of the studied system, which allows its behavior to be investigated. This is an operational tool developed by the engineer or physicist to solve the various problems they face. It is important to note that a model is false by definition. Thus, it can have behaviors that are specific and distinct from those of the studied system. However, it may fail to represent some system behaviors. What is important is that these approximations do not influence the interpretations we make. We can define on the one hand a phenomenological, or analytic, modeling based on a decomposition of the problem and the application of physical laws, and on the other hand a empirical modeling, based on correlations or laws derived from experimental data (especially when the complexity or the random nature of the problem studied prevents a phenomenological approach). In fact, the models used are often the result of a compromise between these two modes of operation. In a deductive or analytical approach, most of the parameters introduced in the model have a physical meaning. These parameters may have been measured and some are known accurately, others are known in a range that is too large or impossible to measure. Finally, the more the model takes liberties with phenomenology, the more parameters appear having no physical meaning, sometimes known as calibration parameters. Ultimately, in a purely empirical or inductive approach parameters often have no direct physical meaning. When the degree of complexity of the system is very high, the number of components, interactions and descriptive parameters does not always make possible a deductive approach. In this case, there are techniques which, from experimental data (Input-Output), can be used to derive simplified mathematical models called behavior models. This non-phenomenological modeling approach does not allow us to improve or optimize the system studied. It can be used to characterize an existing system, to simulate it, or to control it. The methods used are borrowed mostly from control science and statistical sciences (regressions, correlations, parameter identification etc.). Among these, identification opens up particularly attractive prospects because a black-box type study may allow, by analyzing only inputs and outputs of a system, good models to be obtained, even in the absence of equations set beforehand on the basis of the laws of physics. Identification methods therefore provide further insight into the traditional physics approach. In the broadest sense, identification is the phase that allows one to determine the numerical values of parameters used in the model, the selection criterion being to minimize the error between the calculated quantities and magnitudes observed experimentally.

4.2

PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DOUBLE ANALYTICAL-SYSTEMS APPROACH

Incidentally, we have to use the term model in two different meanings, that the context will usually distinguish without difficulty: component models, which will be discussed in section 4.4.3, are used to calculate or analyze the internal behavior of a component, and system models (see Section 4.4.6), which are in the form of an assembly of previous models.

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The Thermoptim core was built to help represent the most common components: compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, expansion valves and heat exchangers. Their thermodynamic models being almost universally accepted, it was possible to program them once and for all. The software includes a second family of components, which take the form of external Java classes. These components (e.g. solar collectors, cooling coils, cooling towers, fuel cells, chemical reactors etc.) are easily customizable by users, who thus have the opportunity to define themselves the phenomenological and behavior models they wish to retain. To implement the dual systems/analytical approach that we advocate, we must operate in two stages: begin by building models of system components; assemble them to create the model of the overall system. ● ●

The first step is essential and a prerequisite so that the systemic approach can be implemented. For a user, the problem is different depending on whether a realistic enough model is available or not in Thermoptim core or among external classes: when all required components are already available, the modeling approach is essentially limited to the systemic phase: it consists of assembling models of pre-built components, and then set them; when it is necessary to develop some component models, the external classes development environment allows one to create these models and make them compatible with the software.

●

●

Once the component models are available, building the model of a thermodynamic system with Thermoptim is very simple: we first make a qualitative description by representing it graphically as a set of components connected by links representing the fluid pipes or heat exchangers; the model defined is then quantified by setting the various primitive types that are involved, in order to calculate its performance, making use of the predefined templates.

●

●

The diagram editor allows for the qualitative stage: the user provides in a first step only the minimum information necessary for the logical definition of the project he builds (implicitly the types of components that he selects and explicitly their name and exit point and the substance associated with them, as well as the value of the flow through them). Then, when he interconnects these components, some of this information is automatically propagated from upstream to downstream (for example, the inlet point of the downstream component becomes the same as the one at the upstream component outlet). This small number of basic information provided to the graphical modeler corresponds to the systemic description of the technology studied. When this step is complete, it becomes possible to transfer in the simulator the diagram components to create the primitive types required, with a default setting of their thermodynamic properties. Quantification of the desired model can then be made by refining this setting, each element of the simulator being easily displayed by double-clicking either on the corresponding component in the diagram editor, or on a table line of the main simulator project screen. Once the element parameters are set and calculated, the results can be directly displayed in the diagram editor, which thus becomes a true synopsis of the installation, or plotted as a cycle in one interactive chart. The objective of this book is to enable readers to understand the design principles of energy systems and to have an overview of the different technologies available for their realization. We try to show how a structured approach to the study of energy technologies can be implemented based on these principles by relying on Thermoptim software, which was specifically designed for that purpose. This book will have achieved its objectives if the dual approach it offers is able to show readers that it is now perfectly possible to reconcile facilitated study of energy systems and accurate calculations, when you have an appropriate modeling environment.

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We believe that it is only if they are truly convinced that many students and engineers will be motivated for the discipline and desire to invest in it, when so many have so far been repelled by the heaviness of the mathematical formalism and calculations.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Modeling basic thermodynamic cycles with Thermoptim Three examples of practical application of the methodology presented in this section are presented Chapter 9: steam power plant, gas turbine and refrigeration machine. The steam power plant and the gas turbine are engines intended to convert heat into mechanical power, while the third cycle is a machine designed to extract heat at a temperature lower than the atmosphere thanks to a mechanical energy input.

4.3

METHODOLOGY

When analyzing the most common energy technologies, we see that the number of elements which they are composed of is relatively limited, and that in most cases each component for a given phase of operation may be called mono-functional, as it exchanges energy according to a preferred mode, either as purely thermal (heat transfer) or by converting mechanical energy into heat energy or vice versa. Consequently, functions that the various components are required to complete can be grouped into relatively few categories and calculated independently from each other, forming what one might call the primitive types basis which constitutes the core of Thermoptim. It is sufficient to represent a large number of energy technologies, including those used in most conventional cycles. As we have already indicated, and as we will have the opportunity to show repeatedly in this work, the external class mechanism allows us to supplement this basis by adding to the software other components, particularly multi-functional ones. The case of heat exchangers is somewhat unusual because it is clear that the calculations of the cooling of one fluid and the heating of the other must be conducted in a coupled manner. A special treatment will be reserved as discussed below. When interconnected, these components are systems to which it is fruitful to apply the techniques of systems modeling, which we outline in the next section.

4.3.1

Systems modeling: the General System

The systems approach is the best available theoretical basis for understanding devices incorporating a set of components, each relatively complex, interconnected by a network of relationships also complex, organized according to a goal, and such that the behavior of each component can be explained only by that of the whole, while no one can derive a priori simple behavioral laws. Introducing a systems modeling approach is even less easy as it is an evolving theory, which still lacks a universally recognized theoretical framework. One of the best summaries is probably the General System Theory of J. L. Le Moigne (1984), which defines itself as a systems modeling theory, to which the interested reader may refer. A special feature of this presentation is to build an artificial General System, having all core systems characteristics. It is a sort of a model of models, which provides an analytical framework for all real systems, whose main interest is to provide guidance for operational modeling.

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Without going into details, it is important to note that the systemic approach focuses on the functions of each of the elements which compose the system, which distinguishes it from the conventional Cartesian approach, which emphasizes the analytical description of phenomenological laws. To describe a component, the conventional analytical approach has indeed to resort to describing all the relationships that explain its internal behavior (development of knowledge models). A purely functional approach does not necessarily have that luxury of detail. Where it is possible to establish a pattern of behavior based on analysis of only component inputs/outputs, without any assumptions about its physical or abstract content, we talk about a “black box” model or empirical model. This concept has proven very powerful, including in control science, where it is often not necessary to know the detailed inner workings of a process in order to control it. In some cases, we only know partly the content or structure of the component. It then becomes possible to establish more accurate models or of a wider range of validity by using this information to guide the model choice. This is known as a gray box or adapted or semi-empirical model. It is precisely this type of representation we use to model the components involved in energy technologies. The advantage of using systems analysis is that, to a very large extent, the structure of a system is independent of the degree of fineness of the modeling (the contents of the boxes). This organizational structure, which is a characteristic of the system in question, may therefore be subject to particular analyses, which remain valid if some process models are changed. This property allows one to operate in an iterative manner, while maintaining the gains of the previous phases, which is very efficient and economical. Two of the main tasks of the systems modeler in these conditions are identifying the system components and building their network of interrelationships. To accomplish the first task, the modeler must be able to separate the entire system by judicious choice of the separation points, the “natural joints” of the system and the coupling variables. This act carries a high level of subjectivity and explains that a given system may be modeled in several ways, even by the same modeler. The analysis is facilitated if one has a catalog describing all the functional elements that may appear in the systems studied (for large systems, it is precisely the General System of Le Moigne). It is sufficient to identify the objects studied and then link them to define the structure of the system. These elements can be grouped by classes of primitive types. When several primitive types form a core necessary and sufficient to represent a wide variety of systems, we say they form a basis. As such, they play a major role in the modeling process and their choice must be made with great care. It is important to note that, given the emphasis that the systems approach gives to functions, these primitives represent the basic functionalities of the system, not for example its geometry. To illustrate this, let us take the case of internal combustion reciprocating engines (gasoline or diesel), where the same set of parts (cylinder and piston) plays successively in an engine cycle the role of the compressor, combustor and expansion device. Systems modeling of such a system leads us to interconnect the three primitive types representing these different functions. For this reason, we are led to speak of primitive types and functional elements and not just basic components: firstly a component in the technological or geometric sense sometimes needs to be modeled by several primitive types, and secondly a given function may lead to different technological solutions.

4.3.2 Systems-analysis of energy technologies Given what has been said, the systems analysis of an energy technology can be broken down into four basic steps: analysis of the structure (or architecture) of the technology in question, which highlights its main functional elements and their connections. This task can prove trickier than it seems because some components sometimes provide different functions in different phases of operation. It is facilitated ●

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if one has a basis of well chosen primitives. The structure of the system thus demonstrated is an invariant almost independent of the fineness retained for the modeling of components; for each element, identification of the thermodynamic fluids that come into play: for example, the fluid compressed in a gas turbine is air, which burns a fuel in the combustion chamber to form burnt gases themselves expanded in the turbine. In this case it is necessary to consider three thermodynamic fluids: in the compressor, air which may possibly be moist, in the combustion chamber, air, fuel, and burnt gases, and in the turbine the exhaust gases; for each element, accurate determination of processes undergone by the various fluids identified, and calculation of their changes. The degree of fineness of modeling depends on the desired accuracy and available data. In this work, we will only quantitatively model overall component behavior, using parameters to characterize it (characteristics), and limit to qualitative considerations the analyses of the specifics of what happens internally; establishing the overall model of the system considered by assembly of the different types of functional elements. When the previous steps have been taken with care, it is usually not of particular difficulty. At most we should take care to define the types of energy that come into play, to be sure to count them properly, particularly when one wishes to calculate a cycle effectiveness, which is often the case3.

Once these steps are undertaken, all the elements are available to pass to the system optimization phase, which can be made on the one hand by making sensitivity studies around key design parameters, and on the other hand by using specialized tools. 4.3.3

Component modeling

The second Part of this book is mainly devoted to the presentation of component models, which we have grouped into three types: phenomenological models constructed on the basis of an analysis of the physical functioning of the component. Their parameters have then a physical sense. Their goal is the study of thermodynamic cycles; empirical or behavior models, often of the black box type, which have the advantage of representing the overall input/output component behavior, and can especially be used to study its operation in off-design mode. Their parameters have usually no physical sense; technological design models which provide access to detailed internal design of the components. The most accurate of these models are specific tools that take into account both theoretical aspects (mechanics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer4), and technological (manufacturing processes, surface treatments, material selection) or economic (costs) ones or environmental constraints. They are multidisciplinary sophisticated tools which can only equip manufacturers. ●

●

●

A compromise must be found between the desired accuracy and complexity (and cost) of modeling. Given the objective of this book, we limit ourselves to a steady-state representation of phenomena, and we do not generally seek, at least in the first four Parts, to get detailed models of how a particular component works, which can be extremely complex. Only in the fifth Part do we give some guidance on how to approach the technological design and off-design study of components.

3 4

56

This issue will be discussed in Chapter 10. See sections 2 and 3 of (Kreith, 2000).

4. INTRODUCTION

As we shall see, the models we use are often mixed, being partly phenomenological, and partly empirical. For example, the study of heat exchangers (see Section 8.2) shows that a model of type (ε, NTU) is quite sufficient to study the insertion of such a component in a system, but it only gives access to the product UA of the heat transfer coefficient U by the exchange area A: it is therefore an incomplete phenomenological model. If it is associated with an empirical law giving the evolution of the value of UA as a function of the two fluid flows through the exchanger, it can be used as a model for analyzing the response of a specific exchanger to changes in its conditions of use. It can also become a technological design model if it is completed by the set of functions for determining the value of U, as explained in Part 5. Some additional definitions relating to models deserve to be made. The models we are interested in involve four different concepts: parameters characterizing the component: some are purely geometric, as a free flow area or an exchange area, while others have a thermodynamic sense, as an isentropic efficiency. The thermodynamic properties of fluids are a special category of parameters; input variables represent the constraints set on the component, such as flow, temperature or pressure. These are exogenous, determined outside the component; internal variables are used to determine the component state. These will often be state variables in the thermodynamic sense of the term; output variables are the model results, such as temperatures, compositions etc. ●

●

●

●

To study the insertion of a component in a system, it is usually not necessary to know the details of its inner workings. In most cases, and this is the case with most technologies that interest us here, a phenomenological model may represent a given component by a small number of characteristics and its coupling variables (inputs and outputs). These characteristics depend on the type of component and the technology. For example, a displacement compressor will be characterized by a volumetric compression ratio, a volumetric efficiency and an isentropic or polytropic efficiency, and a heat exchanger by a number of transfer units etc. The coupling variables are pressures, temperatures, flow rates etc. We will focus on understanding the overall performance of components, sufficient for our purpose, committing ourselves to identify expressions of characteristics representative of their operation. By limiting our discussion to models which are as simple as possible while remaining thermodynamically relevant, we will not achieve completeness. Readers interested in further developments will find them in the literature.

4.3.4 Thermoptim primitive types To determine the performance of energy technologies, we have seen that it suffices to have a tool to describe, assemble and calculate the various elements that compose them in a form as convenient as possible. Many solutions are of course possible at this level. For our part, we will illustrate this approach using the Thermoptim software, which was specifically designed for this purpose. The list of functional elements that may appear in the main energy conversion technologies corresponds to the concepts that are implemented in Thermoptim and which are detailed below. This package is thus a General System in the sense of Le Moigne for energy technologies systems modeling: to build the model of a given energy technology is to build a representation as accurate as possible by assembling together different objects chosen from those that the software offers. We give several examples in this book that illustrate this approach.

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The following list is a basis of primitives sufficient for studying a large number of energy technologies: We must first be able to represent the intensive properties of fluids used, and calculate their state for various values of pressure, temperature etc. The concepts of substances and points allow us to do this; these fluids undergo changes (processes) that can be grouped into several major categories, the most common being: compression, expansion, throttling or flashes, combustion and heat exchanges. It is in processes that the mass flow rates involved are specified, and therefore here that extensive properties can be calculated; fluids pass through components, forming more or less complex networks that we must be able to describe. The processes above are a portion of these circuits. To complement these, we must make use of nodes (dividers, mixers and separators); when two fluids exchange heat together, they form heat exchangers, components coupled with two processes which cannot be calculated separately. ●

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4.3.4.1 Substance thermodynamic properties The representation of thermodynamic properties of substances is of course a necessity. It requires firstly adequate fluid models, and secondly data to represent the fluids used. Every substance is in at least one of the three phases solid, liquid or gaseous. When the pressure is sufficiently low and the temperature sufficiently high, it is reasonable to consider that the substance behaves like an ideal gas whose heat capacity, internal energy and enthalpy depend only on the temperature (not on pressure). Thermoptim includes all data needed to calculate the thermophysical state of fluids, which can be either pure or gas mixtures. Their composition can change, because of either mixing or combustion reactions. It defines three categories of substances: pure ideal gases, compound ideal gases and condensable vapors or real fluids (without mixtures). The perfect gas corresponds to the particular case of ideal gases whose heat capacity is temperature independent. The principles of calculating the properties of substances are outlined in Chapter 5. 4.3.4.2 States of fluids: points Once you have a representation of substance properties, it becomes possible to calculate the state of a fluid as a function of relevant variables, such as pressure, temperature, enthalpy etc. For this Thermoptim defines points. A point represents a substance particle and determines its intensive state variables: pressure, temperature, heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, internal energy, exergy, quality, absolute or relative humidity etc. A point is identified by a name and that of the substance associated with it. To calculate it, you must: either enter at least two of its state variables, typically pressure and temperature for open systems, or specific volume and temperature for closed systems; or automatically determine it by using one of the processes defined below. ●

●

The calculation screens of substances and points are presented in Chapter 6. 4.3.4.3 Processes Processes correspond to thermodynamic changes undergone by a substance between two states. A process associates therefore two points as defined previously, an inlet point and an outlet point. In addition, it indicates the mass flow rate involved, and allows one therefore to calculate extensive state variables, and notably to determine the variation of energy involved in the course of the process. The most common evolutions have been modeled and are directly accessible. Knowing the state of the fluid at the process inlet, Thermoptim may solve either the direct problem, or the 58

4. INTRODUCTION

reverse problem. In the first case, knowing the characteristics of the process, it computes the state at the end of evolution and the energies involved, and updates the outlet point. In the second case, it identifies the parameters of the process selected that allow it to lead to the defined outlet point state. Processes can be of several types: compression, expansion, combustion, throttling or flash (pressure drop without work production, as in a valve or a filter), heat exchange, and water vapor/gas mixtures (the latter includes six different categories of evolutions). They are presented in detail in Chapter 7. According to each case, various characteristics of the process have to be specified, for example, in compression, its isentropic or polytropic efficiency, as well as the type of calculation which is required (open or closed system, direct or inverse calculation etc.). A cycle can thus be described as a set of points connected by processes. To the extent that the mass flow rate fluid is the same in all the evolutions, processes and points are sufficient. If this is not the case, it may be necessary to describe at least partially the network of involved fluids using the nodes defined below. 4.3.4.4 Nodes Nodes can describe the network elements which make up mixture, division or separation of fluids. In a node, several fluid branches are interconnected to form a single vein (Figure 4.3.1). If this is a mixer, the various branches join to form a single vein. The mass flow of the main vein is equal to the sum of those of branches, and the enthalpy balance is used to calculate the enthalpy and temperature of the mixture. If it is a divider, the main vein is divided into several branches which must of course specify the flow-rates. Temperature and enthalpy are conserved. In Thermoptim, you can mix together several different fluids, provided that the mixture is a gas. This means that if there are condensable vapors (or real fluids) among the branches of a node mixing together several distinct fluids, it is assumed that at the outlet they find themselves in a gaseous state and follow an ideal gas behavior. Remember that mixtures of vapors are not modeled in the software. The logical definition of a node is by (1 n) association of processes: a process is the main vein, and n processes correspond to the branches. The processes themselves being connected to points, and the latter to substances, updates of the fluid state are made automatically. A third type of node also exists: the separator, which is a somewhat special divider, which receives as input a vapor in two-phase state, and separates the liquid and gas phases. Nodes are discussed in Chapter 6. 4.3.4.5 Heat exchangers Heat exchangers are components that combine two streams, one that warms up, the other that cools, whose evolutions are coupled and cannot be computed independently. The simplest definition of a heat exchanger would ask that you indicate what are the two processes that it matches. Thermoptim can design a heat exchanger, that is to say calculate the value of the UA product of its exchange surface by its heat exchange coefficient, if you indicate what constraints are set on the flow rates and temperatures (for instance minimum pinch, set value effectiveness).

Mixer

Divider

FIGURE 4.3.1 Nodes

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

The software can also, once the design is completed (i.e. for a given value of the UA product) calculate, for off-design operating conditions of the flow-rates or inlet temperatures, what is the exchanger behavior, that is to say what are the outlet temperature values. Exchangers are discussed in Chapter 8. 4.3.4.6 Components of the diagram editor Thermoptim is equipped with a diagram editor (Figure 4.3.2) which can qualitatively describe the system studied. It has a palette with the various components available (heat exchanges, compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, mixers, dividers etc.), and a working panel where these components are placed and interconnected by links. This environment offers a particularly interesting user-friendliness to view and control the connections of large systems. If we remark firstly that a point is always associated with a process, and a substance to a point, and secondly that a heat exchanger does in fact define a coupling between two exchange type processes, we see that the description of a system can be made solely from processes, nodes and their interactions. It is this property that is used in the diagram editor, whose palette includes only processes and nodes, which are then connected using two types of links: oriented links representing a fluid line i.e. essentially a point and a flow-rate, and non-oriented links symbolizing exchanger connections. The great usefulness of the diagram editor is that you can build a visual representation of the systems studied from a very small number of elements, that it is sufficient to understand and know in order to model many energy technologies. Once this description is made, you just have to appropriately set the Thermoptim primitive types that are put in. The modeling work is thus divided into two distinct and complementary phases, the qualitative and quantitative. We will see later that the tight coupling between the diagram editor and Thermoptim simulator makes it easy to set the parameters and quantify the model. When the elements are configured and their calculation is performed, the results can be directly displayed in the diagram editor (Figure 4.3.3), which behaves like a synopsis of the system, and represented as a cycle in the interactive charts (Figure 4.3.4). 4.3.4.7 Projects The set of primitive types for describing an energy technology (substances, points, processes, nodes, heat exchangers) is known as a project in the package. A project can be easily manipulated through appropriate interfaces. All results can be exported to a text file and can be after-processed by a word processor or a spreadsheet.

FIGURE 4.3.2 Thermoptim diagram editor

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4. INTRODUCTION

FIGURE 4.3.3 Viewing cycle point states (T, s) entropy chart for R134a 80

60

2 3b

3a 3

40 Temperature T (°C)

Screen background ssatI ssatv p 70 p 30 p 10 p 2.5 p1 p 0.2 p 0.05 p 0.01 p 0.002 h 480 h 450 h 420 h 390 h 360 h 330 h 300 h 270 h 240 v 0.16 v 0.1 v 0.06 v 0.04 v 0.025 v 0.016 v 0.01 v 0.006 v 0.004 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

8 20 5

4a

1

4

0

20

6

6a

40 1

1.2

1.6

1.4

1.8

2

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 4.3.4 Two-stage R134a refrigeration cycle in the entropy chart

To facilitate archiving and reuse of different projects generated, a number of rules and project management tools have been defined. In particular, a project can receive a name and description to describe it succinctly. Then, as it is clear that the same diagram can match several projects, each with a different setting, and that a project cannot in principle have several diagrams, it is possible to associate a diagram name to a project. In this way, when a diagram is displayed in the graphical modeler, you can search among the list of projects associated with it, and display it in a private library of the above type.

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4.3.5 Thermoptim assets The preceding lines allowed us to introduce the main Thermoptim primitive types. We will show throughout this book that this very small number of elements is sufficient to model a wide range of energy technologies. It is very remarkable that a dozen widgets (including links) are sufficient to represent so many. The modeling of these technologies, which is generally considered difficult, can be greatly simplified when you have a tool like Thermoptim, the diagram editor allowing one to obtain a qualitative description of the model particularly meaningful for an engineer, that it is then relatively easy to quantify. Thermoptim appears as an applied thermodynamics package whose main assets are: it provides a coherent analytical and systems modeling environment. For a relatively small initial investment in understanding the underlying logic, itself quite natural and intuitive, it allows for a rigorous analysis process leading to significant productivity gains. The models developed can easily be documented, archived and re-used or modified; its primitive type basis is an analytical grid of energy technologies allowing one to highlight the components interrelationship graph. With a little experience, the modeler obtains a representation that is both faithful to reality and calculable by the software. This step is greatly facilitated by the graphical editor; the description of the problem is made using natural concepts of the engineer or physicist, primitive types having a very clear physical meaning. The modeler can concentrate on the physical analysis of phenomena, the mathematical translation, digital and computer generated models being provided by the tool in a transparent manner; the modeler does not himself write a single line of code or solve an equation, Thermoptim processing the project description submitted to it. The user is thus guaranteed to get realistic results quickly without the risk of programming errors. If he wants to make calculations not provided in the tool, he can process (e.g. with macros) the text file of his project results; since fluid properties are calculated automatically, the modeler can obtain very accurate results while being relieved of many computational problems that would otherwise be avoided only by resorting to caricature simplifying assumptions; the package is an open environment, written in Java. If necessary, the basis of primitive types can be extended to represent additional components. ●

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●

REFERENCES J.L. Le Moigne, Théorie du système général, PUF, 1984. F. Hagin, Numerical analysis and computational tools, in: The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, (Edited by F. Kreith), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-9581-X. F. Kreith, Ed., The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-84939581-X.

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5 Thermodynamics Fundamentals Abstract: In this chapter which in particular extends some questions already introduced in Chapters 2 and 3 of Part 1, we present the basic thermodynamics knowledge needed to study energy technologies. One ambition of this book, as we have said, is to propose a learning method of applied thermodynamics much simpler than that which is traditionally taught. This bias for simplicity has led us to limit our presentation of thermodynamics to the sole foundation required for our purpose. After showing how to express the energy exchanges during a process, a reminder of the first two laws of thermodynamics provides the theoretical basis for conducting most of the subsequent calculations. The concept of exergy is then introduced, and the end of the chapter is devoted to studying substance properties. It shows how they can be represented by a cascade of nested models: perfect gases, ideal gases, real condensable fluids. We give in these sections definitions of many concepts which it is important to understand in order to calculate energy technologies, even if one uses Thermoptim. Examples are state functions such as internal energy, enthalpy and entropy (Sections 5.3 and 5.4), the properties of matter and the various models used to represent fluids (Section 5.6). Keywords: Fundamentals, thermodynamic systems, variables and equations of state, reversible and irreversible processes, fluid properties, charts, moist mixtures, absorption.

5.1

BASIC CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS

Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy transformations, which can take four forms: mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical. We understand that exposing thermodynamics in a general way is particularly difficult, since the set of definitions, postulates and demonstrations should apply to all these forms of energy. However, for the study of energy systems discussed in this book, we can in practice limit ourselves to the first two in this list, mechanics and heat transfer, except as regards moist mixtures and combustion reactions. Accordingly, and except for calculating the moist mixtures and combustion, which will each be given special treatment, we always assume that the substances involved are of unvarying

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composition. We thus will not show chemical variables, which significantly simplifies the formalism. Moreover, the systems we study will always be non-electrified. This way of proceeding, which is common practice in power engineering, will lead us at times to move away from strict thermodynamics formalism, and we shall draw attention to this when it happens. As we have already mentioned in the general introduction, what we lose in generality will be offset by the gains in ease of use of the book. At this stage of our study, it is best to define or recall a number of fundamental concepts that we will need later in the presentation: thermodynamic systems, variables and equations of state, phase equilibrium, reversible and irreversible processes. These concepts are necessary to compute the evolutions experienced by thermodynamic fluids. It is indeed necessary to introduce variables and functions connected by equations that can only be determined if the environment is considered continuous and homogeneous, that is to say if these functions are sufficiently regular in the mathematical term. In particular, we will focus only on macroscopic quantities.

5.1.1

Open and closed systems

A thermodynamic system means a quantity of matter isolated from its surroundings by a fictional or real boundary. This system is called closed if it does not exchange matter with the outside through its boundaries, otherwise it is called open. Note that this notion of system is not the same as the one we introduced above to characterize an energy technology as an assembly of components. There is a difficulty of vocabulary that we cannot avoid having regard to practice, but the context generally makes it not difficult to distinguish the two meanings of the term. Beginners are often confused by the distinction between closed systems and open systems, the latter corresponding to a new concept for them, because during their undergraduate tuition they generally considered only closed systems (to avoid taking account the exchange of matter at boundaries). In a diesel or gasoline engine, the valves are closed during compression, combustion and expansion, isolating from outside the mass of gas found between the piston, the jacket and head. The processes that take place inside the engine must be calculated in closed systems. In the case of a gas turbine, compressor, combustor and turbine, these are driven by a continuous flow of gas. At the entrance and exit of each of these components, matter is transferred. The changes must then be calculated in open systems. There is a certain paradox in the fact that the calculations are generally easier to make for open systems than for closed systems, although these do not involve exchange of matter with the outside. The reason is that the pressure is usually given in the calculations in an open system, although it depends on many factors in a closed system. For example, combustion in a gas turbine (open system) takes place at constant pressure, neglecting small pressure drops, whereas in a diesel or gasoline engine (closed system), the pressure varies greatly during the process, so it is preferable if one wants to stick to reality, to break it down into several stages: for example, first at constant volume, then constant pressure, and finally constant temperature. To complete complicating things, it is natural (but fatal) to confuse the concepts of open and closed systems in thermodynamic sense that we just introduced and its meaning when considering the whole cycle swept by the fluids in a thermal machine. For example a refrigerator compression cycle is a closed cycle Figure 2.1.3 of Part 1 otherwise the refrigerant would be lost to the atmosphere, which would be both costly and harmful to the environment, while each of its components taken separately (except optionally if the compressor is displacement type) is an open system, through which passes a steady-state flow of refrigerant. The machine operates as a closed cycle involving several components, each working in open systems.

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5.1.2 State of a system, intensive and extensive quantities The notion of state of a system represents “the minimum information necessary to determine its future behavior”. State variables (temperature, pressure, etc.) are all physical quantities (or thermodynamic properties) necessary and sufficient to fully characterize a system at a given moment. There are usually several sets that meet this definition. We will see later that for a phase of unit mass, two quantities are sufficient to determine all the others. These results ensure the existence of equations relating each state variable to two of them independently: v f (P, T)… We call such relationships equations of state, which are fundamental in practice. Depending on the problem, the following pairs are generally retained: (pressure, volume), (pressure, temperature), (temperature, volume). A state function is a quantity whose value depends only on the state of the system, not its history. A physical model involves variables representing the state of a system, which is a priori a function of time and position of the point considered. These quantities can be grouped into two broad classes: intensive quantities such as pressure, temperature or specific enthalpy, which are independent of the amount of matter considered; extensive quantities such as mass, enthalpy or entropy, which depend on the mass of the system. ●

●

An intensive quantity links the condition provided at a point of the medium to a reference condition at another point or another medium. For example, the temperature is defined relative to zero or to the triple point of water. An extensive quantity is additive: if a system is composed of several phases, extensive quantities that characterize it are equal to the sum of those of its component phases. Mass or total enthalpy are extensive quantities. Note that by multiplying the phase mass by certain intensive quantities such as specific enthalpy or entropy, extensive quantities are obtained as enthalpy or entropy. Recall that a control volume is a region of space with real or fictitious boundaries, thus defining the system of interest (thermodynamic in this case). An example of a control volume is given in Figure 5.3.1. It is bounded by the walls of the fixed and mobile machine M and two immaterial geometric surfaces named A1 and A2 at the initial instant t0, and B1 and B2 at t0 dt. In the example in Figure 5.3.1, the control volume is considered a closed system, which is followed in its movement over time, from A1 to B1 and A2 to B2. In other cases, the control volumes can define open systems. The masses they isolate may then vary depending on mass flow rates crossing their boundaries. In general, the component models we use are established by writing the laws of continuity and conservation of extensive variables: mass, energy, entropy, etc., balance sheets being established for well-chosen control volumes. Conservation laws are written in the general form: in the transport outward transport {accumulation } {inward } control volume by the surface } {by the surface transfer through generation consumption { { { } } the surface in the volume in the volume }

(5.1.1)

For the conservative quantities, such as mass, internal energy and enthalpy, the last two terms in the equation vanish. For non-conservative quantities, such as entropy or the number of moles of chemical species in reaction, it may be necessary to introduce one or the other. Building a model is to translate that expression into a set of semantic equations and set the initial and boundary conditions.

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5.1.3

Phase, pure substances, mixtures

A phase is a continuous medium having the following three properties: it is homogeneous (which implies a uniform temperature); speed in each point is zero in a suitable reference frame; it is subject to no external force at distance (uniform pressure). ● ● ●

As is known, matter exists in three phases: solid, liquid and gas. A thermodynamic system may consist of a single pure substance, or have several. In the latter case, the mixture is characterized by its molar or mass composition. Each of the components of the mixture may be present in one or more phases. If the components and their phases are uniformly distributed throughout the volume defined by the system boundaries, the mixture is homogeneous, otherwise it is heterogeneous. The properties of a mixture depend obviously on its homogeneity. The concept of phase plays a very important role in practice, because we always assume in what follows that any physical system is decomposed into a set of phases. 5.1.4

Equilibrium, reversible process

A phase is said to be in static equilibrium, or simply in equilibrium, if: pressure and temperature are uniform in space; all state variables are constant over time.

● ●

We call a reversible process between two equilibrium states 1 and 2 a fictitious process which has the following two properties: it is slow enough at all points of view (speed, heat and matter transfer, etc.) so it can be likened to a continuous state of equilibrium; it is the common boundary of two families of real processes, one of which leads from 1 to 2, and the other from 2 to 1.

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A process is said to be irreversible in the following two cases: the reverse process is not feasible without substantial modification of equipment (mixing, combustion, etc.); it contains a cause of irreversibility of the friction or viscosity type.

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5.1.5 Temperature The concept of temperature can be introduced in several different ways. We content ourselves here with the operational definition given by F. Fer (1970), which is based on two propositions: we know how to construct a thermometer device, of which all physical properties are, under well defined operating conditions, function of a single variable called temperature; we know how to get a physical system such that when a thermometer is immersed in it, its indication remains constant over time and independent of its orientation and its place.

●

●

It is said the temperature of the medium is equal to that of the thermometer and that the medium is in thermal equilibrium. It is possible to link this presentation with the axiomatic definitions of the temperature deduced for example from the second law. A rigorous and comprehensive presentation of this notion, however, is beyond the limits we have set for this book. Furthermore this introduction is quite intuitive and its practical use does not generally pose a particular problem.

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5.1.6 Symbols We shall generally write state variables in lowercase (except the temperature in Kelvin and pressure) as well as intensive state functions (referred to the mass unit), and capitalize the extensive quantities (referred to the total mass). Following established practice, however, an exception will be made for the kinetic energy K, the work of external forces W and the heat exchanged with the outside Q, which are written in capitals, even if expressed in mass units, and for the useful work , which is always written in lowercase. We pass from one to another by multiplying the first by the mass m (for closed systems), or the . mass flow m (for open systems). V V (m 3 kg1 ) m m S S entropy s (J kg1 K1 ) m m volume v

U U (J kg1 ) m m H H enthalpy h (J kg1 ) m m internal energy u

5.1.2

For convenience, we will refer, whenever possible, to the unit mass of fluid. In this book, as we will use extensive quantities only very rarely, to avoid burdening the notation, we take the liberty to also use capital letters for the molar quantities, which we sometimes use. When this is the case, we will say so. Remember also that the kilomol (1 kmol) is the amount of a substance whose mass is equal to its molar mass M in kilograms: 1 kmol of O2 has a mass of 32 kg. If M* is the mass of a molecule, M* M/N0, N0 being the Avogadro number: N0 6 1023 molecules/g. In the normal state (0 C, 1 bar), the volume occupied by 1 kmol is equal to 22.414 m3.

5.2

ENERGY EXCHANGES IN A PROCESS

Thermal machine components are traversed by fluids that are most often gaseous or liquid. Over the processes that they undergo, these fluids exchange energy with the outside or between themselves in two forms: mechanical, traditionally denoted W, and thermal, denoted Q. Given their practical importance, we will first study the energy exchanges. Consistent with our bias to favor as simple as possible a presentation of the thermodynamics fundamentals, we limit ourselves in what follows to steady state systems, because even if the results we establish generalize quite easily, it is necessary to adopt a heavier formalism if we want to be rigorous.

5.2.1

Work W of external forces on a closed system

Consider a closed system phase. External forces acting on it are usually limited on the one hand in the action of gravity on the fluid mass, and on the other hand of pressure on its boundaries. In heat engines, the work of gravity is in most cases negligible compared to that of actions called “contact”. To fix these ideas, the work provided by a mass of 1 kg of water falling from a height of 100 m is equal to 980 J, while that of the same mass of steam at 500 C isentropically expanded from 100 bar to 1 bar is equal to 983 kJ, or 1,000 times greater. Consequently, in thermal machines, the work of mass forces will most often be negligible compared to that of pressure.

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P F dx O i

FIGURE 5.2.1 Sketch of a cylinder-piston assembly

Consider a fluid at rest (Figure 5.2.1), at uniform pressure P enclosed in a cylinder whose walls → are all fixed except a piston capable of moving in one direction. Now exert a force F on the piston to move it slowly enough (so that at any time the system can be likened to a phase). → Let us consider an axis (O, i ) directed from the bottom of the cylinder (x 0 ⇒ V 0). → → The force being exerted by the system outside, F ||F|| i → → Call A the piston section, and dx dx i its motion. Obviously ||F|| PA, and work m WA received by the mass m of fluid is: → → → → mWA F · dx ||F|| dx i · i PA dx P dV. dV being the volume change of the mass, equal to m dv, and: WA P dv

(5.2.1)

In case of compression, the volume change is negative and the work received is positive. We note this work with index A, to indicate it is exercised on the surface of the system considered. This expression, which generalizes easily to a closed system of any form, is valid only if the system remains in static equilibrium, i.e. if the following assumptions are true: the pressure remains uniform across the system; the fluid remains at rest. ● ●

Note that formula (5.2.1) implies that the work received by the system is positive, and that the work it provides is negative. By convention, we generalize this result by counting positively the energy received by a system, and negatively the energy it provides to the outside. During a reversible process making a closed phase pass from state 1 to state 2, the mass work of contact actions has the value: 2

WA = −∫ P dv

(5.2.2)

1

In case the gravity work is not negligible, one can easily show that it is expressed as: dWv g dz

(5.2.3)

g 0 is the acceleration of gravity, and z the altitude of the point, counted positively upwards. We note such work with index v, to indicate it is exercised in the volume of the system considered. We have then: W WA Wv 5.2.2

(5.2.4)

Heat transfer

Consider a simple fluid mass, within which no friction occurs. Q is the quantity of heat exchanged with the outside and received by the unit of fluid mass in an infinitely small process.

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

An important experimental fact, the basis of compressible fluid thermodynamics, is that Q is a differential form of the fluid mass state, called a calorimetric equation. For example, in the case of a mono-variant system (equilibrium between phases during a change of state), the calorimetric equation depends only on the quality x, ratio of vapor mass to total mass (liquid vapor) in the case of vaporization or condensation: Q L dx L is the change of state enthalpy. More generally, the calorimetric equation that connects Q to the simple fluid (bi-variant) state variables can take three well known equivalent canonical forms: Q cp dT h dP Q cv dT l dv Q dP dv

(5.2.5)

Coefficients cp, cv, h, l, and are called equilibrium fluid calorimetric coefficients (note that h is not enthalpy, which will be introduced later). They are linked by differential relations that can be obtained without significant difficulty, but which do not interest us. Just know that the calorimetric properties of a fluid are determined by knowing two of these six coefficients. Subsequently, we will use only coefficients cp and cv, which are respectively called specific heat capacity at constant pressure, and specific heat capacity at constant volume, whose former name was “specific heat”. For a solid or a liquid, cp ⬇ cv, and Q ⬇ c dT For an ideal gas, depending on whether we are dealing with an open system operating at constant pressure, or a closed one operating at constant volume, Q cp dT or Q cv dT. For a real gas, use one of the canonical forms above. The above equations are however valid only if certain conditions are met: Firstly, the mass of fluid must be completely homogeneous, i.e. comparable to a phase; Secondly, we assumed that there was no irreversibility inside or at the boundary of the fluid mass. If any, the relationship becomes: ● ●

Q cp dT h dP We will then write: Q cp dT h dP

(5.2.6)

, essentially a positive term, has a very simple physical meaning: it is the heat generated by mechanical friction within the fluid. Although it differs profoundly, it produces the same effect as heat received from the outside. Its meaning will be clarified during the presentation of the second law of thermodynamics (Section 5.4). By convention, therefore, we denote Q the heat exchanged with the outside, and counted positively if received by the system, and the heat dissipated by internal friction if any. In practice, it is important to distinguish these two forms of heat, otherwise serious reasoning errors can be made. In particular, the processes without heat exchange with the outside, called adiabatic, are such that Q 0, whether or not the seat of irreversibility, that is to say being either zero or not.

5.3

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Now that we have established expressions for calculating the mechanical and thermal energy exchange of a fluid mass with its surroundings, we can recall the first law of thermodynamics. As usual, we start with the expression for closed systems, well known to all, and we generalize for open systems.

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The first law, also known as the equivalence principle or the energy conservation principle, says that the energy contained in an isolated system or evolving in a closed cycle, remains constant, whatever the processes it undergoes. The various forms that can take the energy of a system: mechanical energy, heat energy, potential energy, kinetic energy etc. are all equivalent to each other under the first law.

5.3.1

Definition of internal energy U (closed system)

Any closed physical system is characterized by a scalar U, based exclusively on state variables, and such that for any real process: U K W Q

(5.3.1)

K being the kinetic energy of the system, W the work of external forces, expressed for the total mass of the system and given by relation (5.2.4) W WA Wv, and Q the heat exchanged by the system with outside for the process considered. U is an extensive quantity called the internal energy of the system, U K is sometimes called the system total energy. For a phase of mass m, U mu, u being the specific internal energy. Let us recall that the state variables that define, in the most general case, a physical system, fall into four broad categories: mechanical variables, position or deformation; temperature; chemical variables; electric variables. ● ● ● ●

Only the first two will be considered in most applications we have to deal with, and the third will be used for fluid mixtures and combustion reactions. As for the fourth, it will not intervene in the context of this book except in Chapter 27 of Part 4 dealing with electrochemical converters. Note that many authors distinguish in the expression of the first law the work of gravity (Wv) and pressure forces (WA), and therefore express it under the equivalent form: U K mgz WA Q For an infinitely small control volume, Equation (5.3.1) becomes: dU dK W Q

(5.3.2)

Physically, the first law derives from the experimental evidence that, whatever the processes undergone by a given system, the sum W Q depends only on the initial state and final state. It follows therefore that W Q is a state function of the system. Mathematically, the first law states that, while W and Q are not exact differentials, their sum is one, and is equal to the sum of kinetic energy changes and a function state, the internal energy.

5.3.2 Application to a fluid mass We will see later that in the case of a single fluid phase, the physical state of the system, expressed in mass quantities, is characterized by variables P, v, T, connected by the equation of state. u is a function of these variables, or more precisely two of them.

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

Let us apply the first law to a fluid infinitesimal reversible process, neglecting the action of gravity. During this process, the kinetic energy remains constant equal to zero, which implies dK 0. Moreover W P dv and Q is expressed as: Q du P dv

(5.3.3)

By identification with the calorimetric equation (5.2.5), we get: cv (u/T)v, which is often used as a definition of cv. The previous equation shows that for a constant volume heating without mechanical friction, the heat exchanged with the outside is equal to the change in the fluid internal energy: Q12 u2 u1 This relationship is the basis for calorimetric determinations of u.

5.3.3 Work provided, shaft work Industrial operations generally take place continuously, each component (turbine, pump, valve, etc.) permanently receiving and evacuating matter. When, as it is often the case, their operating conditions are stabilized, possibly periodically, it is called “permanent” or “steady-state”. As mentioned previously, the calculation of these devices must be done in an open system, and the previous expression, valid only in a closed system, must be generalized. The reasoning principle is to follow the evolution of a closed control volume, and calculate the work of external forces on all its boundaries, distinguishing between cross sections of the fluid, fixed walls, which obviously neither produce nor receive work, and moving walls like blades, in which some work is exerted, called “shaft work”. In the most frequent case (Figure 5.3.1) we can assume that the component operates between two chambers of large dimensions, where the fluid is in equilibrium. The upstream (1) and downstream (2) states are defined by their pressure and temperature, assumed to be uniform despite the extractions and contributions due to the suction and discharge. For example, a gas turbine compressor sucks in air and discharges into the combustion chamber where the pressure is substantially uniform. In its passage from (1) to (2), each unit mass of fluid receives from the moving walls the shaft . work , whose knowledge is fundamental, since its product by the mass flow m, gives the power involved (neglecting mechanical losses in bearings and transmission).

Q P1

P2

Intake . m

Cyclic machine A1

B1

Discharge A2

B2

τ

FIGURE 5.3.1 Periodic machine

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One can easily show that, per unit mass, a component performing any kind of processing provides work algebraically equal to the work of pressure forces calculated in a closed system WA, increased by the transfer work, that is to say the variation of product Pv: WA P2v2 P1v1 WA (Pv)

(5.3.4)

In general, P2v2 P1v1 0, and differs from WA.

5.3.3.1 Demonstration . The machine, traversed by a flow rate m , works in unsteady, but periodic, state that is to say all its components, including the fluid mass in it, are periodically in the same state (note that the steadystate operation is deduced from the periodic regime by letting the period tend to 0). Consider the closed system consisting of the fluid mass contained in the initial state in the control volume limited by the fixed and movable walls and sections A1 and A2 respectively located in the entry and exit chambers. After a period dt, the control volume has been moved and is now limited by sections B1 and B2, . themselves in the entry and exit chambers. The machine has been traversed by the fluid mass m dt, common mass of sections A1B1 and A2B2 (conservation of mass flow), and has provided work on the . fluid m dt (by definition). . The work of external forces Wm dt is equal to the sum of the work of gravity and the work of pressure forces exerted on the various boundaries of the machine, four in number: A1, A2, moving walls and fixed walls. On these, WA4 0. On A1, a reasoning similar to that in Section 5.2.1 (the machine cannot be treated as a single phase) shows that: . . WA1 P1 dV1 P1(m dt)v1 P1v1m dt . On A2, in the same way, WA2 P2v2m dt. By definition, the shaft work is that of pressure forces on the moving walls, . m dt WA3 We have thus W WA dWv WA1 WA2 WA3 WA4 dWv . . . W W dt P1v1m dt P2v2m dt m dt dWv WA P2v2 P1v1 WA (Pv) This notion of shaft work is far from trivial. In practical terms however, it poses no particular problem. In all the open system compressions and expansions, it is the shaft work that must be considered in the calculations. We will later introduce another concept, that of useful energy, used to distinguish it from the purchased energy in calculating machine effectiveness. Note that in the previous demonstration, we made no assumption on the restrictive nature of the processes in the machine itself. We simply recognized that the pressure was uniform and constant in the course of time at the inlet and outlet of the machine. The relationship obtained thus applies only in this condition, whatever the intermediate processes, whether reversible or not.

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

P 1

P1 τ

2

P2

- WA V1

V2

V

FIGURE 5.3.2 Compression process in a (P, v) chart

5.3.3.2

Special case of a reversible process 2

If the process is reversible, WA ∫ P dv 1

2

∫ P dv P2v2 P1v1 1

We recognize the expression of integration by parts, hence: 2

∫ v dP

(5.3.5)

1

All of these relationships can be represented graphically in the Clapeyron diagram, which corresponds to the plane (v, P), v x-axis, P y-axis (Figure 5.3.2). The area between the curve 1 → 2 showing the process and the x-axis is equal to the opposite of the work of external forces WA, while the area between the curve and the y-axis is equal to shaft work . Note that these surfaces depend on the route of the curve 1 → 2, and therefore that mere knowledge of the initial and final states is not sufficient to determine WA and . Mathematically, this follows from the important fact that the differential expressions P dv and vdP are not exact differentials. Physically, it is explained by the intervention of one form of energy other than mechanical work, i.e. thermal energy. If two different reversible processes starting from the same initial state 1 and ending at the same final state 2 do not correspond to the same shaft work, this is because the fluid does not exchange the same amount of heat with the outside during these two processes. It is for this reason that we note the differential forms with a small (WA, ) and exact differentials by d.

5.3.4

Shaft work and enthalpy (open systems)

Let us come back to equation (5.3.1) and express it according to instead of W, for the total mass of the system. It comes: U K W Q WA Wv Q (PV) mgz Q which can be written: (U PV) K mgz Q

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Let us call enthalpy the state function H U PV and specific enthalpy function h u Pv. The enthalpic form of the first law is therefore written in mass variables (note that K, and Q are now expressed in mass quantities): h K gz Q

(5.3.6)

For an infinitely small control volume, this equation becomes: dh dK gdz Q

(5.3.7)

Transposing the reasoning of Section 5.3.2, we find that the calorimetric equation writes as: Q dh v dP

(5.3.8)

and cp (h/T)P, which is often used as a definition of cp.

5.3.5

Establishment of enthalpy balance

We have seen that, in industrial processes, operations usually take place continuously, i.e. in open systems. It is therefore the enthalpy first law expressions that apply most often. Although it is known to almost everyone, experience shows that its implementation may pose some difficulties. It suffices, however, to be able to apply the conservation law of extensive energy quantities (shaft work, heat exchanged with the outside Q, enthalpy flow of the fluids involved) to an appropriate control volume, which most often is none other than the system defined by the boundaries of the component studied. Given the first law, enthalpy is a conservative quantity, and equation (5.1.1) is simplified, terms of generation and consumption disappearing, to become: in the inward transport outward transport transfer through { { { {accumulation } } } } control volume by the surface by the surface the surface If we assume that the system operates in steady-state mode, which is usually the case, there is no net accumulation in the control volume, and this equation results in: transport outward transport transfer through { { {inward } } } 0 by the surface by the surface the surface In most cases, the enthalpy balance is determined when you know the boundary flows of heat, useful work and enthalpy. Consider for example the case of an adiabatic gas turbine axial compressor, which will be calculated in more detail Section 9.3, sucking air at rest in the atmosphere, and discharging into the combustion chamber of the machine. The control volume in this case corresponds to the geometry of the compressor, bounded upstream and downstream by its connecting flanges. The mass balance is very simple to set up, because, noting with index 1 the compressor inlet, and 2 the outlet: . . m2 m1 in steady-state The machine being adiabatic, there is no heat exchange with the outside, and therefore Q 0. At suction as well as at discharge, the air velocity is low and its kinetic energy negligible. The enthalpy

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balance of this machine is very simple: h . The enthalpy communicated to the fluid is equal to the work received on the shaft. If the compressor is cooled, the balance is slightly more difficult. If the heat exchanged with outside is Q 0, we have: h Q. The enthalpy communicated to the fluid is equal (in absolute value) to the difference between work received on the shaft and heat extracted. Now let us consider a slightly more complex example, on closed systems. This is the combustion in a diesel engine, modeled as a succession of two elementary combustions (called mixed cycle): first at constant volume, then at constant pressure. Mass balance is this time a little more complicated, mc being the mass of fuel injected during each phase of combustion: m2 m1 mc The control volume is in this case the whole set: head, cylinder and piston. The engine being cooled by water, the combustion is not adiabatic. The first combustion phase taking place at constant volume, it does not involve any work (W 0), and energy balance should be written here Ui Q, the summation being performed on all species present, assumed to be ideal gases. A first problem exists here, because this equation assumes that the calculation of the internal energy of gases present in the chamber is done taking into account the state of the combustion reaction, i.e. considering the changes in chemical variables. However it is very rare in industrial practice that we operate as indicated previously: the internal energy (or enthalpy) of an ideal gas is generally defined in relation to the standard reference of 1 bar and 298 K for a given composition (see Section 7.6.4.2). To overcome this difficulty, it is customary, although it is formally inconsistent with the first law, to reintroduce, rather artificially, in the balance equations a term of power generation in the volume, which corresponds to heat Qr (0) released by the combustion reaction. As we indicated earlier in this chapter, this approach allows us to ignore the chemical variables, and thus significantly simplifies the formalism. For combustion phase at constant pressure, the piston is in motion and produces a shaft work W that must also be included in the balance. We give in the section on combustion some guidance on how these calculations can be conducted.

5.3.6 Application to industrial processes C being the velocity of the fluid, the first law applied to a component through which passes a fluid, of unit flow-rate, can be expressed in mass units in the form: Q h2 h1 ΔK gΔz h2 h1

C22 C12 2

(5.3.9)

We have already indicated that, for most heat engines, the term gz is negligible. In many cases, the variation of kinetic energy is low vis-à-vis other changes (except of course in special cases such as jet engines, some turbomachinery blades or expansion devices). Under these conditions, the amount of work received or provided and the heat exchanged with the outside by the component is equal to the change in enthalpy of the fluid passing through it. This fundamental relationship explains why, in industrial devices, it is virtually impossible to implement both great mechanical work and a significant heat flux.

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●

●

●

Components which transfer heat from one fluid to another require large exchange areas, their heat fluxes being proportional to them. Technical and economic considerations lead to the adoption of purely static devices, for example, large bundles of tubes in parallel, traversed internally by a fluid while the other flows outside. is zero because of the absence of movable walls. Machines doing the compression or expansion of a fluid have a very compact design for reasons of weight, size and cost. For similar reasons, they rotate very fast (several thousand revolutions per minute). Each parcel of fluid remains there very shortly. Moreover, the heat exchange coefficients of gases have low values. Short residence time, small areas of fluid-wall contact, and low exchange coefficients imply that the heat exchange is minimal and that the operation of these machines is nearly adiabatic. There is a class of devices where and Q are both zero: they are static expanders such as valves, filters etc. The corresponding process is called an isenthalpic throttling or a flash expansion.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Practical modeling of industrial processes The developments presented in this section are of paramount importance in practice, as they result in major simplifications in the modeling of industrial processes: – in a heat exchanger, heat Q transferred or provided by one fluid to another is equal to its enthalpy change h (see Chapter 8); – similarly, the heat Q released in a combustion chamber or boiler is equal to the enthalpy change h of the gases that flow through it (see section 7.6); – in an adiabatic machine, shaft work is equal to the change in enthalpy of the fluid h (see sections 7.1 to 7.5); – throttling conserves enthalpy (h 0, see section 7.7). For the calculation of processes, these findings are very important in practice since they indicate that in most components of industrial machinery, mechanical and thermal exchanges are decoupled. They also explain why the enthalpy is a state function widely used in open system processes: the change in enthalpy of the fluid represents the mechanical or thermal energy put in.

5.4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The first law postulates the equivalence of the different forms of energy, but it does not take into account an essential experimental fact, which is that when a system interacts with its surroundings, the energy processes it undergoes can take place only in a particular direction, that cannot be reversed without changing the system qualitatively. Thus, heat flows naturally from one high temperature substance to a low temperature substance, but the reverse can only be achieved by using a complex thermal machine called a refrigeration machine or heat pump, or using a Peltier electrical component. The second law complements the first by introducing a function called entropy, which is used to quantitatively characterize the effects of irreversibilities taking place in a system and explain the phenomena we have just discussed. A rigorous and comprehensive presentation of the second law requires significant developments due on the one hand to the precautions that must be taken in writing assumptions and in explaining their connection with experience, and on the other hand to the demonstrations which must be performed.

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Given the objectives of this book, it is not justified here, especially as for the calculations of applied thermodynamics we are considering here, the main practical advantages presented by this second law can be summarized in two points: First entropy is as we will show the state function most closely related to heat Q exchanged with the outside (by the simple relation Q T ds). It therefore appears in many formal equations governing the energy components operation; Secondly generation of entropy allows one to quantify all the irreversibilities taking place in these components and on their boundaries, which is fundamental. ●

●

That is why we selected the presentation below, sufficient for our purposes, which has the advantage of being short enough to set out and easy to understand. Readers interested in a comprehensive presentation of the subject may refer to the bibliography at the end of this chapter.

5.4.1

Definition of entropy

At any phase are attached two quantities T and s, respectively called “thermodynamic temperature” and entropy, having the following properties: T is a function of temperature alone, independent of the system considered; s is a function of the system state variables; in any elementary process involving heat exchange Q with the outside Q T ds, equality being satisfied if and only if the process is perfect (not irreversible).

● ● ●

ds

Q di s T

dis, positive or zero, is called “entropy generation”. (5.4.1) can be rewritten: Q T ds

(5.4.1)

(5.4.2)

is called “uncompensated work” or “uncompensated heat”. It is positive for an irreversible process, and zero otherwise. The ex abrupto introduction of entropy can surprise and appear arbitrary. To try to explain it more gradually, we will study the case of a perfect gas, whose equation of state is written, as we shall see below: Pv rT r being a constant depending on the gas (r 287 J/kg for air), v is the specific volume, and T is temperature in Kelvin. This equation stems from the laws of Gay-Lussac (in a given volume P/T Const.) and Mariotte (Pv Const at a given temperature). The thermal properties of perfect gases result from Joule’s laws, which can be stated as follows: First Law: the internal energy of a perfect gas depends only on its temperature; Second Law: the heat capacity at constant volume cv is a constant. ● ●

⎛ ∂u ⎞⎟ du cv ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂T ⎟⎠v dT As Q du P dv, we have: Q cv dT P dv,

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By replacing P by its value from the equation of state, we get: Q cvdT rT

dv v

In this form, we see immediately that 1/T is an integrating factor, and that is obviously the simplest possible. Let us recall that multiplying all the terms of a differential form y by an integrating factor I turns it into an exact differential. Let ds

Q dT dv cv r T T v

ds being an exact differential, we get: s cv ln(T) r ln(v) Const. The concepts of thermodynamic temperature and entropy are thus introduced naturally, entropy being the state function closest to heat. There is no evidence in this approach, however, that these concepts retain their relevance for real gases. The advantage of the axiomatic approach at the beginning of this section is that you can then retrieve the perfect gas properties as a special case of the general theory. 5.4.2

Irreversibility

Irreversibilities encountered in energy devices that we consider in this book, except those taking place in combustion reactions, can be grouped into two broad classes which we present succinctly: mechanical irreversibilities due to the viscosity; irreversibilities by temperature heterogeneity. ● ●

5.4.2.1 Mechanical irreversibility Relations 5.2.2 and 5.3.5 allow us to calculate the mechanical energy received by an open or closed system in the absence of irreversibility. When the processes are not reversible, they are no longer valid, and in the general case, there are no simple differential relations to determine the energy exchange mechanisms involved. The first law of thermodynamics allows us to solve this problem, however, as we shall see now. Consider an open system in which takes place an irreversible adiabatic compression, from state 1 to state 2, and such as the variations of kinetic energy can be neglected (Figure 5.4.1). Given the first law, as Q 0, we have: h2 h1 T P2 2'

P1

2

h2' h2

1

h1 S

FIGURE 5.4.1 Irreversible compression

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

h being a state function, it is reasonable to decompose the change in enthalpy of the irreversible compression as the succession of the two changes corresponding to the following processes: 2

● ●

isentropic compression from 1 to 2 involving work s ∫ v dP; 1 fictitious isobaric heating from 2 to 2 of value corresponding to irreversibilities. h2 h1 h2 h2 h2 h1 s

2

∫ v dP 1

In conclusion s v dP

(5.4.3) (5.4.4)

The reasoning can be transposed easily to irreversible expansion, as well as for closed systems, for which we have: W Ws W P dv

(5.4.5) (5.4.6)

These relations can be generalized to the case where the kinetic energy or mass forces must be taken into account: Q dh dK dh dK Q dh dK (dh v dP) v dP dK If the kinetic energies are not negligible: v dP dK If the mass forces are not negligible: v dP dK g dz In the presence of irreversibilities: v dP dK g dz

(5.4.7)

These internal irreversibilities result in an increase of entropy, which can be calculated by applying the second law. 5.4.2.2 Irreversibility by temperature heterogeneity The second major source of irreversibilities encountered in energy systems considered here comes from the temperature difference that must exist in practice between two bodies when they exchange heat. Indeed, for both technical and economic reasons, the exchange surfaces between these bodies are necessarily finite. It is then possible to show that the heat exchange is accompanied by an increase in entropy at the boundary between the two bodies (at temperatures T1 and T2), given by the following equation: ⎛ T T2 ⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ Q dis ⎜⎜⎜ 1 ⎝ T1T2 ⎟⎠

(5.4.8)

Q being the heat absorbed by body 2. These irreversibilities are often described as external, because they take place at the boundary of the system considered.

5.4.3

Carnot effectiveness of heat engines

Thermal engines are designed to transform heat into mechanical energy. Let us assume that heat to transform is provided from an external source, the said hot source, whose temperature T1 is fixed.

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A second source, known as cold, is necessary to evacuate the heat generated. Its temperature T2 is necessarily lower than T1. A heat engine connected between these two sources works as follows: a fluid mass describes a simple closed process or cycle, in which it exchanges heat Q1 with the hot source, and heat Q2 with the cold source, and receives shaft work . Under the first law, we have: Q1 Q2 0 or Q1 Q2 The effectiveness of the machine (often called thermal efficiency) is defined as the (less than 1) ratio of the work produced to the heat from the hot source:

=

Q1

For the cycle to be fully reversible, it is necessary firstly that the process takes place without friction, and secondly that the heat exchange between the fluid and the external sources is reversible, and therefore is made with no temperature difference. Therefore, during the process phase where the fluid receives heat from the hot source, it will be at temperature T1, and during the phase where it yields heat to the cold source, it will be at temperature T2. During the intermediate phases, where the fluid evolves between these two temperatures, it must not receive any heat from the sources, and if no exchange occurs internally, which we assume, the process must be adiabatic and reversible, that is to say, isentropic. This leads to the Carnot cycle (named after its inventor). In the entropy diagram (T, s) (for details, see 5.6.6.1), it is represented by rectangle ABCD, described in the clockwise direction (Figure 5.4.2). AB is a segment of isotherm T1 described from left to right. The fluid receives heat (isothermal expansion in the case of a perfect gas); CD is a segment of isotherm T2 described from right to left. The fluid releases heat (isothermal compression in the case of a perfect gas); BC is a segment of isentropic S2 described from top to bottom (reversible adiabatic expansion in all cases); DA is a segment of the isentropic S1 described from bottom to top (reversible adiabatic compression in all cases). The calculation of Q1, Q2 and is immediate for the cycle. Indeed, for an isotherm: ●

●

●

●

●

Q 兰T ds Ts It becomes: QAB Q1 T1(S2 S1)

and

QCD Q2 T2(S1 S2)

T T1

T2

A

B

D

C

S1

FIGURE 5.4.2 Carnot cycle

80

S2

S

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

It will be noted in passing that these two equations combine to give the Carnot-Clausius relation (5.4.9), which shows that the measurement of thermodynamic temperatures can be reduced to that of heat: Q1 Q2 0 T1 T2

(5.4.9)

Returning to calculate the performance of our cycle: Q1 Q2 (T2 T1 ) (S2 S1 ) T1 T2 T

1 2 Q1 T1 T1 T

1 2 T1

(5.4.10)

Relation (5.4.10), established by Carnot in 1824, is probably rightly one of the best known in thermodynamics. It is of great practical importance, given its implications: First, with the assumptions made (reversible cycle without friction and heat transfer without temperature differences), it is easy to show that this effectiveness is the highest that can be achieved by a simple fluid heat engine operating between the two sources at T1 and T2. It is therefore a maximum limit and real cycles generally have much lower efficiencies; Secondly, the effectiveness of all reversible machines operating between the two sources at T1 and T2 is the same and only depends on their temperatures, not on the thermodynamic fluid used. ●

●

For these reasons we have preferred to speak of effectiveness, some authors considering that the efficiency term generally used to describe this limit cycle is not the most appropriate, and it is better to keep it to describe the performance of a real machine compared to that of an ideal machine. In the foregoing, we were interested in motor heat engines. A second class of heat engines is used in reverse cycles to transfer heat from a cold source to a hot one, thanks to a mechanical power input. This is called a refrigeration cycle, or heat pump. The above reasoning can be transposed to the case of these reverse cycles, and it can be shown that the maximum effectiveness of these cycles (also known as coefficient of performance) is equal to that of the reverse cycle, given by equations 5.4.11 or 5.4.12, depending on whether one looks at the heat exchanged with the cold source (refrigeration cycle) or with the hot one (heat pumps):

Q2 T2 T1 T2

(5.4.11)

Q1 T1 T1 T2

(5.4.12)

5.4.4 Fundamental relations for a phase Given (5.4.4) and (5.4.6) and neglecting the kinetic energies put into play, the written expressions of the first law are: du W Q P dv Q dh Q v dP Q

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Substituting (Q ) by Tds in these equations, we immediately obtain the following identities, which are fundamental in practical applications: du P dv T ds

(5.4.13)

dh v dP T ds

(5.4.14)

5.4.5 Thermodynamic potentials The more general study of the behavior of a system requires that we know two of its state functions, for example u and s, or h and s, but it may be interesting to gather in a single well-chosen state function all the thermodynamic knowledge about it. 5.4.5.1 Free energy and free enthalpy We are led to define two functions, either being sufficient for this, called respectively the free energy f or Helmholtz function and the free energy g or Gibbs function: f(v, T) u Ts g(P, T) h Ts

(5.4.15) (5.4.16)

For example, let us show that, for a substance of constant composition, knowledge of f is sufficient to determine its behavior. We have: df du T ds s dT, and

du P dv T ds,

which gives: df P dv s dT, which involves: ∂f ∂f , s , ∂v ∂T ∂u ∂ 2f cv ∂T ∂T 2 P

u f T

∂f ∂T

Knowledge of the free energy or enthalpy is sufficient to fully characterize a thermodynamic system. In practice however, these state functions are little used by specialists because their physical meaning is less directly accessible. 5.4.5.2 Equilibrium relationship for chemical reactions The second law of thermodynamics provides the fundamentals for the study of chemical equilibrium relationships. Equation (5.4.1) can be written dQ T ds. Since, according to (5.3.3) dQ du P dv, we have: du P dv T ds 0

(5.4.17)

We can rewrite inequality (5.4.15) by showing the free energy or enthalpy differential form: df du T ds s dT dg du P dv v dP T ds s dT

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

we get: df s dT P dv 0

(5.4.18)

At constant temperature (dT 0) and constant volume (dv 0), a process can only evolve in the direction of a decrease of its free energy, and a stable equilibrium must be a minimum of free energy: df 0

(5.4.19)

dg s dT v dP 0

(5.4.20)

Furthermore:

At constant temperature (dT 0) and at constant pressure (dP 0), a process can only evolve in the direction of a reduction of its Gibbs free energy, and a stable equilibrium must be a minimum of Gibbs energy: dg 0

(5.4.21)

A classic example of this law concerns the equilibrium between phases in a system composed of a liquid and its vapor. It will be discussed in Section 5.6.5.3. When looking at a mixture of several components, the constant temperature and pressure equilibrium equation becomes, expressed in molar quantities (Gibbs–Duhem relation): dGT,p ni di 0

(5.4.22)

ni being the number of moles of ith component, and i its chemical potential, equal for an ideal gas, to its partial molar free enthalpy: i G(T, Pi)

(5.4.23)

Equation (5.4.22) is the basis for calculating the equilibrium of chemical reactions. We will use it in paragraph 4.6.1.4 to establish the law of Mass Action.

5.5

EXERGY

The theory of exergy aims to develop an integrated analysis method that includes the first two laws of thermodynamics, and thus allows us to take into account both the amount of energy put into play and its quality, which the first law cannot do. Its interest is that it provides a quite rigorous thermodynamic framework to quantify the quality of any system, open or closed, in steady-state or not. The first to introduce this concept was G. Gouy, who late in the nineteenth century, defined the concept of usable energy, now renamed exergy by many authors. The basic idea is to consider that a thermodynamic system interacts with what is called its environment, which behaves like an infinite reservoir at constant temperature and pressure and fixed composition, meaning that the system studied is small enough not to disturb this environment. The environment will serve for example as a cold source for a power cycle, or hot source for a refrigeration cycle. Since the environment state determines the performance of the system studied, the theory of exergy can take it into account implicitly. In the framework of this book, we content ourselves with a brief and steady state (and therefore not rigorous) presentation of exergy analysis. Readers wishing to engage further in this direction will find especially in the work of L. Borel and D. Favrat (2005) a comprehensive theory of the subject. The practical implementation of the concepts introduced here will be presented in section 10.2.2 which explains how to build exergy balances.

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τ

Q

T0 h + Δh

h S

T0

FIGURE 5.5.1 Monothermal system

5.5.1

Presentation of exergy for a monotherm open system in steady state

Let us consider a steady-state open system exchanging energy with its environment assumed to be at uniform temperature T0 (Figure 5.5.1). The energy equation is given by the first law (5.3.6): h K Q and the entropy production by the second law: Q T0s Δs

0

Q 0 T0

If we assume that all the heat is provided by the environment, and T0 is the temperature at the boundary of the open system, Q can be eliminated by combining these two equations, giving: h K Q h K T0s (h K T0s) In most cases, we can neglect the kinetic energy changes K. For an open system, function xh h T0s is usually called exergy. The maximum work that the system can provide is equal to the reduction of its exergy. In practice, the actual work provided by the system may be less than this value. We define the exergy loss xhi as being equal to the difference between the maximum work possible and the actual work provided: xhi (max) (real) (xh) (real) xhi T0s h (real) If the process is furthermore adiabatic: (real) h

and xhi xh h T0s

Note that this description is not entirely satisfactory because it is clear that for a closed system, the definition of exergy leads us to consider function u T0s, so that there is some ambiguity. Therefore L. Borel was moved to speak rather of co-enthalpy and co-energy. Given the success of the concept of usable energy introduced by G. Gouy, largely used in the Anglo-Saxon world under the name availability, we could also speak of usable enthalpy or usable energy, depending on whether one considers an open or closed system. Beyond the question of vocabulary, we note that this new function is characterized by the introduction of a variable outside the system, T0. As such, it is no longer a state function in the strict

84

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

T1

Q1

τ

Qk

Tk h + Δh

h S

T0 Q0

T0

FIGURE 5.5.2 Multithermal open system

sense. However, as T0 is generally assumed to be constant, the exergy is sometimes presented as a linear combination of state functions. Another remark can be made at this stage: exergy allows us, through the product of entropy by the environment temperature, to express variations of this state function in one dimension and by orders of magnitude similar to those usually encountered by the engineer in energy calculations, which facilitates the understanding of physical phenomena. Finally, as discussed below, by this artifice we manage to formally eliminate from the calculations the “free” heat source represented by the environment. Exergy can be used to evaluate the quality of the changes made in real processes, compared to ideal reversible ones. 5.5.2 Multithermal open steady-state system Let us consider an open system that exchanges work and heat with n external sources at constant temperatures Tk, and environment taken at temperature T0 (Figure 5.5.2). Applying the first law gives here: n

Δh ΔK Q0 ∑ Qk k1

and entropy production is given by the second law: Δs

n Q Q0 ∑ k Δsi T0 k1 Tk

si, positive or zero, being the entropy generation. Neglecting kinetic energy changes, we get: n ⎛ T ⎞ Δx h Δ(h T0s) ∑ ⎜⎜⎜1 0 ⎟⎟⎟ Qk T0Δsi Tk ⎟⎠ k1 ⎝

(5.5.1)

or, with xhi T0 si 0: n ⎛ T ⎞ ∑ ⎜⎜⎜1 0 ⎟⎟⎟ Qk Δx h Δx hi 0 Tk ⎟⎠ k1 ⎝

(5.5.2)

is the work received by the system, xh the exergy variation of the fluid passing through it, and xhi the exergy dissipation resulting from irreversibilities. We call the Carnot factor the term 1 T0/T. This is the factor by which we must multiply a quantity Q of heat available at

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temperature T to obtain the value of its exergy. If we call useful heat (or heat-exergy as per Borel) the quantity xq Q, equation (5.5.2) gets the form: n

∑ k Qk Δx h Δx hi 0 k1 n

∑ x qk Δx h Δx hi

(5.5.3)

k1

The maximum engine work that can provide an open system is equal to the sum of heat-exergies of the sources with which it exchanges heat, less the change in exergy of the fluid passing through it and the exergy destroyed because of irreversibilities. 5.5.3 Application to a two-source reversible machine Let us consider a cyclic two-source reversible machine operating between a source at temperature T1 and environment at temperature T0. On a cycle, we have: xh 0 , xhi 0 (reversible machine). Applying formula (5.5.3) gives: ⎛ T ⎞ x q1 ⎜⎜1 0 ⎟⎟⎟ Q1 ⎜⎝ T1 ⎟⎠ If T0 T1, xq1 0 : the system receives heat-exergy from the hot source at T1, and converts it into work . Here we find the Carnot cycle, whose effectiveness is 1 T0/T1. If T0 T1, xq1 0 : the system gives heat-exergy to the cold source at T1, taking it from the hot source at T0. For this, we must provide work . It is then a refrigeration cycle or heat pump. 5.5.4

Special case: heat exchange without work production

In the special case where there is no work produced, equation (5.5.3) can be rewritten as: n

Δx hi ∑ x qk Δx h

(5.5.4)

k1

The exergy destroyed in the process is equal to the sum of the heat-exergies of the various sources, minus the change in exergy of the fluid passing through the system. 5.5.5

Exergy efficiency

Exergy allows us to rigorously define the concept of system efficiency, and therefore to quantify its thermodynamic quality: it is the ratio of exergy uses to exergy resources. It is always between 0 and 1, and so is much greater than the irreversibilities are lower. Exergy resources is the sum of all exergies provided to the cycle from outside. Exergy uses represents the net balance of the cycle, i.e. the algebraic sum of exergy produced and consumed within it.

86

exergy uses exergy resources

(5.5.5)

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

5.6

REPRESENTATION OF SUBSTANCE PROPERTIES

5.6.1 Solid, liquid, gaseous phases A pure substance can be in one or more of three phases: solid, liquid or gaseous. Solid state may even include several varieties known as allotropic, which reflect the different possible arrangements of the crystal lattice. These three phases are distinguished, at the microscopic level, by the intensity of intermolecular forces. In the solid state, they allow atoms only to oscillate around fixed positions randomly distributed or ordered (crystal). Their intensity decreases in liquids, which have no proper form, but remain slightly compressible. This is called a short distance order and disorder at long range. In a gas, intermolecular forces are very weak and the molecules move in an erratic motion. When heating a solid at a well chosen constant pressure, it turns into liquid, and we talk of fusion. If we continue to provide heat, the liquid turns to vapor, and we talk of vaporization. It is also possible that a solid turns directly into vapor, which is called sublimation. The temperature at which these changes are realized depends on the pressure exerted on the substance considered. For example at atmospheric pressure, the CO2 sublimes, that is to say, goes directly from solid to gaseous state, while water boils at 100 C. When a given mass of a pure substance is present in a single phase, its state is defined by two variables, for example its pressure and temperature. In the (P, T) plane, the three phases correspond to three areas, separated by three saturation curves (sublimation, vaporization and fusion) joining at the triple point T (Figure 5.6.1). Each curve corresponds to a two-phase equilibrium. For example, the rightmost curve is the set of points representing the equilibrium of a liquid with its vapor. The two-phase equilibrium assumes that the pressure and temperature satisfy a relationship characteristic of the nature of the fluid. For each of these phase changes to happen, it is necessary to provide or absorb energy, called latent heat of change of state. During the change of state, there are significant variations in the specific volume, except for fusion-solidification. This is particularly the case during vaporization, vapor being about 600 to 1,000 times less dense than the liquid. This change in specific volume occurs at constant pressure and temperature. Let us give some examples illustrating either the practical use of phase changes, or the constraints induced by the presence of a liquid-vapor equilibrium: When adding ice cubes to a warm drink, we provide heat which melts them, which cools it. As the latent heat of fusion of ice is much larger than the heat capacity of the drink, we get the desired cooling effect without bringing too much water dilution; ●

Fusion curve P Critical point Liquid

Gas

Solid

Vaporization curve Triple point Sublimation curve T

FIGURE 5.6.1 Phases of a substance

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

●

●

●

●

●

To transport methane over long distances by sea, it is liquefied at a temperature of 160 C, reducing its specific volume 600 times with respect to gas. It is thus possible to maintain atmospheric pressure in the tanks of the LNG ship. Although these tanks are very well insulated, you cannot avoid some heat exchange with the surroundings, which has the effect of vaporizing a small amount of gas which is used for propulsion; In contrast, butane or propane gas distributed for culinary purposes is confined in a liquid state at room temperature in thick metal cylinders, in order to resist the inside pressure of a few hundred psi or tens of bar; All cooking done in boiling water takes place at 100 C if the pressure is equal to 1 atmosphere, and this irrespective of the thermal heat supplied to the cooking. Thus we can define the precise duration for cooking a recipe, for example, a boiled egg; The principle of the pressure cooker is to overcome this limit of 100 C by doing the cooking in a chamber at a pressure exceeding 1 atm. It can reach 110 C and 120 C, in order to cook food more quickly; An example of condensation is that which is deposited on cold surfaces in contact with moist air, like mist on a window, or the morning dew on leaves.

The triple point corresponds to the state where it is possible to simultaneously maintain equilibrium between all three phases. The critical point represents the state where the phase of pure steam has the same properties as the pure liquid phase. At higher temperatures and pressures (supercritical), it is not possible to observe a separation between liquid and gas phases: the disk surface which separates the liquid and vapor phases disappears at the critical point. In practice, in heat engines, the working fluid is most often in the gaseous or liquid state, or as a mixture of gaseous and liquid phases. To calculate their properties, one is led to distinguish two broad categories of fluids: the ideal gas, which can be pure or compound, which includes the perfect gas, and condensable real fluids, which can also be pure or compound. In Thermoptim all these types of fluids are represented, with the exception of mixtures of real fluids, which can however be taken into account through external mixtures, as explained in Chapter 23 of Part 4. In what follows, we will successively deal with ideal gases, their mixtures, liquids and solids, properties of a mixture of phases in liquid-vapor equilibrium and condensable real fluids. We conclude with the study of moist mixtures of dry gas with water vapor, of real fluid mixtures and of charts used in absorption cycles.

5.6.2

Perfect and ideal gases

Many thermodynamic fluids in the vapor phase may be treated as ideal gases in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. This requires that the temperature-pressure combination deviates from the condensation zone as much possible (that is to say that the pressure is not “too” high or the temperature “too” low). Such conditions are commonly the case for gases known as “permanent” at ambient temperature and pressure, such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the oxygen-nitrogen mixture that is dry air etc. Even the water vapor in the atmosphere behaves almost like an ideal gas as its partial pressure remains moderate. The ideal gas model is based on the assumption that the molecular interactions in the gas can be neglected, except for collisions between them. The kinetic theory of gases can then explain the gas macroscopic behavior from mechanical considerations, and statistics on the movements of its molecules. The fundamental assumption of ideal gases is that their internal energy (and their enthalpy) is independent of pressure. Given that all real gases can be liquefied, there is rigorously no ideal or perfect gas. These concepts are fundamental, however, because the practical determination of the

88

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

state of a real fluid is always made by reference to the corresponding ideal or perfect gas, which approximates the behavior at very low pressure and/or high temperature. Specifically, to represent the state of a fluid, a cascade of increasingly complex models is used depending on the desired accuracy, the simplest being that of the ideal gas, the most elaborate corresponding to real fluids. 5.6.2.1 Equation of state of ideal gases The equations of perfect and ideal gases are very close, the first being in fact a special case of the latter. The equation of state of an ideal gas can be written: Pv rT

(5.6.1)

with r R/M (kJ kg1 K1) R is the universal constant 8.314 (kJ kmol1 K1) M is the molar mass of the gas (kg kmol1) According to the units used, equation (5.6.1) takes different forms: in mass units: Pv rT in molar units: Pvm RT Based on the total volume V occupied by the fluid, n being the number of kilomol: in mass units: PV mrT in molar units: PV nRT We can prove that equation (5.6.1) implies in particular that the internal energy and enthalpy of an ideal gas depend only on its temperature, and that r c p cv We thus have: cv

du (J kg1 K1 ) dT

cp

dh (J kg1 K1 ) dT

and

We call a “perfect” gas an ideal gas whose specific heat capacities cp and cv are constant. For such a gas, the internal energy and enthalpy are linear functions of temperature. Note that other authors call perfect gas what we call an ideal gas. In this case, they must each time tell whether the heat capacity of gas depends or not on the temperature. The assumption of perfect gas (cp and cv constant) is rigorously met for monatomic gases (which have no rotation or molecular vibration mode The larger the number of atoms in the gas molecule (and thus possible vibration modes), the less this assumption is valid. Statistical thermodynamics allows us to determine the values of molar heat capacity of monatomic and diatomic gases. For the former, we get: 5 Cp R 20.785 kJ/kmol 2

3 Cv R 12.471 kJ/kmol 2

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Cp (kJ kmol1 K1)

70 CO2

60

H2O 50 O2

40

CO, N2 30

H2

Ar, Ne, He

20 0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

T (K)

FIGURE 5.6.2 Molar heat capacity of some gases

For diatomic gases usually, at room temperature, we obtain: 7 Cp R 29.1 kJ/kmol 2

5 Cv R 20.785 kJ/kmol 2

Figure 5.6.2 shows the changes in Cp for some typical mono-, bi- and tri-atomic gases. 5.6.2.2 Practical determination of the state of a perfect gas Two parameters are sufficient to define an ideal gas: either its heat capacities at constant pressure and volume, or one of them and the value of its molar mass M, or the values of M and , the ratio of cp to cv. Under the assumptions, Pv rT, cp cv r, and constant cp and cv, we can easily calculate the internal energy u, enthalpy h of the gas from any reference state T0. u u0 cv (T T0)

and

h h0 cp (T T0)

Tds du Pdv ⇒ ds

(5.6.2)

1 p du dv T T

which allows us to easily calculate the entropy of the fluid: ds

cp T

dT

r dv v

s s0 cp ln

P v cv ln P0 v0

s s0 cv ln

T v r ln T0 v0

s s0 cp ln

T P r ln T0 P0

The choice of the reference point is arbitrary and depends on conventions. The characteristics (M, cp, cv, r, ) of some substances are given in Table 5.6.1.

90

(5.6.3)

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

TABLE 5.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUBSTANCES M kg/kmol Air

28.97

Hydrogen (H2) Helium (He)

2.016 4.003

cp J/kg/K

cv J/kg/K

r J/kg/K

1005

718

14320

10170

4127

287.1 2078

1.40 1.41

5234

3140

Methane (CH4)

16.04

2227

1687

518.7

1.32

1.66

Steam (H2O)

18.02

1867

1406

461.4

1.33

Neon (Ne)

20.18

1030

618

411.9

1.67 1.23

Acetylene (C2H2)

26.04

1712

1394

319.6

Carbon monoxide (CO)

28.01

1043

745

296.6

1.40

Nitrogen (N2)

28.02

1038

741

296.6

1.40

Ethylene (C2H4)

28.05

1548

1252

296.4

1.24

Ethane (C2H6)

30.07

1767

1495

276

1.18

Oxygen (O2)

32.00

917

653

259.6

1.40

Argon (Ar)

39.94

515

310

208

1.67

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

44.01

846

653

188.9

1.30

Propane (C3H8)

44.09

1692

1507

188.3

1.12

Isobutane (C4H10)

58.12

1758

1620

143.1

1.09

114.23

1711

1638

72.8

1.04

Octane (C8H18)

5.6.2.3 Practical determination of the state of an ideal gas An ideal gas differs from a perfect gas because its thermal capacity is not constant, but depends solely on temperature. Most often, Cp is represented by a polynomial fit of order n in T, as (either in molar units, as below, or in mass units): n

Cp ∑ CpiTi

(5.6.4)

i0

The solution chosen in Thermoptim is a 7-term development of the following type: Cp A BT CT 2 DT 3 ET 4

G K T2 T

Data from Janaf Tables have been used to identify the parameters (Chase et al., 1985). In order to reduce the number of terms while maintaining good accuracy, a polynomial fit of non-integer exponents can also be used, which leads to expressions like the following (Holman, 1988). T is in Kelvin. Cpb Cpc Cpd 2 Cpe T T T T 536.8 3559 Cp 48.212 T T

Cp Cpa O2

Cp 48.212

(kJ/kmol/K)

536.8 3559 3.768 ⋅ 104 (T 2222) T T

(300 T 2200) (2200 T 5000)

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N2 CO H2

H2 O CO2 SO2

8071 1.5 ⋅ 106 T T2 7652 1.38 ⋅ 106 Cp 39.61 T2 T Cp 39.65

(300 T 5000) (300 T 5000)

62.41 T 62.41 Cp 24.12 4.356 ⋅ 103 T 5.94 ⋅ 104 (T 2222) T 1863 17445 Cp 83.15 T T Cp 24.12 4.356 ⋅ 103 T

15189 1.82 ⋅ 106 T T2 11759 1.26 ⋅ 106 Cp 65.09 T2 T Cp 67.83

(300 T 2200) (2200 T 5000) (300 T 3000) (300 T 3500) (300 T 3500)

Cv is deduced by Cv Cp R, and specific variables cp and cv are obtained by dividing these values by the molar mass of the substance. In practice, if we do not have a software application to calculate the properties of substances, and if we intend to determine the evolution of an ideal gas over a limited range of temperature, it is possible to assimilate it to a perfect gas, which enables us to use all the results established for them, provided its specific heat capacity is calculated at the mean temperature of the process. Of course, this is only valid in first approximation, but the loss of accuracy is compensated by a simplification of the calculations. From a polynomial cp or cv f (T), it is easy to calculate u, h or s by integrating their differential relations, which leads to:

u u0 ∫ cv (t ) dt

(5.6.5)

0

h h0 ∫ cp (t ) dt

(5.6.6)

0

s s0 ∫

0

cv (t ) v dt r ln t v0

or

s s0 ∫

0

cp (t ) t

dt r ln

P P0

(5.6.7)

With the non-integer polynomial development proposed above, we obtain, as an integral for these functions, in molar variables: Cpd Cpe 2 T T 2 Cpd Cpe 2 h Cpa T 2 Cpb T Cpc ln(T) T T 2 Cpb Cpc Cpd s Cpa ln(T) 2 2 Cpe T R ln(P) T 2T T u (Cpa R)T 2 Cpb T Cpc ln(T)

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

5.6.2.4 Equation of isentropic process In many compressors or turbines, the fluid undergoes an evolution close to the isentropic, which forms the reference against which the actual process is calculated. The isentropic equations are therefore of particular importance. By posing s s0 Const., we find, for perfect gas: Pv Const., or

Tv 1 Const., or

PT/(1 ) Const.

(5.6.8)

or, in differential form: dP dv 0 P v

(5.6.9)

For an ideal gas, the isentropic equation does not take as simple a form as for a perfect gas. The formalism is more complex, but it remains quite usable in practice, as the pressure and temperature variables can be separated. According to (5.6.7) we obtain cp (t ) P ln ∫ dt P0 rt 0

which is similar to the corresponding expression for an ideal gas: PT/(1) Const.

where

cp = . 1 r

5.6.3 Ideal gas mixtures In many practical applications, we are dealing not with pure gases, but gas mixtures, whose composition may vary. This is particularly the case in an internal combustion engine cylinder: the composition of flue gas is evolving gradually as the combustion unfolds. Dalton’s law states an important result: a mixture of ideal gases behaves itself as an ideal gas. The composition of a mixture is usually determined from either mole fractions or mass fractions of the constituents. In this section we establish the expressions for various usual thermodynamic properties in terms of these quantities. 5.6.3.1 Mole fractions and mass fractions The total number of moles n of the mixture equals the sum of the numbers of moles of each component: n n1 n2 n3 nn ∑ ni The mole fraction of a component is defined as the ratio of the number of moles of this constituent to the total number of moles in the mixture: xi

ni n

and

∑ xi 1

Moreover, the law of mass conservation implies that the total mass is equal to the sum of the masses of the constituents: m m1 m2 m3 mn ∑ mi

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

The mass fraction of a component is defined as the ratio of the mass of the component to the total mass of the mixture: yi

mi m

and

∑ yi 1

5.6.3.2 Dalton law of ideal gases We define the partial pressure Pi of a component as the pressure exerted by this component if it occupied alone the volume V of the mixture, its temperature being equal to that of the mixture. Dalton’s law postulates that the pressure, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of a mixture of ideal gases at temperature T and pressure P are respectively the sum of the pressures, internal energies, enthalpies and partial entropies of gas constituents, that is to say taken separately at temperature T and their partial pressures. Each component behaves as if it existed at the temperature T of the mixture and was alone in the volume V. Physically, this means that the fields of molecular forces of the individual components do not interfere with each other. Mathematically, Dalton’s law translates into the following two laws, the total pressure being P: Pi xiP cp

1 ∑ cpi mi ∑ yi cpi m

(5.6.10) (5.6.11)

The mixture heat capacity at constant pressure equals the sum of the products of the specific heat capacity of the constituents by their mass fractions. Dalton’s law means that a mixture of ideal gases behaves itself as an ideal gas, whose fictitious mole molar mass would be M xiMi This means that the results established for ideal gases can be used to calculate the evolution of mixtures of these gases, which is of paramount importance in practice. M We have: yi x i i M We can also define an equivalent ideal gas constant by: r

R (kJ kg1 K1 ) M

In mass notations, the ideal gas constant of the mixture is expressed in a very simple form: r ∑ yiri

(5.6.12)

Moreover, H ∑ Hi

and

mcpT cpimiT

We deduce (5.6.11). In molar notations (5.6.11) becomes: Cp ∑ xiCpi

(5.6.13)

5.6.3.3 Energy properties of ideal gas mixtures Enthalpy of a mixture According to Dalton’s law, the enthalpy of a mixture of ideal gases is equal to the sum of the enthalpies of each component.

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

In practice, we use relations (5.6.14) or (5.6.15): mass notations: h ∑ yihi

(5.6.14)

molar notations: H ∑ xiHi

(5.6.15)

The calculation of internal energy would be done in the same way. Entropy of a mixture It is when calculating the entropy of the mixture that the profound significance of Dalton’s law appears, i.e. that the value of the entropy of the mixture shall be calculated by summing the entropies of the constituents taken at temperature T and their partial pressures Pi. Indeed, the entropy of the mixture is greater than the sum of the entropies of the constituents before mixing by a value km rxi ln xi 0. Physically, this is explained by the irreversibility of the mixing operation. It is important to note that the km gap remains constant (independent of T and P) as long as the concentrations do not vary. This gap must be taken into account once and for all when calculating the entropy of reference, but then, the mixture behaving itself as an ideal gas, we no longer need to worry about it. Of course, this does not remain true if the composition of the mixture comes to vary during the process, in which case it is necessary to calculate the different values of km to determine the variations of entropy. Thermoptim uses two types of ideal gases: pure gases, whose properties are predetermined in the software, not user-modifiable; they number about 20; compound gases, constructed by the user at will from pure gases included in the database. Their properties are calculated by the software by applying Dalton’s law. ●

●

5.6.4

Liquids and solids

Liquids and solids are described as ideal when compressibility is negligible (v Const.). Since an “ideal” liquid or solid cannot be subjected to any form of reversible work, a well chosen single variable is enough to represent its thermodynamic state. One can indeed consider that the internal energy of an ideal liquid or solid depends only on its temperature: du c, dT

as for an ideal gas.

However the enthalpy of the ideal liquid (that of the solid has no physical sense) is still a function of pressure: dh c dT v dP We can still define the entropy ds (1/T)du (P/T)dv, which gives: ds

cdT T

As for gas, a liquid or solid whose heat capacity does not vary significantly is called “perfect”: c ⬇ Const.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Then: u u0 c(T T0 ) h h0 c(T T0 ) v(P P0 ) s s0 c ln

T T0

In practice, characteristics of liquids are often identified at the saturation pressure. However, as the correction v(P P0) is generally small, this convention has little importance. For an isobaric evolution, the calculation of thermodynamic properties of liquids involves only their heat capacity. Therefore, in Thermoptim, we introduce a particular substance, called generic liquid, specific heat capacity equal to unity, which is used to calculate the exchange in ways that will be explained in section 8.3.5. 5.6.5

Liquid-vapor equilibrium of a pure substance

In compressible fluid machines it is often necessary to study the processes bringing the fluid into the liquid state. The ideal gas to zero does not exist, all fluids being condensable, and it is necessary to know their properties in the liquid state. The study of vapor-liquid equilibrium is based on the law of phase mixture or lever rule that merely reflects the extensiveness of state functions with the assumption that the interfacial energy is negligible, which reads: volume, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy of a phase mixture, at pressure P and temperature T, are respectively the sums of these properties in the different phases constituting the mixture, taken in isolation at the same pressure and at the same temperature. On various thermodynamic charts presented below, the vaporization or vapor-liquid equilibrium area is evident for temperatures and pressures lower than the critical point. This area is bounded on the left by the saturated liquid curve, and on the right by the dry saturated vapor curve. These two curves define the saturation curve, whose shape is characteristic. Between these two curves, pressure and temperature are no longer independent: they are connected by a relationship known as saturation pressure law or vapor pressure law, and the system is mono-variant. 5.6.5.1 Saturation pressure law Many formulas have been proposed to algebraically represent the saturation pressure law. One of the most used is that of Antoine: B ln(Ps ) A CT where A, B and C are characteristic parameters of the fluid, and Ps the saturated vapor pressure. With Ps in bar and T in K, for example for water: A 11.783 B 3895.65 C 42.1387 This however is not very precise, and in Thermoptim, the following development was selected: ln(Ps ) AT

B C ln(T) DTE T

5.6.5.2 Vapor quality In the middle part of the vapor-liquid equilibrium zone, fluid is present in both liquid and vapor phases. In this central zone, isobars and isotherms are combined, the liquid-vapor change taking

96

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

place at constant temperature and pressure. The composition of the mixture is defined by its quality x, ratio of vapor mass mg to the total mass (mg plus the mass of liquid ml). x

mg

(5.6.16)

m g ml

5.6.5.3 Enthalpy of vaporization The length of the vaporization line gives the enthalpy (or heat) of vaporization L for the fluid conditions P and T considered. It is proportional to it in the entropy (s, T) and Mollier (s, h) charts, and equal to it in the (h, ln(P)) chart: h g hl L s g sl

L T

The above relationships can be demonstrated from relationship 5.4.20 expressing that the free energy is minimal at equilibrium: during the vaporization process, the Gibbs energy evolves from gl to gg. If evolution is reversible, we have: dg 0, or gl gg: hl Tsl hg Tsg We thus find the relationship hlg (hg hl) T(sg sl) Tslg. L is a decreasing function of temperature, zero for T above the critical temperature. A formula due to Clapeyron allows us to estimate L from the saturation pressure law: dPs dT In this formula, the gas specific volume vg is obtained from the vapor equation of state, and the liquid specific volume vl from a proper relationship. In Thermoptim, we opted for a direct relationship giving L as a function of reduced temperature Tr T/Tc: L A (1 Tr)(B C Tr D Tr2 E Tr3) L T (vg vl)

5.6.5.4 Calculation of pure two-phase substance properties By applying the law of phase mixture, we have: v = (1 − x)v1 + xvg u = (1 − x)u1 + xu g h = (1 − x)h1 + xhg = h1 + xL L s = (1 − x)s1 + xs g = s1 + x T

(5.6.17)

Values of critical points and vaporization enthalpies for some common substances are given in Table 5.6.2. 5.6.6 Representations of real fluids The increase in pressure and/or lowering of the temperature can justify a reconsideration of the ideal gas equation (5.6.1). This is especially the case near the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone. When the fluid no longer satisfies the ideal gas equation, its internal energy and enthalpy are no longer based solely on temperature.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

TABLE 5.6.2 CRITICAL AND VAPORIZATION PROPERTIES Ts (1bar) K

at Ts kg/liter

air

80.2

0.860

oxygen

90.2

nitrogen CO2 (sublimation) CO water hydrogen

L MJ/kg/K

cp (Ts) kJ/kg/K

Pc bar

Tc K

37.70

132.6

1.120

0.211

1.699

50.40

154.4

2.038

33.96

126.3

77.4

0.812

0.197

194.7

0.793

0.369

73.50

304.2

81.7

0.799

0.215

34.90

133.0

373.2

0.958

2.260

4.185

221.00

620.4 33.3

20.4

0.070

0.467

9.794

12.96

helium

4.3

0.122

0.023

4.604

2.28

5.3

argon

87.3

1.420

0.163

1.130

48.59

150.8

methane

111.5

0.424

0.503

3.474

46.27

190.7

ethane

184.6

0.546

0.489

2.427

49.80

305.4

ethylene

169.7

0.610

0.467

2.637

51.33

282.7

propane

230.6

0.582

0.410

2.511

42.52

370.0

5

Cp (kJ kg1 K1)

90 bar 70

4

50 30

3

2

1 150

10 0

200

250

300

350

400

450

T (°C)

FIGURE 5.6.3 Influence of pressure on steam heat capacity

This behavior is shown in Figure 5.6.3, for superheated steam. It is clear that the heat capacity cp of this substance is the more affected by the pressure as it is higher and the temperature is lower (that is to say, especially in the immediate vicinity of the saturation curve). To determine the state of a real fluid, we use most often a thermodynamic chart, a table of thermodynamic property values, or a set of equations of state covering the various zones necessary. Traditionally, thermodynamic charts are the most used. There has however been a marked evolution of the practice, the development of micro-computers making possible the direct calculation of fluid thermodynamic properties in a wide range of variation of state variables. Thermoptim allows us to make such calculations precisely. However, even if one has a fluid properties computer, charts retain a strong interest to provide education, because they can easily view the real gas properties, including the liquid-vapor zone. We therefore begin by presenting them. Moreover, the usual diagrams are increasingly computerized, which allows us to conciliate ease of use due to graphical display and numerical accuracy. Interactive charts of the Thermoptim family, based on the same equations as the software, are one example. These diagrams, shown in Figures 5.6.7, 5.6.8, 5.6.11 and 5.6.12 are available from the demo version of Thermoptim, their

98

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

interactivity being deactivated. The reader interested in their construction may in particular display only some of the isovalue curves, by selecting them in the View menu. 5.6.6.1 Thermodynamic charts of pure substances A pure substance of given mass being a bivariant system, its state can be represented on a 2 axes chart, on which are plotted a number of iso-values or “contours”. Among the many possible coordinate systems, we will retain four: the Clapeyron chart (P, v) which gives the most direct image of the mechanical processes, but is little used for the study of industrial projects, because it does not allow one to accurately read the usual energy quantities, including entropy and enthalpy; the entropy chart (T, s) that directly visualizes the reversible heat transfers (兰T ds) and the various possible irreversibilities; the Mollier chart (h, s), which is a change of the former, intended to directly show the energy transfers in an open system, which has the advantage that the enthalpy involved can be read without difficulty; the (h, ln(P)) chart, with enthalpy as abscissa and pressure as ordinate (usually with a logarithmic scale to cover a wide range of values). This chart is traditionally used in the study of cycles running in reverse (heat pumps or refrigeration). Its interest is to combine the essential mechanical constraint (P) of compressors to the energy variable (h); exergy charts (or usable enthalpy charts) (h, xh) and (s, xh), with the enthalpy or entropy as abscissa and exergy as ordinate, allow one to view exergy brought into play in processes, and therefore lend themselves well to the study of irreversibilities taking place in cycles. ●

●

●

●

●

Thermoptim provides electronic versions of these charts, called interactive charts, which can be set at leisure and on which we can represent the cycles. Presentation of thermodynamic charts Clapeyron chart The Clapeyron chart (Figure 5.6.4) represents the fluid properties with specific volume v as abscissa and pressure P as ordinate. In this plane, one curve is of particular importance: the saturation curve. (P, v) chart, water 120 T 307°C

100

e op ntr ise

40

00 3,0

60

h

Pressure P bar

thalp

isen

saturation curve

80

sa

tur

iso

-q

ua

lity

s

20

ati

on

isoth

cu

erm

rve

5.2

T3

07°C

x0

.5

0 0

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

Volume v

0.125

0.15

0.175

0.2

(m3/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.4 Clapeyron chart

99

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Its summit is the critical point (not shown on the figure as its pressure is about twice that of the ordinate scale). The left side, upslope, represents the beginning of the boiling process (boiling curve), and its right side, down slope, the saturated vapor (dew point curve). Under this curve is the twophase liquid-vapor equilibrium zone, and in the rest of the plane, that of simple fluid. Form of isotherms In the “liquid” zone on the left of the chart, isotherms have a very strong negative slope: the liquids are generally not compressible. In the two-phase domain, pressure and temperature are linked by the saturated pressure law, and isotherms are horizontal. The volume increases enormously, since the density of the gas is much lower than that of the liquid (in the chart of Figure 5.6.4, the abscissa scale is logarithmic). In the zone to the right of the vaporization curve, isotherms are curved downward. Gradually as the distance from the vaporization curve increases, the gas approaches the corresponding ideal gas, and isotherms are recovering to approach the equilateral hyperbolas of equation Pv Const. We have shown an isotherm for T 307 C Tc in Figure 5.6.4. Other iso-value curves The main drawback of the Clapeyron chart is that it does not contain the usual thermodynamic quantities like enthalpy and entropy, and that if we equip it with isenthalpic and isentropic curves, it becomes very imprecise, as shown in the figure: the useful area of the chart is very narrow, and isentropic, isenthalpic and iso-quality curves have very similar shapes, so that determining their intersections is difficult. Entropy chart In the entropy chart (Figure 3.4.2 of Part 1), entropy is the abscissa and temperature the ordinate. The vaporization curve again separates the plane into two parts, defining the two-phase zone and the simple fluid zone. The critical point is still at its maximum (C in the figure). For some substances, the right branch of the vaporization curve (saturated vapor), presents a point of maximum entropy. This is particularly the case for certain hydrocarbons and certain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). One of the advantages of such a chart (see Figure 3.4.3 of Part 1) is that any perfect cyclic process results in the (T, s) plane by a contour (), whose area A measures the absolute value of the amount of heat Q put into play (or the work provided or received ). Indeed, Q 兰T ds by definition. As the cycle is closed, Q 0, and || A. The rule of signs is as follows: if the cycle is described clockwise, the work is negative, thus transferred by the fluid to the surroundings: we talk of a motor cycle or of a cycle running forward; if the cycle is described counterclockwise it is the opposite: we talk of a refrigeration cycle, or of a cycle running in reverse. ●

●

Form of isobars Left of the saturation curve, isobars are curved upward. Liquid isentropic compression having almost no effect on its temperature, liquid isobars are virtually merged with the ascending branch of the vaporization curve. The chart is very imprecise in this area and it is preferable to use a table or a program giving the thermodynamic properties along the vaporization curve. Inside the two-phase zone, temperature and pressure are bound by the saturated pressure law, and isobars are horizontal.

100

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

(T, s) entropy chart for water p

2.5

700

isob ar

500 400

C

ise n th

e

n

iso-quality

rv

300

cu

tio

ra

u at

s

200

v lume

iso-vo

5

r

p

2

0.1

isobar p 2.5

sa

ba

tur

ati

on

0.5

iso

0

h 3000

x

100

2.

a lp

Temperature T (°C)

600

2

4

6

8

cu

rve

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 5.6.5 Helium entropy chart

Right of the vaporization curve, curves are rising and, for ideal gas, become exponential. They can be deduced from each other by horizontal translation. If the pressure exceeds the critical pressure, isobars are strictly ascending curves, which do not intersect the vaporization curve. Form of isenthalps In the vicinity of the saturation curve, isenthalps are curved downward, with a strong negative slope. Gradually as the distance from the vaporization curve increases, the gas approaches the corresponding ideal gas, and isenthalps become horizontal, as enthalpy is a sole function of temperature. In an entropy chart, a Carnot cycle consisting of two isentropic and two isothermal processes is a rectangle. Figures 5.6.5 and 5.6.6 give two examples of entropy charts available in Thermoptim, one for helium and the other for water. The abscissa unit (entropy s) is kJ kg1 K1. Mollier chart In the Mollier chart (Figure 5.6.7), entropy is the abscissa, and enthalpy the ordinate. The advantage is that one can directly measure on the axis enthalpies put in. The critical point C is here at the left of the vaporization curve maximum. Form of isobars We have: dh v dP T ds and therefore (h/s)P T. The slope of the isobars is at each point equal to the absolute temperature, and therefore presents no angular point. These curves are strictly ascending.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

(T, s) entropy chart for water screen background ssatl ssatv p 250 p 150 p 40 p 10 p 2.5 p1 p 0.2 p 0.05 p 0.01 h 3.600 h 3.450 h 3.300 h 3.150 h 3.000 h 2.850 h 2.700 h 2.550 h 2.400 v 4.5 v 1.8 v 0.75 v 0.3 v 0.12 v 0.05 v 0.02 v 0.0075 v 0.00317 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

900

Temperature T (K)

800

700

600

500

400

300 0

2

4

6

8

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 5.6.6 Water entropy chart

Mollier (h, s) chart water 4,000

iso

ba

r

3,750

p

5

3,500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

3,250 isotherm

3,000 2,750 e rv

cu

n tio ra C 05 tu 7° 0. sa 30 v T e rm lum o the -v iso so

2,500 2,250

C

ba

r p

5

saturatio

n curve

C 2°

T

15

x 0.5

1,750 1,500 4

FIGURE 5.6.7 Mollier chart

iso

i

2,000

102

T 307°C

A

5

6

7 Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

8

9

10

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

In the liquid zone, they are practically merged with the vaporization curve, for the reasons outlined above. In the mixed zone, pressure and temperature being linked by the saturation pressure law, isobars are straight line segments of the slope T. As a first approximation, they are tangent to the boiling curve at the point corresponding to the start of boiling (not shown on the figure). In the gas zone, isobars escape tangentially to this straight line, and progressively approach the exponential corresponding to the ideal gas. The critical isobaric curve starts tangentially to the vaporization curve in C. Form of isotherms In the mixed zone, isotherms are coincident with isobars. They then present an abrupt decrease in slope to move gradually toward the horizontal, since for the corresponding ideal gas, enthalpies depend only on temperature. In the vapor zone, we see that isotherms (low slope) and isobars (high slope) intersect with appreciable angles, which gives a very accurate reading (point A on Figure 5.6.7). Form of isovolumes It is possible to show that the slope of isovolumes is slightly larger than that of isobars. Moreover, exergy is defined by relation xh h T0s, which can be written h T0s xh. Once environment reference conditions (temperature and pressure) are defined, it is very easy to equip a (h, s) chart with iso-exergy curves, which are lines of slope T0. Figures 5.6.8 and 5.6.9 show two examples of Mollier charts, one for water, and the second for R 134a.

4,000

screen background ssatl ssatv p 150 p 100 p 50 p 20 p5 p2 p1 p 0.2 p 0.02 T 860 K T 790 K T 720 K T 650 K T 580 K T 510 K T 440 K T 370 T 300 v5 v 1.6 v 0.5 v 0.16 v 0.05 v 0.016 v 0.01 v 0.005 v 0.0016 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

3,750 3,500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

3,250 3,000 2,750 2,500 2,250 2,000 1,750 1,500 4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 5.6.8 Mollier chart (h, s) for water

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

screen background ssatl ssatv p 70 p 30 p 10 p 2.5 p1 p 0.2 p 0.05 p 0.01 p 0.002 T 480 K T 440 K T 400 K T 360 K T 320 K T 280 K T 240 K T 200 T 180 v 12 v4 v 1.4 v 0.75 v 0.3 v 0.12 v 0.05 v 0.02 v 0.0075 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

475 450 425

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

400 375 350 325 300 275 250 225 1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5 Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

1.6

1.7

1.8

FIGURE 5.6.9 Mollier chart (h, s) for R134a

(h, ln(P)) chart In the (h, ln(P)) chart (Figure 2.10.1 of Part 1), the abscissa is enthalpy, and the ordinate is pressure, usually on a logarithmic scale. This chart is equipped with isentropic, isothermal, isovolume curves, and in the mixed zone, equal quality curves. The critical point C is here at vaporization curve maximum. Form of isotherms In the liquid region, isotherms are practically vertical, the enthalpy of the liquid being almost independent of pressure. In the mixed zone, pressure and temperature being linked by the saturation pressure law, isotherms are horizontal. In the vapor zone, the curves are decreasing with vertical asymptotes, the enthalpy of the corresponding ideal gas being independent of pressure. Form of isentropes The slope of isentropes is v, as dh v dP T ds, and thus (h/P)s v. They do not have angular points, and are almost vertical in the liquid zone, v being very small. Figures 5.6.10 and 5.6.11 give two examples of (h, ln(P)) charts, the first for refrigerant R134a, and the second for ammonia. The ordinate unit (pressure P) is the bar, the abscissa (enthalpy h) is the kJ kg1. Exergy enthalpy chart (h, exh) In the exergy enthalpy chart (h, exh) (Figures 5.6.12 to 5.6.14), enthalpy is the abscissa and exergy the ordinate.

104

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

screen background hsatl hsatv T 400 K T 380 K T 360 K T 340 K T 320 K T 300 K T 280 K T 260 K T 240 K s 1.8 s 1.7 s 1.6 s 1.5 s 1.4 s 1.3 s 1.2 s 1.1 s1 v 0.16 v 0.1 v 0.06 v 0.04 v 0.025 v 0.016 v 0.01 v 0.006 v 0.004 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

64

32

Pressure P (bar)

16

8

4

2

100

150

200

250

300 350 Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

400

450

500

FIGURE 5.6.10 (h, ln(P)) chart for R134a

screen background hsatl hsatv T 470 K T 430 K T 400 K T 370 K T 340 K T 310 K T 280 K T 250 K T 220 K s 5.5 s5 s 4.5 s4 s 3.5 s3 s 2.5 s2 s 1.5 v 0.4 v 0.25 v 0.16 v 0.1 v 0.06 v 0.04 v 0.025 v 0.016 v 0.01 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

256 128 64 32

Pressure P (bar)

16 8 4 2

0

360

720

1,080

1,440

1,800

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.11 (h, ln(P)) chart for ammonia

105

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Enthalpy exergy chart water/T0 15°C 1,600 1,400

5

s

1,200

6.

herm

iso

5

x

200

0.

satur a

5

ise nt ro pe

p

B

°C

152

isot

bar

400

D

tion c urve

600

r

ba

iso

th

iso T

erm

r

T 307°C

Exergy exh (kJ/kg)

C

800

rv cu

ion

rat

tu sa

5

ba

iso

e

1,000

p

A

0 200 500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

3,500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.12 (h, xh) chart

Enthalpy exergy chart water/T0 288.15 K screen background ssatl ssatv p 150 p 100 p 50 p 20 p5 p2 p1 p 0.2 p 0.02 T 860 K T 790 K T 720 K T 650 K T 580 K T 510 K T 440 K T 370 T 300 s 11.7 s 10.4 s 9.1 s 7.8 s 6.5 s 5.2 s 3.9 s 2.6 s 1.3 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

1,600 1,400

Exergy exh (kJ/kg)

1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 200 500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

Entropy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.13 (h, xh) exergy chart for water

106

3,000

3,500

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

Enthalpy exergy chart R134a/T0 288.15 K 100

screen background ssatl ssatv p 70 p 30 p 10 p 2.5 p1 p 0.2 p 0.05 p 0.01 p 0.002 T 480 K T 440 K T 400 K T 360 K T 320 K T 280 K T 240 K T 200 T 180 s 2.7 s 2.4 s 2.1 s 1.8 s 1.5 s 1.2 s 0.9 s 0.6 s 0.3 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

50

Exergy exh (kJ/kg)

0

50

100

150

200 100

200

300

400

500

600

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.14 (h, xh) exergy chart for R134a

As xh h T0s, this chart is easily constructed from the Mollier chart by linear combination of axes once you know the reference temperature T0. Given this setting, it would be more accurate to speak, for a given substance, of an exergy charts family. As for the Mollier chart (Fig. 5.6.9), one advantage is that we can measure directly on the x-axis the enthalpies put in. The critical point here is to the left of the maximum vaporization curve. Form of isobars We have: dh v dP T ds, and dexh dh T0 ds, hence ⎛ T ⎞ T dex h ⎜⎜1 0 ⎟⎟⎟ dh 0 v dP, ⎜⎝ T⎠ T

and

⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ ∂ex h ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎜⎜1 0 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ ∂h ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ T⎠ P

The slope of isobars at each point is equal to the Carnot factor 1 T0/T, and therefore presents no angular point. It becomes zero for T T0, which corresponds to the minimum exergy of the isobar chosen. In the liquid zone, they are practically merged with the vaporization curve, for the reasons given for the Mollier chart. In the mixed zone, pressure and temperature being linked by saturation pressure law, isobars are straight line segments AB of slope 1 T0/T. As a first approximation, they are tangent to the boiling curve at point A corresponding to the start of boiling. In the gas zone, isobars escape tangentially to AB (blue dashed curve). At high temperatures, tends to 1, and they progressively approach straight lines parallel to isentropes. The critical isobaric curve starts tangentially to the vaporization curve in C.

107

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Form of isotherms In the mixed zone, isotherms are coincident with isobars. Depending on the value of T0 and temperature, they then pass through a maximum or have a sudden decrease in slope to gradually tend towards the vertical since for the corresponding ideal gas, enthalpies depend only on temperature. In the vapor zone, as can be seen in Figure 5.6.13, isotherms (high slope) and isobars (low slope) intersect with large angles point D), which gives a very accurate reading. The isothermal temperature T0 is horizontal and tangent to the minimum of the saturation curve. Generally, it is chosen as the zero scale of ordinates. Form of isovolumes It is possible to show that the slope of the isovolumes is slightly higher than that of the isobars. Form of isentropes As dxh dh T0 ds, (exh/h)s 1, the slope of isentropes is equal to unity: the isentropes are straight lines of slope 45 in a vertical rectangular frame. In the example given in Figure 5.6.13, whose axes do not have the same scale, they have a slightly lower angle. As shown in this figure, it is very easy to identify on a exergy chart, for a given fluid temperature, pressure leading to the maximum exergy: it is that which passes through the maximum of the corresponding isotherm. Figures 5.6.13 and 5.6.14 show two examples of enthalpy exergy charts, one for water, and the second for R 134a, prepared for T0 15 C 288.15 K. Exergy entropy chart (s, exh) In the entropy exergy chart (Figures 5.6.15 to 5.6.17), entropy is the abscissa and exergy the ordinate. Like its predecessor, this chart is easily constructed from the Mollier chart once we know the reference temperature T0. The critical point here is still to the left of the vaporization curve maximum. Form of isobars We have: dh vdP T ds, and dexh dh T0 ds, hence dexh vdP (T T0)ds, and (exh/h)p (T T0). The slope of isobars is at each point equal to (T T0), and therefore presents no angular point. It becomes zero for T T0, which corresponds to the minimum exergy of the isobar chosen. In the liquid zone, isobars are practically merged with the vaporization curve, for the reasons stated previously. In the mixed zone, pressure and temperature being linked by saturation pressure law, isobars are straight line segments AB of slope (T T0). As a first approximation, they are tangent to the boiling curve at point A corresponding to the start of boiling. In the gas zone, isobars escape tangentially to AB (blue dashed curve). At high temperatures, they have a paraboloid look. The critical isobaric curve starts tangentially to the vaporization curve in C. Form of isenthalps As dexh dh T0 ds, (exh/s)h T0, the isenthalp slope is equal to T0: isenthalps are the straight lines of negative slope. Given the difference in scale, their apparent slope is close to 45 . Form of isotherms In the mixed zone, isotherms are coincident with isobars. Depending on the value of T0 and temperature, they then pass through a maximum or have a sudden decrease in slope to move gradually towards a straight negative slope parallel to isenthalps since for the corresponding ideal gas,

108

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

Entropy exergy chart water/T0 15°C

iso

ba

r

1,600 1,400

5

ise

p

nt

ha

lp

Exergy exh (kJ/kg)

1,200

h

T

2,

00 0

1,000

°C

7 30 rm the T iso

C 800

D Cp

52°

1 T

600

5

B

ar

isob

ve

r cu

400

30 7°C

ion rm the iso

at

r tu

sa

sa

r tu

at cu e

rv

0.5

A

0

ion

x

200

200 0

2

4

6

8

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 5.6.15 (s, xh) chart Entropy exergy chart water/T0 288.15 K screen background ssatl ssatv p 150 p 100 p 50 p 20 p5 p2 p1 p 0.2 p 0.02 T 860 K T 790 K T 720 K T 650 K T 580 K T 510 K T 440 K T 370 T 300 h 4,000 h 3,500 h 3,000 h 2,500 h 2,000 h 1,500 h 1,000 h 500 h0 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

1,600 1,400

Exergy exh (kJ/kg)

1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 200 0

2

4

6

8

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 5.6.16 (s, xh) exergy chart for water

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Entropy exergy chart R134a/T0 288.15 K 100

screen background ssatl ssatv p 70 p 30 p 10 p 2.5 p1 p 0.2 p 0.05 p 0.01 p 0.002 T 480 K T 440 K T 400 K T 360 K T 320 K T 280 K T 240 K T 200 T 180 h 800 h 700 h 600 h 500 h 400 h 300 h 200 h 100 h0 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

50

Exergy exh (kJ/kg)

0

50

100

150

200 0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

1.75

2

2.25

2.5

2.75

3

Entropy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.17 (s, xh) exergy chart for R134a

enthalpies depend only on the temperature. In the vapor zone, as can be seen on figure 5.6.16, isotherms (high slope) and isobars (low slope) intersect with large angles, which gives a very accurate reading. As shown in this figure, it is very easy to identify on a exergy chart, for a given fluid temperature, the pressure leading to the maximum exergy: it is that which passes through the maximum of the corresponding isotherm. The isothermal temperature T0 is horizontal and tangent to the minimum of the saturation curve. Generally, it is chosen as the zero scale of ordinates. Form of isovolumes It is possible to show that the slope of isovolumes is slightly higher than that of isobars. Compared to the enthalpy exergy chart (h, exh), the value of the exergy entropy chart (s, exh) is the ability to directly visualize isentropic changes. However reading the enthalpy values is less easy. Figures 5.6.16 and 5.6.17 show two examples of entropic exergy charts, one for water, and the second for R134a, prepared for T0 15 C 288.15 K. Ideal gas charts The charts above are well suited to the representation of real fluids. When the assumption of ideal gas is valid, most of them lose their interest however, as isotherms or isobars are much simpler. In practice, the entropy chart is sufficient for most applications. Indeed, the Mollier chart is for an ideal gas, an entropy chart whose ordinate scale has undergone an affine transform, since h cp T. Exergy charts may be deduced by recombination of axes, like the (h, ln(P)) chart. Traditionally, computational difficulties were such that the charts were established for a generic ideal gas, which is no longer necessary since the availability of computers. The interactive charts

110

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

(T, s) entropy chart for air screen background p 14.82 p 10.99

500

p 8.14 p 6.03 p 4.47 p 3.31

400

p 2.46

Temperature T (°C)

p 1.82 p 1.35 p1

300

v 0.5812 v 0.4308 v 0.3193 v 0.2366

200

v 0.1754 v 0.13 v 0.09632 v 0.07139

100

v 0.05291 v 0.03921

0.2

0

0.2 Entropy s (kJ/kg)

0.4

0.6

FIGURE 5.6.18 Air (T, s) entropy chart

that have been mentioned above allow one to build the entropy chart of a very large number of gases from pure gases available in the databases (see Figure 5.6.18). 5.6.6.2 Equations of real fluids Law of van der Waals General formulations of the equations of state that can account for the non-ideality of real gases have been sought for a long time. One of the oldest is the equation of van der Waals: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜⎜ P a ⎟⎟ (v b) rT 2 ⎜⎝ v ⎟⎠

(5.6.18)

Today, its interest is primarily historical. It has the advantage of containing only two parameters a and b, which can be expressed simply in terms of the coordinates of the critical point, Pc, vc, Tc, characterized by the existence of an inflection point on the critical isotherm: ∂P 0 ∂v

∂ 2P 0 ∂v 2

for T Tc

In the case of the van der Waals equation, we obtain: 9 a rTc vc 3Pc vc 2 8

b

rTc v c 8Pc 3

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We can also define the compressibility factor Z: Z

Pv rT

(5.6.19)

Obviously, Z 1 for an ideal gas. At the critical point, we have, as you may check: Zc

Pc vc 3 0.375 rTc 8

A simple formulation, the equation of van der Waals has the disadvantage that it can sometimes deviate significantly from experimental results. It is seen that, if v vc/3, the pressures become negative, which is obviously absurd. Moreover, without even getting to such low specific volume values, we can test the accuracy of the van der Waals equation by calculating for a given substance, factor Zc, since we know its critical coordinates. For example, for water, we get Zc 0.233, which is very different from what gives this equation. Other formulations have been sought and are still under study. Some examples of currently used equations of state are given below. Refer for further development to the literature, including the work of Reid, Prausnitz and Poling (1987): “Properties of gases and liquids” cited in the bibliography. Their great interest is that they can now be resolved automatically by computers, which offer an attractive alternative to thermodynamic charts. Law of corresponding states Most currently used equations of state can be expressed universally in terms of reduced variables: Pr

P Pc

Tr

T Tc

vr

v vc

For example, the equation of van der Waals can be written: 2 ⎤⎛ ⎡ ⎞ ⎢ Pr Pc 3Pc vc ⎥ ⎜⎜ vr vc vc ⎟⎟ rTrTc , 2 2 ⎜ ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎟⎠ vr vc ⎦ ⎝ ⎣

Which gives: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜⎜ P 3 ⎟⎟ ⎛⎜ v 1 ⎞⎟⎟ 8 T ⎜⎝ r v2 ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ r 3 ⎟⎠ 3 r r

Note that this formulation is completely independent of fluid properties and is therefore general. The law of corresponding states indicates that if there was an equation of state with two parameters reflecting the behavior of real fluids, we could, even without knowing that law, predict the properties of any fluid from those of a known fluid provided we know its critical state. Such a universal law unfortunately does not exist. However, there are equations of state with a good approximation valid for groups of corresponding substances, such as a series of hydrocarbons, and this is where the principle of corresponding states can be useful. The ideal gas equation of state is insufficient to represent the behavior of a vapor. However, since it constitutes the limit to which state functions must tend at high temperatures and low pressures, it is used to add simple correction terms to represent the non-ideality behavior of pure substances.

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5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

Under this law, we may assume that the compressibility factor Z can be expressed independently of the equation of state chosen: Z

Pv Z0 (Pr , Tr ) rT

(5.6.20)

This equation is called the simple fluid law of corresponding states. It is the basis of most currently used equations of state for real gases. Many equations have been proposed and continue to be proposed to represent fluid properties. They differ in the number of parameters they require and their mathematical formulation. We will limit ourselves to presenting a few, then we will establish relations for calculating the thermodynamic properties of substances for that which is retained in Thermoptim (Peng-Robinson). Equation of BeattieBridgeman A rather accurate and widely used equation is the BeattieBridgeman equation: P

rT A (1 e) (v B) 2 2 v v

Z

Pv 1 A (1 e) (v B) rT v v

(5.6.21)

or:

where: ⎛ a⎞ A A0 ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ v⎠

⎛ b⎞ B B0 ⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ v⎠

and

e

c vT 3

There are five constants to be determined experimentally, which can be expressed in terms of reduced variables. Virial equation The virial equation is based on the fact that, at a given temperature, the Pv product tends to rT when P tends to 0, whatever the fluid. One writes: Pv rT (1 B P C P2 D P3 )

(5.6.22)

or: Z

Pv 1 B P C P2 D P3 rT

The virial coefficients B, C, D, are functions of T only. Depending on the number of coefficients taken into account, the representation is valid for a more or less extensive range. The difficulty is to determine these coefficients. The only one for which empirical formulas exist today is B. Another form of the virial equation is given as a Taylor expansion in 1/v: P

⎞ rT ⎛⎜ B C ⎜⎜⎝1 + + 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎟⎟⎟⎠ v v v

Z

Pv B C 1 + + 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ rT v v

(5.6.23)

or:

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Cubic equations Another family of equations commonly used is that of cubics. We saw an example with that of van der Waals. The interest of cubics is that they can be solved analytically, which is an undeniable asset for their calculation. One of them, well known, is the Redlich Kwong equation which is written: ⎛ 1 a ⎞⎟ P rT ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ v b v(v b) ⎟⎟⎠

(5.6.24)

or: Z

Pv v a rT v b (v b)

with b 0.08664

rTc Pc

a 0.42748

rTc 2.5 1.5 T Pc

Much more accurate than the van der Waals equation, it likewise requires knowledge of the fluid critical coordinates. It is therefore very general, but does not apply to all fluids with the same precision. Various variants using an additional fluid parameter, the acentric factor , have been proposed in the literature (Wilson, Soave, Peng-Robinson, etc.) We give in section 5.6.6.4 an example of the Peng-Robinson equation used in Thermoptim to analytically determine the state of a real fluid. 5.6.6.3 Thermodynamic tables It is also possible to represent the state of a real fluid by building tables giving, for various pressures and temperatures, the values of other state functions: enthalpy, entropy and specific volume. These tables are generally composed of two parts: First, the table of the saturated vapor properties, which allows us to know with great accuracy the state of the fluid on both sides of the saturation curve; Secondly, the vapor table for the gas and vapor zone. ●

●

Given the existence of Thermoptim, these tables are of no particular relevance in this book. 5.6.6.4 Equations of state retained in Thermoptim In Thermoptim, we made the following choices. The equation of state used for all condensable vapors except water is that of Peng-Robinson: P

RT a V b V 2 2bV b2

with b 0.0778

a = 0.45724

114

RTc Pc

R 2Tc 2 [1 (0.37464 1.54226 0.269922 ) (1 Tr0.5 )]2 Pc

(5.6.25)

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

Posing f 0.37464 1.54226 0.269922

(5.6.26)

we get a a

R 2Tc 2 R 2Tc 2 [1 f (1 Tr0.5 )]2 a (, Tr ) Pc Pc

This equation represents a good compromise between accuracy, number of parameters and resolution complexity. Expressed in terms of the compressibility factor Z, it leads to a cubic which can be solved analytically. However, a problem may arise for low values of Zc, since this equation does not allow values of Z below 0.3214 in the vicinity of the critical point. We therefore slightly amended it to correct this limitation. With this equation, the data required to characterize a fluid are its critical values Tc, Pc, the acentric factor and its molar mass M. The corrections that we introduced have led us to take into account two additional parameters numerically adjusted by comparison with more accurate equations of state. To represent very accurately the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone, specific treatment is dedicated to it from regressions with many parameters. The liquid zone is treated in turn with other sets of equations. For water, we chose the equations proposed by the International Committee for Formulation of the Sixth Conference on Properties of Steam in 1967, which involve many parameters, but are extremely accurate. It is therefore subject to special treatment (Grigull & Schmidt, 1982). The reason for this choice is to accurately study complex electricity generation cycles. The precision is paid for by a very much greater complexity in solving the equations, which comes mainly from the fact that for part of the supercritical and circumcritical zone, they are given as a function of temperature and volume instead of temperature and pressure. Calculation of energy state functions (enthalpy and entropy) for the equation of Peng-Robinson The calculation of state functions is based on estimating the departure functions of the real gas relative to the ideal gas. In this section, we will examine the molar quantities. The ideal gas is represented by a constant pressure molar heat capacity Cp given by a polynomial equation with integer or non-integer coefficients (see 5.6.2.3): n

Cp ∑ CpiTi i1

The departure functions correspond to the differences (S* S) and (H* H) compared to ideal gas S and H given by (5.6.6) and (5.6.7) expressed in molar variables. They can take into account the variation of the molar heat capacity Cp with pressure, not considered in the ideal gas. The estimation of these departure functions is done thanks to the free energy F U TS, one of the two thermodynamic potentials (Section 5.4.5). These are calculated at constant temperature, relative to a reference pressure P0, usually taken as the pressure P of the system, or, equivalently, a reference molar volume V0 (V0 RT/P for an ideal gas). At constant temperature and without heat exchange with the outside, the change of free energy is given by: dF dU T dS S dT P dV T dS T dS S dT dT 0 dF P dV

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

Let us call F* the free energy of the real gas, and F that of the considered ideal gas. Let us integrate this differential, at constant temperature, between an initial volume Vin and the final volume (V for the real gas, and V0 for the ideal gas). For the real gas: V

F* Fin* ∫ P dV Vin

For the ideal gas: V0

F Fin ∫

Vin

RT dV V

At very low pressures, we know that a real fluid behaves like an ideal gas We have then: lim(Fin* Fin ) 0 Vin → ∞ Or, subtracting the two previous equations: ∞

V

F* F ∫ P dV ∫ ∞

V0

∞ V V RT RT RT dV ∫ P dV ∫ dV ∫ dV V V V ∞ V V 0

We eliminate the infinite terminal of the last integral by grouping the first and last summations, RT/V being P for the ideal gas: V V ⎛ RT ⎞⎟ RT F* F ∫ ⎜⎜⎜ P dV dV ⎟⎟ ∫ ⎝ V ⎠ V ∞ V 0

V ⎛ RT ⎞⎟ V F* F ∫ ⎜⎜⎜ P ⎟⎟ dV RT ln ⎝ V ⎠ V0 ∞

(5.6.27)

From this relation, we deduce the other departure functions: S* S

∂ ( F* F) ∂T

(5.6.28)

H U PV F TS PV H* H F* F T(S* S) PV RT H* H F* F T

with Z

∂ (F* F) RT(Z 1) ∂T

PV , we get: RT

For the Peng-Robinson equation, we obtain the following results: with

116

b b

RTc Pc

a a

R 2Tc 2 R 2Tc 2 [1 f (1 Tr0.5 )]2 a (, Tr ) Pc Pc

(5.6.29)

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

and a 0.45724 b 0.0778 The calculation of the departure functions gives for the free energy, with V0 RT/P: ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 1⎞ a ⎥ dV RT ln V F* F ∫ ⎢ RT ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ ⎢ ⎠ ⎝ Vb V V0 (V b(1 2))(V b(1 2)) ⎥⎦ ∞⎣ V

At constant temperature, a is constant and we obtain (F* F) in analytical form: F* F RT ln

V0 a V b(1 2) ln V b 2b 2 V b(1 2)

F* F RT ln

V0 RT V b(1 2) c a [1 f(1 Tr0.5 )]2 ln V b 2 2b V b(1 2)

F* F RT ln

V b(1 2) V0 RT (, Tr ) c a ln V b 2 2b V b(1 2)

(5.6.30)

For entropy, the derivation of this expression with respect to T leads to: S* S

∂ Vb 1 V b(1 2) d(a) ( F* F) ⇒ S* S R ln ln ∂T V0 2b 2 V b(1 2) dT

Let (, Tr )

d() ⎡⎢ (f)2 f (1 f) ⎤⎥ (f) ⎢ [f (1 f)Tr0.5 ] dT Tc Tc T ⎥⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Tc

It comes: 1 d(a) RTc a (, Tr ) 2b 2 dT 2 2b S* S R ln

V b RTc Ωa V b(1 2 ) ln (, Tr ) V0 2 2Ωb V b(1 2 )

(5.6.31)

Finally, the relative departure in the enthalpy is obtained easily: H* H F* F T (S* S) PV RT ⎡ bRT ⎤ aV ⎥ H* H ⎢ 2 2 ⎢⎣ V b V 2bV b ⎥⎦

RTc a 2 2b

ln

(5.6.32)

V b(1 2) [(, Tr ) T(, Tr )] V b(1 2)

5.6.7 Moist mixtures A number of commonly used gases are mixtures whose composition may vary due to condensation or vaporization of one of their components. In practice, the component that changes state is mostly water, which justifies that a special section in this book is dedicated to mixtures of gases and water vapor, hereinafter referred to as moist mixtures.

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Dry air in particular is hardly ever found: it almost always includes water, in the form of gas, liquid or ice crystals. Controlling the air humidity determines the comfort conditions and the preservation of food and many products. It is obtained by air conditioning techniques that will be presented in Chapter 21 of Part 3. In this section we limit ourselves to the calculation principles of thermodynamic properties of moist mixtures. While it is certain that the most numerous practical applications regard air, our presentation will cover all gases for which our assumptions are valid, that is to say the vast majority of cases. For example, the humidity properties of combustion products, which almost always contain water, may be determined by the methods presented here. 5.6.7.1 Definitions and conventions When looking at a moist mix, we are dealing with a mixture of a gas that does not condense, which we call the dry gas, and water that could condense. Note that we will not discuss mist here; we can assume that the volume occupied by any condensed water is still very small compared to that occupied by the gas phase. We will therefore neglect mist. Under these conditions, for a given volume, the total mass of the gas phase can vary, while the mass of non-condensable constituents remains constant. Therefore it is customary to refer to the invariant mass which is the dry gas, all the thermodynamic properties of the mixture comprising the gas phase. Everything happens as if somehow the moist mix was a mixture of two substances: the dry gas, whose composition is fixed, and water that may be present in one or more phases. As discussed later, it is essential, in order to carry out calculations, to clearly specify which substance the thermodynamic quantities used relate to, and what are the reference units and origin. The notations will be chosen accordingly. We call specific humidity w the ratio of the mass of water contained in a given volume of moist mixture to the mass of dry gas contained in this volume. The water in a moist mixture can be characterized in various ways: through its specific humidity, which we just introduced, but more typically by its mole or mass fraction, or by its partial pressure which is of particular interest here. As long as the partial pressure of water remains below its saturation pressure at the gas temperature, the water is in the form of vapor. Otherwise it exists at least partly in the condensed liquid or solid state. There is therefore an upper limit to the amount of water vapor that may be contained in a moist mixture. It depends on the temperature and pressure. When, at a given pressure, the temperature drops below the saturated vapor temperature of water, water vapor begins to condense as a mist or on cold walls that define the system if they exist. Given its practical importance, the saturated state is the reference, and we call relative humidity the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor divided by its saturation vapor pressure at the temperature of the mixture. This ratio is equal to 1 (or 100%) when the vapor begins to condense. Otherwise, it is less than 1. We call respectively specific enthalpy q and specific volume vspec the enthalpy and the volume of moist mixture referred to 1 kg of dry gas. 5.6.7.2 Principles of calculation We have seen that a condensable fluid remains comparable to an ideal gas at the immediate vicinity of the liquid state when its pressure is lower than its critical pressure. When this fluid is a mixture component, this rule applies taking into account the partial pressure. As long as the liquid state does not appear, the mixture behaves like an ideal gas. When the mixture temperature drops below the condensation temperature corresponding to the partial pressure of the condensable component in the dry gas, liquid begins to appear. In most cases, although this is not strictly true, it is reasonable to consider that this liquid phase is pure, made up exclusively of the condensable component.

118

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

At that time, provided that equilibrium is established, experience shows that the situation is as follows: the vapor-liquid equilibrium relationship is met by the condensable component, as if the other constituents did not exist. Its saturated vapor (index sv) partial pressure, given by the law of saturation pressure, is therefore Psv Ps(T); Dalton’s law applies to the calculation of thermodynamic functions of the gas phase; the law of phase mixture applies to the calculation of thermodynamic functions of the liquid and gas phases (assuming that the interfacial tensions are negligible). ●

● ●

To calculate the thermodynamic properties of the mixture in the presence of a liquid phase, the procedure is thus as follows: knowing the temperature of the medium, one can determine the partial pressure of the condensable component. We deduce the sum of partial pressures (P Psv) of the other constituents. As we know their relative molar fractions, we can completely determine the composition of the gas phase, and the number of moles of the condensable component in the gaseous state. By difference, we know the number of moles liquefied; The Dalton and phase mixture laws are then used to calculate all the properties of the mixture. It is obvious that in this case the composition of the mixture changes as a function of the quality of the condensable component, and this must be taken into account in the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

●

●

In Thermoptim the calculation of moist mixtures is performed using this method. It is thus possible to study the behavior of a vapor and gas mixture of any composition. 5.6.7.3 Key Relationships We will use indices dg to describe the dry gas, and mm for the moist mixture. Case where the moist mixture composition is known By definition of the partial pressure of water: Pvap xH2O . P

(5.6.33)

The molar mass of the dry gas is: Mdg

1 ∑ Mnc x nc 1 x H 2O

(5.6.34)

nc representing the various noncondensable constituents. The specific humidity is then by definition: w

yH 2 O ydg

M H 2O x H 2O Mdg x dg

(5.6.35)

If Psv is the saturation vapor pressure of water: If Pvap Psv ε Pvap /Psv w

M H 2O

Pvap

Mdg P Pvap

(5.6.36)

If Pvap Psv ε 1 w wsat

M H 2O Mdg

Psv P Psv

(5.6.37)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

w wsat condensate

MH2O ⎡⎢ Pvap Psv ⎤⎥ Mdg ⎢⎢ P Pvap P Psv ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(5.6.38)

The values of specific volume vspec and specific enthalpy q’ can then be determined, the latter being calculated with an enthalpy zero at 0 C. Generally (and this is the case in Thermoptim) the reference state for calculating the gas enthalpies is taken at the standard value of 298 K. Now, HVAC engineers by custom choose 0 C as the reference state for dry air, and 0 C for saturated liquid water. The result is a mismatch between the enthalpies of moist gas as they are usually calculated and those represented on the usual psychrometric charts. This difference varies depending on the specific humidity. In practice, as the enthalpies can be referred to three different references, you need to know how to distinguish them in order to avoid making mistakes. In what follows, we will use as appropriate: the moist mixture enthalpy hmm (hmm 0 at T 298 K) the dry gas enthalpy hdg (hdg 0 at T 298 K) the moist mixture specific enthalpy q (q 0 at T 0 C, liquid water). ● ● ●

In general, unless otherwise indicated, the first is used by default, whereas in the calculations specific to moist mixtures, it is usually the third form that is used. In what follows, the index water indicates that the calculation is performed with the equations of water as a real fluid, and the index H2O that it is conducted with the equations of water treated as an ideal gas. hvwater is the enthalpy of water in the vapor state, and L0water represents the enthalpy of vaporization of water at 0 C. q(t,w) hdg(t) hdg(0 C) w hvwater(t, Pvap)

(5.6.39)

or by making the approximation that water vapor behaves like an ideal gas: q(t, w) hdg(t) hdg(0 C) w [hH2O(t) hH2O(0 C)] w L0water

(5.6.40)

By introducing hmm, enthalpy of the (ideal) moist mixture: hmm (t )

hdg (t) whH2O (t) 1 w

we get: q(t,w) (hmm(t) hmm(0 C)) (1 w) w L0water

(5.6.41)

Similarly, vspec vmm (1 w) In the supersaturated zone, the gas is saturated with water in the vapor state, the rest being water in the liquid state. The specific enthalpy is then given by: q(t,w) hdg(t) hdg(0 C) w hvwater(t, Psv) Case where the dry gas composition is known When we know the dry gas composition, the calculations are done slightly differently, because w is then given.

120

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

We deduce, Mdg being the dry gas molar mass: w

Pvap P

Mdg

M H2 O Mdg 1 w M H2 O

ε

Pvap Pvs

(5.6.42)

(5.6.43)

Other calculations are carried out as before. 5.6.7.4 Temperatures used for moist mixtures The study of moist mixtures leads us to introduce several temperatures, whose definition it is important to know, because for a given state of the gas, their values may be substantially different. We call dry-bulb temperature t ( C) or T (K), the temperature indicated by a thermometer whose sensing portion is completely dry, and is placed into the moist mixture. This is the temperature in the usual sense. We call dew point tr ( C) or Tr (K) the temperature at which the first drops begin to appear when the moist mixture is cooled at constant humidity and pressure. If water condenses as ice, it is also known as ice temperature. This is the saturation temperature of the water at partial pressure Pvap. With the previous notations, Tr Tsat(Pvap) if Pvap Psv, and Tr Tsat (Psv) T, otherwise. We call wet-bulb temperature t( C) or T(K), the temperature indicated by a thermometer whose sensing element is covered with a thin film of water being evaporated due to strong mixing of the gas. In practice, the bulb of the thermometer is covered with a wick soaked with water. If measured in good conditions, this temperature is substantially equal to the adiabatic saturation temperature that would be obtained by moistening the gas to saturation in an adiabatic device, by spraying water at the temperature equilibrium. One can show that its value is given by the following equation: enthalpy of liquid water at t (saturated moisture at t initial moisture) enthalpy of saturated mixture at t enthalpy of the initial mixture at t. Relative to the dry gas, the equation is: hlwater(t)(wsat w) hdg(t) hdg(t) wsat hvwater (t) w hvwater(t)

(5.6.44)

Relative to the specific units, it becomes: q(t, wsat) q(t, w) (wsat w) hlwater(t)

(5.6.45)

This is an implicit equation in t, involving the mixture formed in part by the dry gas, and secondly by water. It can be reversed in a temperature range between a value close to the dew point as a minimum, and the dry bulb temperature as the maximum. As stated above, we must take care that the reference values of enthalpies are consistent. Moreover, when t or t falls below 0 C, the equations of liquid water must be replaced by those of solid water (ice). 5.6.7.5 Moist mixture charts (Psychrometric charts) The main thermodynamic relations that we have given show that moist mixture variables and state functions are connected by relatively complex equations, which justify seeking an easy to use graphical presentation.

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Two broad families of charts exist: the charts derived from that proposed by Carrier, with the dry-bulb temperature as the abscissa and the specific humidity as the ordinate (Figures 5.6.19 and 5.6.21), and Mollier charts (Figures 5.6.20 and 5.6.22), with specific humidity as abscissa and the specific enthalpy as ordinate. The gas water saturation curve is the smooth concave curve upwards in the Carrier chart (Figure 5.6.19) and downwards in the Mollier chart (Figure 5.6.20). In the Carrier chart, the area above the saturation curve corresponds to cases where water is in excess and exists as a condensed liquid or solid: the gas is supersaturated. In the Mollier chart, the reverse is true: this zone is located below the saturation curve. Charts in Figures 5.6.19 and 5.6.21 relate to air at atmospheric pressure. They are equipped with different iso-value curves: curves of equal relative humidity ε concave upward; isenthalpic curves are very close to straight lines and moist isotherm* curves are almost parallel to them* (usually not shown); isovolume curves are very close to straight negative lines of slope* stronger than the previous. ● ●

●

The Mollier chart in Figures 5.6.20 and 5.6.22 also relates to air at atmospheric pressure. It is equipped with different isovalues: curves of equal relative humidity ε are curves with concavity facing downwards; dry bulb temperature curves are very close to straight lines* and wet bulb temperature* curves are almost parallel to the x-axis; isovolume curves are very close to straight lines* of positive slope.

● ●

●

Psychrometric Chart: air, pressure : 1.01325 bar 0.035

Specific humidity (kg/kg)

0.03

0.025

0.02

Spe

cific

0.015 tu Sa

ra

q 7

9.8

Wet bu

50

lb te

mpe

lum vo ific ec 4 Sp 0.36 v

epsi idity

0.005

alpy

rve cu n o ti

0.01 R

enth

m e hu elativ

ratur e

t 1

8°C

e

0 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Dry bulb temperature (°C)

FIGURE 5.6.19 Carrier chart *

By equating the dry gas to an ideal gas and neglecting in some cases the contribution of water vapor, these expressions are simplified and correspond to those of straight lines.

122

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

Psychrometric Chart: air, pressure : 1.01325 bar 100

Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)

80

60 v lume

677 0.87

si

o ific v

Spec

ty

40

di mi

e urv

nc

50

tio tura

Sa

ep

u

h tive

Wet bulb temperature t 10°C 15°C t

20

la Re

bulb dry ature per tem

0 0

0.0025

0.005

0.0075

0.01

0.0125

0.015

0.0175

0.02

Specific humidity (kg/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.20 Mollier chart

Psychrometric Chart: air, pressure: 1.01325 bar 0.5

screen background saturation saturation epsi 90 epsi 80 epsi 70 epsi 60 epsi 50 epsi 40 epsi 30 epsi 20 epsi 10 q 1,913.85 q 1.674.62 q 1.435.39 q 1.196.16 q 956.93 q 717.7 q 478.46 q 239.23 q 0 t 100.05 t 87.55 t 75.04 t 62.53 t 50.03 t 37.52 t 25.01 t 12.51 t 0 v 2.988 v 2.7113 v 2.4345 v 2.1578 v 1.881 v 1.6042 v 1.3275 v 1.0507 v 0.77398

Specific humidity (kg/kg)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

Dry bulb temperature (°C)

FIGURE 5.6.21 Moist air psychrometric chart

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Psychrometric Chart: air, pressure: 1.01325 bar 100

screen background saturation saturation epsi 90 epsi 80 epsi 70 epsi 60 epsi 50 epsi 40 epsi 30 epsi 20 epsi 10 t 50 t 41.25 t 32.5 t 23.75 t 15 t 6.25 t 2.5 t 11.25 t 20 t 100.05 t 85.05 t 70.04 t 55.03 t 40.03 t 25.02 t 10.01 t 14.99 t 20 v 1.0362 v 0.99637 v 0.9565 v 0.91664 v 0.87677 v 0.83691 v 0.79704 v 0.75717 v 0.71731

Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)

80

60

40

20

0 0

0.0025

0.005

0.0075

0.01

0.0125

0.015

0.0175

0.02

Specific humidity (kg/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.22 Moist air Mollier chart

At atmospheric pressure and above 100 C, it is impossible to condense water. On the Carrier chart, this translates into an almost vertical tangent on the saturation curve for 100 C, and on the Mollier chart by an asymptote to the saturation curve, corresponding to dry isotherm 100 C.

5.6.8

Real fluid mixtures

In the previous section, we considered moist mixtures for which the dry gas could be assumed to behave as an ideal gas, which allowed us to simplify the modeling. This section deals with real fluid mixtures which cannot be modeled as ideal gases. Because of interactions between the molecules of the various constituents, the estimation of thermodynamic properties of real fluid mixtures is much more difficult than that of pure ones, whose principles were given Section 5.6.6. In the general case, it relates to chemical engineering and is outside the scope of this book. However we give below some guidance on how to proceed, so that the reader can get an idea of the problems posed. 5.6.8.1 Physical phenomena brought into play The behavior of mixtures in liquid-vapor equilibrium is generally different from that of pure substances, the molar or mass fraction of each component moving between limits that depend on pressure and temperature, due to the distillation that takes place. In the presence of several components, the phase change is more complex than for a pure substance. Its graphical representation in a chart is simple if the mixture is binary, the case to which we will restrict ourselves in this introduction. To understand the phenomena that occur, consider the behavior of a binary mixture of propane and butane. Some properties of pure components (critical pressure and temperature, boiling

124

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

TABLE 5.6.3 PURE COMPONENT PROPERTIES Pc (bar)

Tc ( C)

Ts (1 bar) ( C)

Ts (2 bar) ( C)

propane

42.48

96.7

42.4

25.4

butane

37.98

152.01

0.7

18.8

Mixture: propane - butane (P 2 bar) 20 Vapor A

10

E

Bubble curve

B

T ( C)

0

Dew curve 10 C

F

D 20 Liquid 30 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

x, y

FIGURE 5.6.23 Isobaric equilibrium lens

temperature at 1 bar and 2 bar) are shown in Table 5.6.3. They show that propane is much more volatile than butane, as at 1 bar, respectively, they evaporate at 42.4 C and 0.7 C. Consider a mixture of these two substances, and examine how it behaves at constant pressure when its temperature changes. Figure 5.6.23, called “equilibrium isobaric lens”, shows the phase chart of this mixture at a pressure of 2 bar. The vapor zone is at the upper right of the chart, the liquid zone at the bottom left, and the liquid-vapor equilibrium in the lens delimited by the dew and bubble curves. The horizontal axis represents the mole fraction of propane, which means that the value 0 corresponds to pure butane (Ts 18.8 C), and the value 1 pure propane (Ts 25.4 C). As is usual when studying vapor mixtures, x represents the mole fractions in liquid phase, y the mole fractions in vapor phase, and z, the overall mole fractions. The vertical axis is temperature, in C. Consider a mixture of given composition (here z1 0.6 for propane, z2 1 z1 0.4 for butane) in the vapor state, corresponding to point A at temperature 10 C. If the mixture is cooled at constant pressure (e.g. in a heat exchanger), the characteristic point moves along the vertical segment AB as it remains in the vapor state. In B, at around 0 C, distillation begins on the dew curve (or drop curve), so named because the first drop of liquid appears. The two components are liquefied together, but since butane is less volatile than propane, it condenses more, so that the first drop composition differs from average z. The mole fraction x in the liquid state of component 1 (here propane) is given by the abscissa of point E on the bubble curve, so called because in a reverse process of temperature change it is on

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

this curve that the first bubbles appear (here x1 0.28), and the mole fraction of liquid butane is x2 1 x1 0.72. Gradually, as the cooling continues, the composition of the liquid phase evolves, the mole fraction of propane being given by the abscissa of the intersection of the bubble curve and the corresponding isotherm, the figurative point moving from E to C, while that of the gas phase moves from B to F. At point C, there is only liquid, except for one last bubble of gas, whose composition is y1 0.85 in propane and y2 1 y1 0.15 in butane. Beyond, the mixture remains in liquid state, with its original composition. In other words, at a given pressure, the state change of the mixture is not at constant temperature, but with a temperature “glide” (distillation range) that can be more or less important depending on the mixture. For example, for the above mixture, and the pressure of 2 bar, the temperature glide is 14 K. Now consider an evolution of the mixture at constant temperature and variable pressure. On the chart of Figure 5.6.24, called equilibrium isotherm lens, the abscissa represents the propane quality and the ordinate the pressure in bar. Let us still assume that the mixture has as overall composition (z1 0.6 and z2 0.4). If the pressure is lower than 2.78 bar, the mixture is entirely in the vapor state, and if it exceeds 4.3 bar, it is entirely liquid. Between these two pressures, it is in liquid-vapor equilibrium, and the mixture composition changes continuously in the liquid and vapor phases. For P 2.78 bar, the liquid phase has a composition (x1 0.28, x2 0.72). For P 3.7 bar, it is (x1 0.48, x2 0.52), and for P 4.3 bar it corresponds to the overall composition. Vapor phase compositions are as follows: (y1 0.6, y2 0.4) for P 2.78 bar, (y1 0.77, y2 0.33) for P 3.7 bar, and (y1 0.85, y2 0.15) for P 4.3 bar. A special case is the so-called azeotropic mixtures where the bubble and dew curves meet for a given overall composition. One can show that an azeotropic mixture is a pressure extremum at constant temperature, or temperature extremum at constant pressure. Such a mixture behaves in practice as a pure substance. Finally, when the temperature glide is small ( 1 K), the error being Mixture: propane - butane (T 10 C)

6

Liquid

P (bar)

5

Bubble curve 4

3 Dew curve Vapor 2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6 x, y

FIGURE 5.6.24 Isotherm equilibrium lens

126

0.8

1

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

committed by neglecting the distillation is very low. This is called quasi-azeotropic mixture. We chose here the propane/butane system because the glide is important and helps to demonstrate the phenomena peculiar to mixtures. We introduced above two charts, binary mixture equilibrium isothermal and isobaric lenses, very useful for qualitatively understanding the phenomena involved. However, quantitatively, they are only valid for a single pressure or temperature, and above all they contain no information on the enthalpies put in. They are not of much interest for applications in power engineering. 5.6.8.2 Principles of calculation of vapor mixtures The calculation of vapor mixtures is made using, for each of the pure components, a well-chosen representation, such as an equation of state, and appropriately modeling interactions between molecules of different components, often through empirical correlations. The equation of the mixture is thus distinct from that of pure substances by the existence of “mixing rules” allowing one to calculate the coefficients. To illustrate, recall that we introduced in Section 5.6.6.2 the Peng-Robinson equation for a pure substance, which in molar units writes: P

RT a 2 V b V 2bV b2 b 0.0778

with

a(T) 0.45724

(5.6.25)

RTc Pc

R 2Tc2 [1 (0.37464 1.54226 0.26992 2 )(1 Tr0.5 )]2 Pc

With this equation, four data are sufficient to characterize a pure substance: the critical coordinates Tc, Pc, the acentric factor , and the molar mass M to move to mass quantities. For the equation (5.6.25) to be representative of a mixture, it is necessary to estimate the values of the mixture coefficients am(T) and bm, which is possible by using the following type of relations, indices i and j corresponding the various constituents: n

n

am (T) ∑ ∑ (x i xjaij (T))

(5.6.46)

i1 j1

with

aij (1 kij ) ai (T) aj (T)

if i ≠ j

(5.6.47)

n

bm ∑ (x i bi ) i1

(5.6.48)

The coefficients kij must be either determined experimentally or estimated. It is generally assumed that the binary coefficients can be used even for mixtures of order higher than two, thus implicitly assuming that the interactions of ternary and higher order are negligible. For example, an equation giving kij is the following, Vc being the critical volume: kij 1

8 Vci Vcj ( 3 Vci 3 Vcj )3

(5.6.49)

It is important to know that an error in the determination of these interaction coefficients can lead to completely wrong results. It is strongly recommended to validate the models on the basis of

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

reference values, obtained experimentally if possible, and if not by comparison with validated software. The great danger in building models of fluids from equations of state and mixing rules is that one almost always gets results. In the absence of reference values, we may be tempted to have too much confidence in them… It is in this case recommended to try and build different models based on data from different sources, and compare their results to remove the doubt. When the equation of state of the mixture is determined, the calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium is done by writing the equality of fugacities of each species in each phase, that is to say, for each component: fli(P, T, x) fvi(P, T, y)

(5.6.50)

Without going into details, let us recall that fugacities are related to the departure of the chemical potential of a real fluid from that of the ideal gas. Equation (5.6.50) is thus derived from the Gibbs free enthalpy minimum at equilibrium. This system of equations results in generally complicated expressions, the resolution of which can be quite difficult numerically. In addition, the accuracy of the model obtained depends of course on that of the equation of state retained. For example, the main interest of the Peng-Robinson is that it is a cubic equation whose solutions can be calculated formally, but it is generally not very good in the liquid phase, for which the methods based on activity coefficients are more accurate. In practice, therefore, it is necessary to retain much more complicated models for pure components and the estimation of the mixture properties becomes even more difficult. In conclusion, the calculation of mixtures is often difficult to achieve and does not lend itself to simple graphical representations. However, it is usually possible for applications in power engineering to simplify things by introducing a number of assumptions chosen wisely and well justified experimentally. The solutions adopted depend on the applications as we shall see. 5.6.8.3 Charts for refrigerants with temperature glide For example, for refrigeration applications, the composition of a refrigerant blend remains constant in the vapor and liquid phases (if we neglect the influence of lubricating oil). In the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone, it is not strictly true, but almost always one does not require a precise calculation of the exact composition of the gas phase and liquid phase at the outlet of the expansion valve and the evaporator. By analogy with pure substances, we generalize the concept of vapor quality by that of mean quality, equal to the mass of the vapor phase, all components combined, relative to the total mass of liquid and vapor phases. We can then content ourselves with a fixed composition mixture model, much simpler. An equation numerically adjusted to the experimental values of a given mixture will thus be both more accurate and easier to calculate than the general formulation we have just seen. Furthermore, equations of state having been developed specifically for these applications, the reader will find references in the literature. We give below the charts of two blends, R404A and R407C (Figures 5.6.27 and 5.6.28). In what follows, we shall only point out the differences introduced by the temperature glide, smaller for R404A than for R407C. Refrigerant blend charts Essentially, at a given pressure, the differences between the component saturation temperatures introduce a temperature glide in the liquid-vapor equilibrium zone: when boiling starts the temperature (bubble temperature) is lower than when boiling ends (dew point), while they are equal for pure substances. Thus, the pressure and temperature do not remain constant during boiling or condensation. In Clapeyron (P, v), entropy (T, s), and (h, ln(P)) charts isobars or isotherms are not horizontal in the vapor-liquid equilibrium zone (Figures 5.6.25 and 5.6.26).

128

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

C P P0

C

P

T

T To

s

h

FIGURE 5.6.25

FIGURE 5.6.26

Entropy chart

(h, ln(P)) chart

(h, P) chart for R404a screen background hsatl hsatv T 380 K T 360 K T 340 K T 320 K T 300 K T 280 K T 260 K T 240 K T 220 K

20.086

Pressure P (bar)

7.389

s 1.3 s 1.2 s 1.1 s1 s 0.9 s 0.8 s 0.7 s 0.6 s 0.5 v 0.25 v 0.16 v 0.1 v 0.06 v 0.04 v 0.025 v 0.016 v 0.01 v 0.006 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

2.718

50

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 5.6.27 (h, ln (P)) chart for R404a

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

(T, s) entropy chart for R407c screen background ssatl ssatv p 25 p 15 p 10 p5 p 2.5 p1 p 0.5 p 0.25 p 0.1 h 350 h 330 h 310 h 290 h 270 h 230 h 190 h 150 h 110 v5 v1 v 0.5 v 0.25 v 0.1 v 0.05 v 0.025 v 0.01 v 0.005 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

340

Temperature T (k)

320

300

280

260

240 0.5

1 Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 5.6.28 Entropy chart for R407c

As shown in Figures 5.6.25 to 5.6.28, an isobar is now represented in this area by an ascending line segment in the entropy chart, and an isotherm by a straight down slope line in the (h, ln(P)) chart. In the vapor-liquid equilibrium zone of Mollier (h, s), or exergy charts the difference is much smaller: isobars are little more ascending than isotherms. The existence of a temperature glide has a direct impact on the design of heat exchangers used in refrigeration cycles. In first approximation, these can be considered as isobaric, so that differences in temperature between the coolant and other fluids are not the same as that observed in machinery using a pure fluid. Generally speaking, for blends with temperature glide, heat exchangers should be of the counter-flow type, which was not imperative with pure fluids. Figures 5.6.27 and 5.6.28 correspond to (h, ln(P)) chart for R404A, and entropy (T, s) chart for R407C. 5.6.8.4 Charts used in absorption refrigeration cycles The main interest of liquid absorption refrigeration cycles, which will be presented in Chapter 20 of Part 3, is that they require only low power compared to their counterparts in vapor compression cycles (less than 1%). Using a tri-thermal thermodynamic cycle, they can directly make use of heat at medium or high temperatures to produce cooling, requiring no or little mechanical energy input. As such, they theoretically have total efficiencies in terms of primary energy greater than vapor compression cycles. Liquid absorption cycles involve at least two fluids: a solvent and a solute (the coolant). While other pairs are studied, the only ones used in practice for almost all applications are the two

130

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

1 0.9 P

0.8

r ar ar r ar ba ba 1b 2b 5 b 10 20 P P P P

0.7

y

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0

0.1

0.2

0.3 x

0.4

0.5

0.6

FIGURE 5.6.29 Vapor composition function of liquid NH3-H2O composition

LiBr-H2O and H2O-NH3 pairs. Among the requirements for the prospective pair be appropriate, the solvent should firstly have a high affinity towards the solute, and secondly the latter should be much more volatile than the solvent so that the separation of the two components is optimal. The curve in Figure 5.6.29 shows, for water-ammonia pair, the relationship between the mass fraction of the ammonia liquid and vapor at different pressures (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 bar). It clearly shows that, as soon as the liquid mass fraction of solute x exceeds 0.4, the ammonia content of the vapor exceeds 0.95. For lithium bromide-water mixture the separation is even stronger, so that one can legitimately assume that water vapor is pure. With the LiBr-H2O pair, water is the refrigerant, which imposes two constraints: first working pressures are very low given the saturation pressure law of water, and secondly the minimum cycle temperature must be greater than 0 C. Machines using the lithium bromide-water pair are only used for air conditioning. Oldham chart The Oldham chart can view the saturation pressure curves of the mixture in question, for different values of its composition (mass fraction of solute or solvent, as appropriate). Pressure appears as the ordinate, with a logarithmic scale, while the abscissa corresponds to the bubble temperature Tb. It is also possible to show the curves corresponding to the dew point, but this is of less interest. If one chooses (1/Tb) as temperature scale, the iso-quality curves are very close to straight lines (see Section 5.6.5.1). The extremes correspond to the vapor-liquid equilibrium of pure substances. An evolution of the rich or weak solution corresponds to a line segment tilted parallel to the nearest iso-quality curve. As the general shape of cycles in this chart is close to a parallelogram, scientists are used to illustrating the architectures of the machines in the form of diamond (Figure 5.6.32). In machines using LiBr-H2O mixture, the difference in vapor pressure of the solvent (LiBr) and solute (H2O) is such that we can neglect the mass fraction of solvent vapor, thereby simplifying calculations: the equilibrium chart can then be directly calibrated as a function of the solution temperature. Incidentally, it is customary to set the LiBr-H2O pair chart as a function of solvent (LiBr) mass

131

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

1,000

P (kPa)

100

10

40 % X 45 %% X 50 X % 55 X % 60 X 5% 6 X % 70 X

1

0.1 12.5

20

30

50

40

70

60

85

100

110

125

T (°C)

FIGURE 5.6.30 Oldham chart for LiBr-H2O

100

C

.

. B. A

10

0.1

N

x

0.4

3

x

0.

.E

2O

re

pu

.

D

2

x

0.

H

1

.

pu re

P (bar)

J H3

0.01 70

60

50

38

25

6

10 T (°C)

FIGURE 5.6.31 Cycle representation in the Oldham NH3-H2O chart

132

35

60

90

125

170

230

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

TABLE 5.6.4 COEFFICIENTS OF EQUATIONS 5.6.51 AND 5.6.52 A0

2.00755

B0

124.937

C

7.05

A1

0.16976

B1

7.71649

D

1596.49

A2

3.13E03

B2

0.152286

A3

1.98E05

B3

7.95E04

E

104095.5

fraction and not of solute. Water being likely to crystallize at low temperatures, the crystallization curve of the mixture often appears on the chart, which corresponds to the lower operating limit of machines. For this pair, ASHRAE (2001) provides equations (5.6.51) and (5.6.52), established by generalizing the mixture saturation law of the coolant (water) pressure, in which the water temperature t ( C) is replaced by a linear function of the solution temperature T ( C). P, expressed from the decimal logarithm, is the pressure in kPa, and X the mass fraction of LiBr mixture (Table 5.6.4). These equations, which were used to prepare the chart in Figure 5.6.30 are valid in the ranges of values: 15 t 110 C, log(P) C

5 t 175 C,

45 X 70%.

D E t 273.15 (t 273.15)2

(5.6.51)

3

t

t ∑ Bi X i i0

3

∑ Ai Xi i0

(5.6.52)

Figures 5.6.30 and 5.6.31 provide Oldham charts for LiBr-H2O and H2O-NH3 pairs.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Modeling of the pair LiBr-H2O These equations, together with equation (5.6.53) giving the enthalpy of the pair LiBr-H2O, have been implemented in Thermoptim as an external substance. It is thus possible to model absorption refrigeration machines using this pair. Results obtained are given in several sections of this book and the associated models are available on the portal: – Trigeneration by micro-turbine and absorption cycle, section 18.6.2 of Part 3, whose absorber is presented in section 8.3.7 of this Part as an example of thermocoupler; – Single effect LiBr-H2O absorption cycle, section 20.3 of Part 3.

[CRC_pa_1]

Merkel chart The Oldham chart is easy to understand and use as discussed below, but, like isobar or isotherm equilibrium lenses, it has the disadvantage of not providing any information about the energies involved.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoption, Components

3,000

2,500

dew point curves 50

2,000

10

1

h (kJ/kg)

50 10

1,500

1

auxiliary

50

1,000

curves

T 120°C

10 500

bubble curves

0 isotherms 1

500 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

NH3 mass fraction

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

x

FIGURE 5.6.32 Isotherms in the Merkel chart

The Merkel chart (or enthalpy-concentration chart) is constructed with the enthalpy as ordinate, and the mass fraction of solute (or often the solvent for the LiBr-H2O pair) as abscissa. It allows us to superimpose information from multiple isobar equilibrium lenses while showing enthalpies. Figure 5.6.32 gives the Merkel ammonia-water mixture chart. There are five types of curves: a set of bubble curves at P Const., continuous lines with the concavity turned upwards; a set of dew curves for the same pressures, solid lines with the concavity turned downwards a set of liquid zone isotherms, dashed in the lower part of the chart, which is valid whatever the pressure, the influence of pressure on the enthalpy of the liquid being negligible in first approximation (for example the difference in enthalpy of the liquid solution and 30% ammonia by weight is only 5 kJ/kg at 0 C when pressure increases from 0.5 to 50 bar, while the useful part of the chart covers more than 1000 kJ/kg in the liquid zone); a set of curves called auxiliary or construction, dashed in the upper part of the chart, which, for a given pressure, knowing the solute liquid mass fraction x, determine the solute vapor mass fraction y; a set of refrigerant iso-quality curves in the vapor phase, which, for a given pressure, provide the mass fraction of liquid corresponding to the chosen vapor iso-quality (the latter set of curves is sometimes omitted from the Merkel chart, as in this example). ● ● ●

●

●

However, isotherms in the vapor zone do not appear in the Merkel chart, because they depend on pressure and the chart would become unreadable. Notice that this chart superimposes two kinds of curves: liquid-vapor equilibrium and isotherm curves in the liquid state. There may be difficulties in interpreting the cycle points if you do not specify whether they are or not in liquid-vapor equilibrium.

134

5. THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS

350 300

200 150

t 130°C t 120°C t 110°C t 100°C t 90°C t 80°C t 70°C t 60°C

lim

it

h (kJ/kg)

250

t 140°C

liz at io n

t 50°C t 40°C

cr ys ta l

100

t 30°C

50

t 20°C t 10°C

0 40

45

50

55

60

65

70

X (% LiBr)

FIGURE 5.6.33 Merkel chart of LiBr-H2O mixture

TABLE 5.6.5 COEFFICIENTS FOR EQUATION 5.6.53 A0

2024.33

B0

A1

163.309

B1

A2

4.88161

B2

A3 A4

0.06302948 2.91E04

18.2829 1.1691757 0.03248041

C0

0.037008214

C1

2.89E03

C2

8.13E05

B3

4.03E04

C3

9.91E07

B4

1.85E06

C4

4.44E09

In the NH3-H2O pair chart of Figure 5.6.31, the saturation pressure for x 0.22 and T 120 C is 10 bar. To know the mass fraction value y of the vapor we draw the vertical segment passing by x 0.22 to the auxiliary curve corresponding to 10 bar, then the horizontal segment from that point until the dew isobar for 10 bar and then we draw the vertical to the horizontal axis, which gives y 0.83. We have already reported that for LiBr-H2O pair we can neglect the mass fraction of solvent vapor, that is to say, consider that the refrigerant vapor behaves like pure water. The Merkel chart is thus simplified, and we generally content ourselves to build it by making only the liquid zone isotherms appear, bounded on the lower right by the crystallization curve (Figure 5.6.33). Given this simplification, it is possible to determine the LiBr-H2O mixture enthalpy through a simple equation, as proposed by ASHRAE (5.6.53) (Table 5.6.5, ASRAE 2001), where t is the temperature of the solution in C, h its specific enthalpy in kJ/kg, and X the LiBr mass fraction of the mixture. This equation, which was used to establish the chart of Figure 5.6.33, is valid within the ranges of values: 5 t 165 C, 40 X 70%. If this equation is chosen, the origin of the water vapor enthalpy is chosen at 0 C in the liquid state (which corresponds to the usual conventions for pure water charts). 4

4

4

i0

i0

i0

h ∑ A i X i t ∑ Bi X i t 2 ∑ C i X i

(5.6.53)

These are the equations that are used in the external substance model of the LiBr-H2O pair introduced Section 23.1.2.2 of Part 4.

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REFERENCES Ashrae, Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Thermophysical properties of refrigerants, 2001. L. Borel, D. Favrat, Thermodynamique and énergétique, Presses Polytechniques Romandes, Lausanne, Vol. 1 (De l’énergie à l’exergie), 2005, Vol. 2 (Exercices corrigés), 1987. Chase et al., Janaf thermochemical tables, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol 14 Suppl. 1, 1985. U. Grigull, E. Schmidt, Properties of water and steam in SI units 0-800 C, 0-1000 bar, 3rd Ed., SpringerVerlag, Berlin Heidelberg, R. Oldenbourg, München, 1982. J.P. Holman, Thermodynamics, 4th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 1988. M. Moran, Exergy analysis, The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, (Edited by F. Kreith), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-9581-X. R.C. Reid, J.M. Prausnitz, B.E. Poling, The properties of gases and liquids, 4th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 1987. S. K. Wang, Z. Lavan P. Norton, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-0057-6.

FURTHER READING R. Benelmir, A. Lallemand, M. Feidt, Analyse exergétique, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 015. G. Brun, Thermodynamique des machines à fluide compressible, Ed. Sennac, Paris, 1959. R. Coquelet, D. Richon, Propriétés thermodynamiques, Détermination pour les fluides purs, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 030. R. Coquelet, D. Richon, Propriétés thermodynamiques, Détermination pour les mélanges, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 031. D. Fargue, Aide mémoire de thermodynamique, Presses de l’Ecole des Mines de Paris, 1999. F. Fer, Thermodynamique macroscopique, Tome 1 Systèmes fermés, Gordon & Breach Science Publ., 1970. F. Fer, Thermodynamique macroscopique, Tome 2 Systèmes ouverts, Gordon & Breach Science Publ., 1971. A. Lallemand, Thermodynamique appliquée: Premier principe. Énergie. Enthalpie, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 005. A. Lallemand, Thermodynamique appliquée: Deuxième principe. Entropie, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 007. J. Lebrun, Thermodynamique appliquée, introduction aux machines thermiques, Polycopiés de l’Université de Liège S. Sandler, Chemical and engineering thermodynamics, 3rd edition, J. Wiley and Sons, New York, 1999. J. W. Tester, M. Modell, Thermodynamics and its applications, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997. R. Vichnievsky, Thermodynamique appliquée aux machines, Ed. Masson & Cie, Paris, 1967. M. De Vlaminck, P. Wauters, Thermodynamique et turbines, CIACO, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1988. W. Wagner, A. Kruse Properties of water and steam, Springer, 1998. P. Wauters, Thermodynamique, Polycopié de l’Université de Louvain la Neuve, MECA 2190, 1990. M. W. Zemansky, R. H. Dittman, Heat and thermodynamics, an intermediate textbook, International Series in Pure and Applied Physics, McGraw Hill College Div, dec. 1996.

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6 Presentation of Thermoptim Abstract: The Thermoptim software package aims to enable easy calculation of relatively complex thermodynamic cycles without being obliged to resort to oversimplification, or engage in tedious calculations. It is composed of five interconnected complementary working environments: a diagram editor (or graphical modeler), a simulator, interactive thermodynamic charts, an optimization method and a productive structure editor. Since energy conversion technologies are assemblies of interconnected components, the modeling environment combines a systemic approach and an analytical and/or empirical classical approach: each functional element is represented by an appropriate Thermoptim primitive type (substance, point, process, node, heat exchanger) whose characteristics can be modified, and coupling variables; the complete system is modeled by assembling these types in an interactive interface, the diagram editor; simulation of the complete system is then managed by an automatic recalculation engine which exploits the inherent properties implicitly described in the model. ●

●

●

In this section we present the main Thermoptim screens you need to know in order to use the tool. Since those corresponding to the processes and heat exchangers are detailed in Chapters 7 and 8, we do not analyze them here. Keywords: Thermoptim primitive types, software features.

6.1

GENERAL

Thermoptim was developed to help resolve some difficulties in learning applied thermodynamics and getting expertise in it. Its objectives are: motivate beginners by preventing them from being deterred by the computational difficulties while allowing them to work on real-world examples; facilitate users getting started with the software thanks on the one hand to a major effort at designing the interface, and on the other hand to the integration in the tool of maximum functionality; offering advanced users a powerful and user-friendly computing environment enabling them to increase their productivity. ●

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Applied thermodynamics is actually relatively complex as physical laws are highly nonlinear. Thermodynamic fluids are either ideal gases or condensable real fluids. The former are relatively simple to model compared to the latter, which are governed by much more complex laws.

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FIGURE 6.1.1 Calculator inverter

These fluids undergo processes, also nonlinear, from simple compressions or expansions to the most complex leading to variations in their composition, as is the case for combustion or moist mixture condensation. Depending on circumstances, these changes must be calculated in open or closed systems, the equations involved being different. Thermoptim is part of a family of tools bearing its name, a set of software tools for learning applied thermodynamics and getting expertise in it, including initiation applets, very easy to use interactive charts and a calculation package available in several versions. These tools are intended for both graduate students and professionals. They allow the former to explore realistic cycles without being stopped by the computational difficulties that too often put off beginners. As for the latter, they bring them comfort of work now missing, which may encourage them to deepen their work in studying alternatives they would otherwise sometimes not do, not having a proper work environment. The terms of access to these various tools are specified on the Thermoptim-Unit portal (www.thermoptim.org).

6.1.1

Initiation applets

The lightest tools in the Thermoptim family are small applets that can be run in most web browsers, such as the substance thermodynamic property calculator1 shown in Figure 6.1.1. Although its capabilities are limited, it is already very useful to quickly obtain the properties of various ideal gases and real fluids. It offers the possibility to choose from among the following sets of independent variables: pressure, temperature (K or ºC) and quality, enthalpy and pressure or even pressure and entropy. It can be used to easily calculate adiabatic compression and expansion, or even isenthalpic throttling, as discussed in studies of motor and vapor refrigeration cycles in sections 16.1.1 and 19.3.1 of Part 3.

1

[CRC_In_2]

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

WORKED EXAMPLES Vapor cycles modeling with the substance thermodynamic property calculator Sections 16.1.1.2 and 19.3.1.2 of Part 3 present the detailed calculations that can be made with the substance thermodynamic property calculator in order to fully calculate two cycles: – The Hirn or Rankine cycle of a steam power plant; – A R134a refrigeration cycle. They show how its features can be used to determine the state of all points.

Another combustion initiation applet2 is available, and the development of other tools of this type is considered. Their goal is to be a bridge between classical education based on equations and more elaborate simulation tools as Thermoptim.

6.1.2

Interactive charts

The interactive charts have been developed with a view to replacing classical paper thermodynamic charts. Indeed, whatever care is taken by editors in the choice of color sets for distinguishing the various curves shown on the classical charts, it is always difficult to read them, and interpolation may lead to significant errors. Thermoptim interactive charts allow the user, by a simple mouse click, to display all relevant thermodynamic properties of the fluid, thus providing better accuracy. Their main asset is to be very easy to use: the thermodynamic properties are immediately displayed on the screen, a user-friendly point editor allowing significant productivity gains for users. At present, the following charts are available: vapor charts (Figures 5.6.4 to 5.6.17), which cover, namely in (T, s), (h, P), (h, s), (h, xh) and (s, xh) coordinates, the liquid, liquid-vapor equilibrium and vapor zones, for fourteen pure substances, including steam. Vapor charts for external mixtures can also be partially plotted in (T, s) and (h,P) coordinates (see section 23.1.3.3 of Part 4); ideal gas pressure/specific volume (P, v) or temperature/entropy (T, s) charts, similar to the vapor charts (Figure 5.6.18), allowing one to make the gas composition vary (pure or compound); Carrier or Mollier psychrometric charts (Figures 5.6.19 to 5.6.22) in which one can modify either the pressure or the dry gas composition (for air as well as pure or compound gases, such as combustion flue gases).

●

●

●

6.1.3 Thermoptim’s five working environments We have seen that Thermoptim is composed of five interconnected complementary working environments: a diagram editor (or graphical modeler), a simulator, interactive thermodynamic charts, an optimization method and a productive structure editor.

2

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/logiciels/thermoptim/ressources/applet-calc-comb

[CRC_In_3]

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FIGURE 6.1.2 Diagram editor

The diagram editor (Figure 6.1.2) allows the user to graphically describe the system studied. It includes a palette comprised of the various Thermoptim components (process-points, heat exchanges, compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, expansion valves, mixers, dividers, separators). They can be displayed on a working panel in which the components are located and connected by links. This graphical environment provides a user-friendliness of great interest for viewing large projects and controlling internal linkages. Furthermore, as we shall see later, it allows for simpler data entry when creating a new project. The simulator (Figure 6.1.3) allows one to quantify and solve the model described previously in the diagram editor. Its main screen gives access to the frames in which are set the logical and thermodynamic properties of the various model components (Thermoptim primitive types). The simulator calculates step by step the different elements of the project. This is a sequential calculation mode differing from that used in other (matricial) modeling environments, in which the whole set of equations of the problem is solved at the same time. It is much easier to successively calculate the elements than to solve the whole system simultaneously. This way of doing things however induces two difficulties: first it may be necessary to iterate several times to get the right solution when the project is comprised of loops, and second it may be difficult, for large and complex projects, to know in which order the calculations are to be done. To solve the latter problem, a set of algorithms has been implemented. Named Thermoptim automatic recalculation engine, it represents a key element of the software. A specific tool has been designed in order to follow the recalculation steps and thus be able to check the model consistency. In addition, if a large project has been created, it may involve many elements such as points, processes and nodes. Using the diagram editor ensures that the connections between them are adequate, but not that their parameters are accurately set. A diagnosis tool has been developed to allow one to

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FIGURE 6.1.3 Two-stage refrigeration cycle in Thermoptim simulator screen

search and display the points or processes that share some characteristics, such as to be calculated in open or closed system, to have their flow rate set etc. It is thus possible to selectively display the various model elements in order to check their settings. Lastly the simulator allows one to make simple sensitivity analyses with regard to flow rates, pressures or temperatures. The thermodynamic interactive charts presented above are directly accessible in Thermoptim. They can be used to visualize the thermodynamic cycles calculated by the simulator. Thermoptim fourth working environment is its optimization method based on systemic integration, which is an extension for energy systems (electricity power plants, cogeneration units etc.) of the Pinch method developed for Process Engineering in order to optimize large heat exchanger networks such as those existing in refineries. This method, which distinguishes the irreversibilities specific to components from those that come from their arrangement within the system itself, allows, physically speaking, visualization of system critical areas, and highlights the irreparable systemic irreversibilities. By putting pinches in evidence, it identifies the locations of the system whose design must be done with special care, and is a valuable guide where heuristics were previously employed, sometimes requiring many iterations. It is presented in Chapter 22 of Part 3. The fifth working environment is the productive structure editor, which will be discussed in Section 10.2.4 dealing with exergy balances. In Thermoptim, these five environments are coupled by specific interfaces, the closest integration being realized on the one hand between the diagram editor and the simulator and on the other hand between the optimization tools and the simulator.

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6.2 6.2.1

DIAGRAM EDITOR Presentation of the editor

The editor looks like that shown above in Figures 4.3.2 and 6.1.2. To open it, select the line “Diagram editor” in the “Special” menu of the main project window. It includes a menu bar with three menus, a palette comprising Thermoptim components which can be displayed (process-points, heat exchanges, compressors, expansion devices, combustion chambers, expansion valves, mixers, dividers, separators), and a working panel on which these components are placed and connected by links. Note that, for now, the widgets corresponding to processes specific to moist mixtures have not yet been developed. A diagram can be given a name and description to describe it succinctly. You can access these properties by the line “Description” in the editor File menu. 6.2.2

Graphical component properties

6.2.2.1 Property editor Diagram component properties allow one to define only the minimum for creating a Thermoptim project, the detailed characteristics of the various primitive types being subsequently entered through the simulator screens. Diagram component properties are thus mainly the component name, those of the inlet and outlet port points and substances, as well as the value of the flow-rate. More precisely, it is generally sufficient to define the component by its name, and for its outlet port, the name of the point and the corresponding substance as well as the value of the flowrate through this port. The inlet port properties are subsequently automatically updated when an upstream component is connected. If in addition the component does not introduce a new substance, the outlet port substance is also updated. Properties are mainly accessed through a tab editor, either from the Edit menu, or by typing F4. 6.2.2.2 Placement of a component In order to place a component in the editor, select it on the palette by clicking on it, then direct the crosshair cursor at the chosen location, and click. The property editor is automatically opened. For all processes but process-points3, it looks as shown in Figure 6.2.1. Name the component, then click on the tab “outlet port”, and enter the point name. To enter the substance name, you may either type it if you know it, or get it from the list of available substances which can be displayed by double-clicking in the substance name field. Finally enter the flow-rate value, then click on “Apply” to directly validate all the tabs and exit the editor. The number of tabs depends on the component selected. For Thermoptim nodes, the name is sufficient, the other properties being defined by the connections. For process-points, there is but one tab, to enter its name and that of the point as well as the substance and the flow-rate (Figure 6.2.2). If the point name field is empty, the point name is that of the process. Once you exit the property editor, the component is displayed with its name below it and that of the outlet point above on the right (Figure 6.2.3).

3

142

This is an exchange process whose inlet and outlet points are the same, which is used to represent a small pipe, usually an entry or exit of fluid.

6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.2.1

FIGURE 6.2.2

Property editor

Process point

FIGURE 6.2.3

FIGURE 6.2.4

Component oriented to the right

Component oriented to the left

By default, all components are oriented from the left to the right, but it is possible to orient them from the right to the left by selecting the item “flip vertical” on the Edit menu or typing F1 (Figure 6.2.4) . The name of the outlet point is then displayed above on the left. If you flip it again, the component is oriented as initially. Once the component is created, you have access to all its properties by selecting the item “Show properties” on the View menu or typing F4. All the available tabs for this component are then available, including those which have been automatically updated during connections. 6.2.2.3 Connecting components You can create links of two different types. The first one corresponds to pipes connecting components, through which flow thermodynamic fluids. Their orientation is marked by an arrow. Each component is equipped with small colored rectangles which are connection ports between which links can be set. Inlet ports are colored in blue (or red for the fuel of a combustion chamber), and outlet ones are green. The small rectangles (in practice squares) allow the user to graphically set

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FIGURE 6.2.5 Heat exchanger

up one graphical connection (however several can be set programmatically), whereas the large ones, used for mixers and dividers, allow one to make multiple connections. To connect two components, click on an outlet port (green) and drag the mouse to an available inlet port (blue), and then release the button. If the connection is allowed a link is created. For instance, the diagram given in Figure 4.3.2 shows several such links: the process-point “oxidizer” is connected to the compressor by a single link, while the mixer has two input links, coming from the compressor and from the process-point “steam injection”. The second type of link is used to represent heat exchangers. It is not oriented and connects two “exchange” components. In this book, we shall talk of exchanger connection to refer to this type of link. An “exchange” component has in its center a small maskable exchanger connection port, which appears (as a small blue or red circle) only when the mouse is located above it, or when it is connected with another such component to represent a heat exchanger. To make the connection, click on this port of one component and drag the mouse to the same port of another component and then release the button. During the connection the name of the exchanger is asked for. Once the heat exchanger settings are entered, the port is blue for the cold fluid, and red for the hot one (Figure 6.2.5). 6.2.3

Links between the simulator and the diagrams

The links between the simulator and the diagrams can be made either directly through the editor, by double-clicking on a sufficiently defined existing component, or through a specific interface. In both cases, the elements to be transferred are updated in the other environment, those not concerned by the transfer being unchanged. Thus, if some points or links are no longer useful, they are not deleted. 6.2.3.1 Creation and update of the simulator elements To create the elements of the simulator, the easiest way is to use the diagram/simulator interface that can be opened from the Special menu. Then click the button “Update the element table”. The screen is shown in Figure 6.2.6. The list of transferable elements is displayed in a table, and the user can select those he wishes to create or update. In front of each, an “X” marks the box “Diagram”, while the box “simulator”

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.2.6 Diagram simulator interface

is empty. The right column shows which components are selected, that is to say which should be taken into account during operations conducted from the interface. By default, all components are selected, but a button allows you to deselect them all if you wish. Otherwise, by double-clicking a row in the table, you select it or not. To transfer all components in the simulator, click the button “Update the simulator from the diagram”. In order for this operation to be possible, the component must be sufficiently defined, which means that its name and those of its port points and substances must have been defined. Otherwise, the component is colored in yellow, so that it can easily be identified. Show then its properties, and enter the missing values, and try again to create the simulator element. A heat exchanger is created in the simulator when an exchanger connection exists in the diagram and that the two “exchange” components that it connects correspond to two “exchange” processes of the simulator sufficiently well defined (it is particularly necessary that their inlet and outlet temperatures are different, and that one is warming up while the other cools). By default, the exchanger is initialized with a “counter-flow” type. Once the types are created, their characteristics must be entered in the regular simulator screens, and saved in a project file. When an element already exists, e.g. when exists in the simulator an element of the same name and the same type, a double-click on the component displays it. Similarly, double-clicking on a link opens the corresponding point screen. The structure modifications (addition of new components, connection changes etc.) made in the diagram editor are transferred in the simulator when one double-clicks on a component or makes an update from the Diagram/Simulator interface. Generally speaking, it therefore appears preferable to make all structure modifications from the diagram editor, and to set the simulator element parameters by displaying them from their graphical component. This way one takes full advantage of the visual interface, and one avoids on the one hand placement problems occurring with components created from the simulator, and on the other hand the automatic creation of physically meaningless links if some points are shared by several processes, as it is often the case for complex systems. 6.2.3.2 Creation of a diagram from the simulator If the project only exists in the simulator, it is possible to automatically generate a diagram that matches it. However, the interface cannot know exactly where to position the components created.

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For convenience, the convention is that their location is defined by the last rectangle selected in the editor. It is thus possible to progressively transfer elements at various locations of the diagram by choosing the destination zone on the working panel. By default, all the elements are selected when the list is updated, but a button allows one to deselect all of them for a progressive transfer. The links between the components are made on the basis of the points shared by the processes, and of existing connections for the mixers, dividers and separators. The diagram is created as follows: during a first phase, the components are created if they do not already exist, and those corresponding to processes are initialized (names of points, substances, flow-rates etc.); for mixers, dividers and separators, there is no need for an initialization, their definition being made when the links are set up; during a second phase, the links are created. For the processes, a link is created each time a point is shared by two diagram components. When a given point is used by several processes, it is therefore possible for multiple links to be created. It is then up to the user to delete by hand those which have no physical meaning, as this operation cannot be automated. For mixers, dividers and separators, the connections are made in two steps: creation of the link with the main process, then of those with the branches. For separators, the upper outlet port is used for the vapor, the lower one for the liquid (more dense); when a heat exchanger exists in the simulator, both exchange components are linked by an exchanger connection named after the heat exchanger if both components exist and if at least one of them is selected. ●

●

●

6.2.3.3 Connections between two nodes As it is impossible to directly connect two nodes, a process-point is automatically inserted between them if you try to do so. You then just have to set its parameters. 6.2.3.4 Note concerning process-points The case of process-points merits further discussion. These processes are in particular useful when one creates large projects. They allow one to define fluid inputs or outputs, to connect nodes etc. As for the simulator, a process-point is an “exchange” process whose inlet and outlet points are the same and whose name is the same as that of these points; it is only when these conditions are met that a diagram editor component of the type “process-point” is created by transfer from the simulator.

6.3 6.3.1

SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT Main project screen

The simulator screen (Figure 6.3.1) provides access to key Thermoptim primitives to define and modify projects. It includes five tables, three on the left correspond to points, processes and nodes, and two on the right to the set pressures and heat exchangers. Each table is equipped with a label giving the number of existing elements. A comment field is located in the upper right of the screen. It helps to document the project with a short description displayed in the project library. At the top of the screen are shown the name of the project and the associated diagram if there is one. To change these names, double-click in the appropriate field, and enter the new string. In the right part the button labeled “Balance” allows one to calculate the overall balance with the following conventions. In each process, the energy type allows one to distinguish between purchased

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FIGURE 6.3.1 Simulator screen

FIGURE 6.3.2

FIGURE 6.3.3

Project files menu

Result files menu

energy, useful energy, and other energy. The purchased energy generally represents the sum of all the energies that must be supplied to the cycle from outside. The useful energy is the net energy output of the cycle, e.g. the algebraic sum of the energies internally produced and spent. These two energy types are those that appear in the definition of the cycle effectiveness4:

4

useful energy| purchased energy

(6.3.1)

The concept of cycle efficiency is discussed in Section 10.1.6.

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For example, in a Rankine cycle, the purchased energy is the heat supplied to the boiler and the useful energy is the net work output, i.e. the work produced by the turbine minus the work provided to the pump. The other energy is that used by the condenser. For a refrigeration cycle, the purchased energy is the input power of the compressor, the useful energy is the refrigeration effect (heat removed at the evaporator level), and the other energy is that removed at the desuperheater and condenser levels. In the right part of the screen appears a thumbnail of a block diagram representing the project studied if an image has been associated with it, or an empty frame otherwise. If you double-click in the frame, a maximized window is opened where it can be displayed full size, with a menu allowing one to load or suppress the block diagram. As already mentioned in Section 5.2.2 on the energy exchange in processes, it is noted that the concept of useful energy is not the same as the shaft work of a machine, even if sometimes it is the shaft work that is reported useful energy. The concept of useful energy is essentially economic, while the shaft work has a precise thermodynamic sense: the work produced or received by the shaft of the machine. Just below, the button labeled “Recalculate” allows one to start the recalculation process.

6.3.2

Main menus

The “Project files” menu allows one to create a new project or to open an existing one, and save it. It also gives access to two libraries, the current projects, placed in an unprotected directory, and the examples, placed in a protected directory. The “Result files” menu allows one to export the simulator results in text structured format (see Section 9.3.3), to export a cycle file that can be read by an interactive chart (see the charts manual in the software documentation), to export a pinch method problem or thermal exergy calculations. The “Special” menu provides access to a number of tools: the diagram editor allows one to graphically define a project; interactive charts; thermal integration optimization tools; tools for automatic recalculation which were mentioned above; diagnosis tools allowing one to check the consistency of a model; a screen allowing one to perform sensitivity analysis on an existing project; the substance manager to make changes to a substance in the diagram editor and simulator; the screen giving access to drivers; the external class viewer. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

148

FIGURE 6.3.4

FIGURE 6.3.5

Special menu

Help menu

6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.3.6 Result file

The Help menu opens the “Quick Reference” screen, which provides a summary of the main concepts used in the software, displays the license text, and finally gives access to global parameters (definition of the working directory, selection of the temperature unit and the reference temperature for exergy calculations etc.).

6.3.3 Export of the results in the form of text file All the results corresponding to a project can be gathered in a text file which can be processed either by a word processor or by a spreadsheet. For that, select the line “Export the results” on the “Result files” menu, A Save window is opened so that you can choose the backup file. Once it is created, open it with a spreadsheet. You obtain the result of Figure 6.3.6. This file comprises the overall balance and the main computation results of the various primitive types which make your project: state of the various points, energies brought into play in the processes, compositions of the project gases etc.

6.3.4

Point screen

The “point screen” (Figure 6.3.7) allows one to define a point and to calculate and display values taken by all its state functions. A good understanding of the options it provides is necessary for the calculations to have the desired meaning. As was stated at the beginning of the book, only intensive values can be obtained at one point, extensive values requiring the mass flow, which is done in the processes. Three tabs allow you to select the appropriate calculation method: first, by default, for open systems, enterable values are pressure and temperature or enthalpy, the second deals with closed systems, for which one enters the specific volume and temperature or internal energy, and finally the third applies to moist systems, mixtures of dry gas and water vapor, which will be detailed further.

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FIGURE 6.3.7 Point screen

For condensable real fluids, the software does not calculate the values of specific heats Cp and Cv except in the liquid zone, nor their ratio . 6.3.4.1 Open systems For open systems, the knowledge of the pressure and the temperature allows for the calculation of all the other state functions directly by clicking the checkbox labeled “P and T known” (the temperature must be entered in the unit chosen in the Global properties editor, but it is also displayed in the other unit when the point is calculated). Exergy is calculated on the basis of the reference temperature entered in the Global properties editor. If the pressure and enthalpy are known, select “P and h known”. If the pressure and entropy are known, select “P and s known” (see Figure 6.3.7). For condensable vapors the following are displayed: two checkboxes, «set the saturation pressure» and «set the saturation temperature» whose meaning is obvious; the quality x of the mix which must be entered in the case when the point is located in the liquid-vapor zone; ●

●

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FIGURE 6.3.8 Substance list

FIGURE 6.3.9 Gas composition editor ●

a field labeled “Tsat approach” which, used in conjunction with “set the saturation temperature”, allows one to shift the value of the temperatures at a fixed value relative to the saturation temperature.

When the associated substance is defined, its name appears in the upper left side. To select the substance, you may: either double-click in the substance field located in the right side of the screen and expand the substance type folder (Figure 6.3.8), then click on the chosen substance (here “Vapors” and then «water »), and finally click on “OK”; or enter the requested name in the field and type the “Enter” key. Thermoptim browses through all the existing substances looking for that name. If it exists, it is selected. Otherwise, it assumes you want to create a new compound gas and initializes it with nitrogen (N2). By clicking the “display” button just to the left of the name, you open a gas editor which enables you to select the gas composition from among the existing pure gases (which are shown in a combo-box when you click on a cell of the “component name” column) (Figure 6.3.9). ●

●

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 6.3.10 Pure substance information screen

FIGURE 6.3.11 Closed system tab

Thermoptim considers that the first column of numbers on the left contains the data to take into account, the others being derived from them (you can easily move the columns by clicking on their name and dragging it sideways). Obviously, the sum of mole or mass fractions must be equal to 1. If the substance is pure (real condensable fluid), the screen is slightly different (Figure 6.3.10). It provides the main features of the substance and the limits of validity of models used in Thermoptim. 6.3.4.2 Closed systems To get access to the closed system screen, click on the middle tab. A slightly different screen is displayed (Figure 6.3.11). For closed systems, the specific volume can be entered, as well as the internal energy or entropy, and one can set these two values to determine the other state functions by checking box “v and u known” or “v and s known”.

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.3.12 Moist gas initial composition

FIGURE 6.3.13 Moist gas tab

6.3.5 Point moist properties calculations Select the tab “Water vapor/gas mixtures” of the screen points to calculate the properties of moist mixtures. 6.3.5.1 Representation by a moist mix When the substance is a moist mix, the latter may have been mixed in a mixer, generated from a dry gas and a specific humidity, or set directly by the user, in which case care must be taken that the water be entered as a gas (H2O). Take, for example moist air whose composition is given Figure 6.3.12. Construct a point using this substance, at the pressure of 1 atmosphere and temperature of 35ºC, and click the tab labeled “Water vapor/gas mixtures”. The screen in Figure 6.3.13 appears. At left are the data at the point considered: specific humidity w automatically calculated by the software from the mixture composition, relative humidity epsi. To the right are fields giving the specific values (that is to say relative to 1 kg of dry gas) of the enthalpy, volume, and the moist bulb temperature and dew point temperature. Possible condensate is displayed on the left under the relative humidity. 6.3.5.2 Moist properties calculations To calculate all the moist properties of the point, click on the button “set w”. The results of Figure 6.3.14 are displayed. 6.3.5.3 Setting the relative humidity It is also possible to set the relative humidity to a particular value, by entering the value in the corresponding field, and then by clicking button “set epsi”. Suppose now that one sets a relative humidity equal to 0.5: you get the screen shown in Figure 6.3.15.

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FIGURE 6.3.14 Moist gas properties

FIGURE 6.3.15 Setting the relative humidity

FIGURE 6.3.16 Moist gas new composition

It is possible to change the water content of the moist mix by clicking button “set the gas humidity”. The software prompts you to enter the desired humidity, offering by default the value of w. The gas composition is then modified as shown in Figure 6.3.16. If the quantity of water present in the mix exceeds the saturation content, the relative humidity has the value 1, the specific humidity becomes equal to the saturation humidity, and the quantity of water in excess appears in the field titled “condensation”. 6.3.5.4 Representation by a dry gas As the composition of the dry gas is most often invariant, we have seen in section 5.6.7 that it is interesting to define a moist mix by referring to its dry gas. Derogating from the general rule used in the package, Thermoptim can do so by constructing points defined by the dry gas and the value of specific humidity.

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.3.17 Moist gas properties

FIGURE 6.3.18 Mixer screen

For example, create a point at pressure 1 atmosphere and temperature 35ºC, associated with substance “atmospheric air”, then click the “Water vapor/gas mixtures” tab, and as before set a relative humidity of 0.5. The result you get is that of Figure 6.3.17, about the same as in Figure 6.3.15. 6.3.6 NODE SCREEN A node screen is roughly divided in three parts: the upper left displays information relative to the node main process (the outlet one for a mixer, and the inlet one for a divider or a separator). To connect it from the node (if not already done in the diagram editor), double-click in the main process field, and choose from among the list of processes which is proposed in a combo box; the lower left one shows the branches of the node and buttons to add or delete branches from the node; the right part shows the actions which can be taken for building and calculating the node. ●

●

●

6.3.6.1 Mixer When the mixer (Figure 6.3.18) is constructed, the “Calculate” button performs the mass and enthalpy balances of the branches and calculates the outlet temperature. The inlet point of the downstream process is recalculated.

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FIGURE 6.3.19 Divider screen

FIGURE 6.3.20 Separator screen

6.3.6.2 Divider The divider screen (Figure 6.3.19) has an additional button called “flow setting”. It is used to define flow factors that are used in calculating the distribution of flow between the branches. The basic idea is the following: as a divider must conserve the mass flow rate, it is not possible to set the value in the different branches if that of the main branch varies. Therefore the user defines in each branch a “flow factor” which represents the share of the given branch in the global flow rate. Thermoptim then adds the different flow factors and distributes the main flow-rate between the branches proportionally to their “flow-rate factors”. In the example presented figure 6.3.19, 15% of the flow rate goes to the extraction process, and 85% to the reheat one. There is however an exception: it is possible to set the flow rate in a process at the outlet of a divider, provided that this node has but two branches, the one with the set flow rate, and another one. In this case the flow rate of the second process is set equal to the flow rate of the main vein, minus that of the branch with the set flow rate, and the flow-rate factors are recalculated accordingly, while a label “set flow” is displayed in red below the name of the main vein, as in the example in Figure 6.3.19.

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

6.3.6.3 Separator (or dryer) As its name indicates, its role is to separate a fluid in a liquid-vapor equilibrium, characterized by its temperature, pressure and quality. This is done by dividing its flow rate into two parts, liquid and vapor. It is therefore a type of divider (Figure 6.3.20). You may set a separator effectiveness which must be in the range 0 to 1. It is defined as the ratio of the real liquid flow rate to the maximum theoretical one, and thus represents a drying effectiveness. If it is lower than one, the value of the quality of the vapor exiting the separator is less than 1. To create a separator, select the process that represents the two-phase fluid. The outlet point of this process has to be in two-phase state, which means that its quality has to be strictly between 0 and 1. If this is not the case, the separator cannot be calculated and a message warns the user. Select then the two outlet processes, which must have inlet points whose substance is the same as that of the main process outlet point. Furthermore one of these two processes must have its inlet point quality set to 0 so that Thermoptim may identify it as being the liquid vein. In the example above, the two-phase fluid is called “IP mix”. The total flow rate of 2.48 kg/s is separated into 1 kg/s liquid and 1.48 kg/s vapor, feeding respectively processes “IP throttling” and “HP compressor”.

6.4

EXTENSION OF THERMOPTIM BY EXTERNAL CLASSES

6.4.1 Extension system for Thermoptim by adding external classes One great advantage of Thermoptim is that its graphic environment can be used to visually build models for a large number of energy systems, from the simplest refrigerator to complex integrated gasification combined cycle electric power plants using several hundred elements. Not only does this greatly simplify the modeling process and facilitate subsequent use and maintenance of the model, but it also makes the models more reliable. The connections between the different elements are made automatically, thus ensuring consistency. Until 2002, only the components available in Thermoptim primitive type set could be assembled in this manner, which limited the potential of the software. A number of users wished to be able to define their own elements and/or their own substances. Thermoptim interface with external classes (Java code elements) provides the solution and facilitates the interoperability of the software with the outside world, especially with other applications developed in Java. The benefits are two-fold: create Thermoptim extensions from the common primitive type set, by adding external modules that define the elements that automatically appear on the screens in a seamless fashion. Thus users can add their own substances or components not available in the basic set. Examples are given Section 7.9 of this Part; drive Thermoptim from another application, either to guide a user (smart tutorial) or to check the code (driver or regulation, access to thermodynamic libraries). A first example will be given section 12.2.1.10 of Part 3 for the modeling of a turbojet, but it is especially in Part 5 that external drivers are used because they allow one to solve off-design equation sets. ●

●

Figures 6.4.1 and 6.4.2 show how external substances are added to the list of Thermoptim substances, then replace an internal substance in the point screen, making their use as easy for users as if they were part of the core. Figure 6.4.3 shows how an external component representing a solar collector appears in the diagram editor, and Figure 6.4.4 shows the screen of the same process, composed partly by the internal Thermoptim code, and partly by external code (right lower part).

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 6.4.1

FIGURE 6.4.2

Substance list

Substance screen

FIGURE 6.4.3 External process

6.4.2

Software implementation

Practically speaking, adding a new external process is quite easy. Simply create a specific class, which inherits from the abstract parent class extThopt.ExtProcess. The interaction with Thermoptim is ensured on two levels: by general methods for performing the required calculations; by a JPanel that is built into the external process screen. Thus, the class designer can create his own graphic interface, which is then inserted into the Thermoptim screen. It defines its own graphical elements (buttons, fields, labels etc.), and processes the user actions to convenience. Specific methods even allow one to save settings in the Thermoptim project file, then reread them when loading the project. ● ●

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.4.4 External process screen

Loading external classes is dynamically ensured by Thermoptim as follows: during its launch, the software analyzes archives extThopt.zip and extUser.zip, which contain, among others, all external classes. It finds thus all classes added by users, which are sorted according to their parent class, and loaded into tables, adding external components to Thermoptim lists so that they are transparently accessible to the user. Later, if any of these elements is selected, Thermoptim transmits its class to the appropriate constructor, which instantiates it. Classes that are involved in Thermoptim and extThopt.zip and extUser.zip archives define the interface methods, which fall into three complementary categories: internal Thermoptim methods not accessible from outside; internal methods that are accessible from outside, directly used by external classes: they can execute Thermoptim methods with external settings, and should not be overloaded. Their signature must be scrupulously observed: in particular, the structure of Vectors or Objects passed as arguments must exactly match that expected by Thermoptim, otherwise exceptions are cast; external methods corresponding to Thermoptim methods not accessible from the outside: they allow one to execute external methods from Thermoptim, and must always be overloaded. ● ●

●

6.4.3 Viewing available external classes To help you use and manage external classes, line External Class Viewer on the Special menu displays all of the external classes available (Figure 6.4.5). They are sorted by type (substances, processes, mixers, dividers, drivers) with a short description of the class selected and where it comes from (extThopt.zip and extUser.zip archives as well as classes under development). This screen can be consulted while you are developing your model.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 6.4.5 External class viewer

6.4.4

Representation of an external component in the diagram editor

Specific icons were added to represent the external components ( and

for processes,

for mixers,

for dividers). The external component is then selected when the simulator is updated from

the diagram as indicated below.

6.4.5

Loading an external class

To load an external process (for an external node, the process is the same), you can either: click in the simulator screen on the column header of the process table, then choose External and finally select the type of external process you want from the list; or, in the diagram editor, build the external component graphically then update the simulator from the diagram. An external process is by default of the “heat source/sink” type, as shown in the screen of Figure 6.4.6. ●

●

Once this default process is created, double click on the label “source/sink” to access the list of all external processes available. Choose the one you want and it is loaded.

6.4.6

Practical realization of an external class

Various examples of practical realization of external classes, with explanations on how to encode them, are given in Part 4 of this work, especially in Chapter 23.

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6. PRESENTATION OF THERMOPTIM

FIGURE 6.4.6 Default screen an external process

In addition, volume 3 of Thermoptim reference manual is dedicated to external classes. We recommend that you refer to it for a full explanation of this powerful mechanism. Finally, the Thermoptim-UNIT portal model library includes many external classes annotated with their Java code.

[CRC_In_14]

6.5 DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF THERMOPTIM “Thermoptim versions are firstly characterized by a label that defines the features (Demo, Education Classroom, Standard, Professional and Industrial) and secondly by a serial number (1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 or 2.5, 2.6 or 2.7), which represents the chronological development of the software. Numbers 1.3 to 1.7 are Thermoptim versions using old Java libraries (JRE or JDK 1.1.8) while numbers 2.5 to 2.7 are Thermoptim versions requiring Java 2 libraries (JRE or JDK 1.3 to 1.6). At the time of publication of this book, the latter are still under development. The demo version is freely distributed to allow you to view existing projects and diagrams, and to build small ones in order to familiarize yourselves with the tools. Of course it does not provide access to all the software features. In particular, it does not allow you to save projects or diagrams, nor the output result files. You will find details on these versions in the portal as well as links to the download pages.

[CRC_In_20, CRC_In_21]

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7 Basic Components and Processes Abstract: In the introduction to this book, we showed that energy technologies can be considered as assemblies of components through which pass thermodynamic fluids which undergo changes of varying complexity. In this chapter we will present the main types of components encountered in practice and the physical phenomena that govern them, and examine how they can be assembled and calculated in the Thermoptim modeling environment. Let us recall that, given our purposes, we limit ourselves to a steady-state representation of phenomena, and we will not try to model the fine detail of how a particular component behaves, which can be extremely complex. Supplements on the technological design of these components will be presented in Part 5. For technologies that interest us, a component can be represented with sufficient accuracy when are given on the one hand the variables defining the coupling with other system components, and on the other hand a small number of characteristics, whose physical sense must be well understood. These characteristics depend on the type of component and the technology. At first, we examine the components available in Thermoptim core, i.e. compressions, expansions, combustions, and throttling or flash, and finally the various processes that can undergo a moist mixture. In a second step we present some examples of external components: nozzles, diffusers and ejectors.The presentation of principles for calculating each process will be followed by a presentation of the different technologies available, themselves supported by examples calculated with Thermoptim. Keywords: compression, expansion, volumetric efficiency, isentropic efficiency, polytropic efficiency, combustion, quenching, stoichiometry, excess air, richness, unburned hydrocarbons, law of mass action, throttling, flash, moist mixture processes, nozzle, diffuser, ejector, displacement compressor, dynamic compressor, turbine, Biard, Ostwald, HHV, LHV, airflow required, smoke developed, combustion chamber, boiler, moist mixture processes, humidification, condition line, supply conditions.

7.1

COMPRESSIONS

In this chapter we will mainly deal with compressors, which can be grouped into two broad classes: displacement compressors and dynamic compressors. The most common are the displacement

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

compressors, in which the fluid is trapped in a closed volume which is gradually reduced to achieve compression. Dynamic compressors use a different principle: the compression is achieved by converting into pressure the kinetic energy communicated to the fluid by moving blades. Compressors are used for many industrial applications: refrigeration, air conditioning, transportation of natural gas etc. A special mention must be made of air compressors, used as a source of power for public and building works as well as in factories, pneumatic tools having many benefits. In this section, having established the theoretical basis of compression, valid for all types of compressors, we will consider initially the displacement compressors (reciprocating and screw), then in a second stage dynamic compressors (centrifugal and axial) and pumps and fans. A comparison between different types of compressors is finally presented. The fundamentals you have to make sure you understand are: isentropic, polytropic compression, adiabatic, isentropic or polytropic efficiency, polytropic exponent (7.1.3) and volumetric efficiency (7.2.1.3).

7.1.1 Thermodynamics of compression Compressing a fluid is to raise it from the suction pressure Pa to the discharge pressure Pr (above Pa). The process involves some work, called “compression”. The fluid initial state “a” before compression is known: pressure Pa, temperature Ta and specific volume va. However, of state “r” after compression, only the discharge pressure Pr is determined. The final temperature depends on heat exchanges with the outside. It is the same for all functions referred to the “r” thermodynamic state, including the compression work. Assuming the process (a–r) is known, the compression work is given by (5.3.6) which is written here: hr ha K Qar

(7.1.1)

Assuming that the fluid velocities are low, which is legitimate if we consider state in the discharge tank, we get: hr ha Qar

7.1.2

(7.1.2)

Reference compression

Compressors are compact machines, through which pass a gaseous fluid that stays there very briefly. Exchange surfaces are reduced and heat exchange coefficients are low. As a result, generally heat transfer between the working fluid and the outside is negligible compared to the compression work: the reference compression is therefore an adiabatic compression. If it is reversible, it is an isentropic. A second type of compression is of interest, at least in theory: it is the isothermal compression, which would be realized if we were able to cool the working fluid, which receives heat because of compression, so that its temperature remains constant. The advantage of such a compression is that it would minimize the work required. Although generally not feasible in practice as we have seen, it may be advantageous to cool the fluid between two compression stages when you need to achieve a multi-stage compression. The process that is then performed approaches an isotherm and is called para-isothermal. 7.1.2.1 Reversible isothermal compression Knowing the equation of state, it is easy to calculate i by integration: i v dP

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

T Pr

s Pa

a

s

FIGURE 7.1.1 Isentropic compression

For example, for an ideal gas: Pv rT,

and

i rT

dP P

As T Ta is constant: ⎛P ⎞ ⎛P ⎞ i r Ta ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ Pa va ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

(7.1.3)

7.1.2.2 Reversible adiabatic compression The second law gives s Const., and, in the entropy chart, the process is represented by a vertical segment (a–s) (Figure 7.1.1). The corresponding work is called isentropic or sometimes adiabatic work. We denote it by s. Relationship (7.1.2) gives here: s hs ha

(7.1.4)

For perfect gases whose heat capacity is independent of temperature, the isentropic process law reads: Pv

Const

or

⎛ Pr ⎞⎟1/ vr va ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ a

The integration of the vdP term gives the expression of the isentropic work: Pa va s 1

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( 1)/ ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎥ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ P ⎠ ⎝ ⎥ ⎢ a ⎦ ⎣

(7.1.5)

Given the equation of state and relations between r and the heat capacity, the above equality can be written as: s cp Ta

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( 1)/ ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎥ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ P ⎥ ⎢⎝ a ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

(7.1.6)

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T Pr

r

s Pa

a

s

FIGURE 7.1.2 Real compression

For ideal or real gases integration of vdP term is not so simple. The calculation must be done by solving the equations of state. In all cases, we know the pressure and suction temperature, which determine the entropy and enthalpy at the suction. So we know the discharge pressure and entropy, thereby determining the temperature and corresponding enthalpy. Work is deduced by (7.1.4).

7.1.3 Actual compressions 7.1.3.1 Actual adiabatic We have already established in section 5.4.2 the equations to be used when the compression, still adiabatic, is no longer reversible. Irreversibilities (friction, impact etc.) cause an entropy generation and, in the entropy chart (Figure 7.1.2), adiabatic compression is represented by a real curve (a–r) located to the right of the theoretical vertical (a–s). The temperature at the end of the compression is greater than that which would result in a reversible adiabatic compression. Formula (7.1.2) follows directly from the first law, which does not involve any assumptions about the reversibility of the processes. The one that interests us being adiabatic Q 0, we get: hr ha It is clearly greater than the isentropic work s. If the gas can be regarded as perfect: cp (Tr Ta) Isentropic efficiency, or adiabatic efficiency, is defined as the ratio of isentropic work to real work:

s

s h ha s hr h a

(7.1.7)

This efficiency measures the imperfection of the process from the reversible adiabatic. It is important to note that the adiabatic efficiency s is thus the main characteristic of an irreversible adiabatic process, but its determination also presents the greatest difficulties. When the machine considered is conventional, that is to say, has no major innovations as compared to machines made and tested, we take as a provisional value the one which results from

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

T

P dP Tds

P

vdP

s

s ds

s

FIGURE 7.1.3 Elementary compression

testing these machines. Where no such data are available, or if they are not satisfactory, the preliminary evaluation of s is always very difficult. It is the result of the detailed study of losses and is only possible if one has numerous basic experimental data. The problem thus posed (calculation of losses, leaks, wall friction etc.) falls within the field of experimental fluid mechanics, not thermodynamics. 7.1.3.2 Polytropic adiabatic compression Note that knowing the isentropic efficiency s provides no guidance on the law followed by the fluid during an irreversible compression, so that we cannot integrate the vdP term. To do so, we must make additional assumptions. One of the most common assumptions leads to the widely used concept of a polytropic process, which may cover slightly different definitions according to the authors. For some it is an irreversible process, while for others it is inherently reversible. We begin by presenting the first way of seeing things, which is justified for adiabatic compression, then we will show how the second is well suited to the study of non-adiabatic compressions. In addition, we will discuss this concept with two approaches often given as equivalent, whereas they are strictly so for perfect gas only, that is to say, for gases following to law Pv rT, and whose specific heat capacity is constant (see 5.6.2.1). 7.1.3.2.1 Differential approach of the polytropic The assumption that we make here is to consider that the irreversibilities are uniformly distributed throughout the compression, which is to assume that during any infinitesimal process stage, the isentropic efficiency keeps a constant value, equal by definition to the polytropic efficiency p (Figure 7.1.3). For multi-stage machines, this efficiency has a clear physical meaning: it is the basic stage efficiency. An infinitely small compression leads to state functions variations dP, dT, dh and ds. The process being adiabatic, the actual work is equal to dh, while the reversible work is s vdP. By definition:

p

s

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The assumption p constant thus results in the differential equation:

p

vdP dh Tds Const. vdP Tds dh

which can be written in different equivalent forms, such as: Tds 1 p Const dh

1 p

or

p

vdP T ds 0

(7.1.8)

Note that all these equations express the existence of a proportionality between the enthalpy change of the fluid and the work or the heat dissipated by the irreversibilities. 7.1.3.2.2 Integral approach of the polytropic The assumption that we make here is to apply the law followed by the fluid between the compressor inlet and outlet, which is of type: Pvk Const.

(7.1.9)

k is called the polytropic coefficient of the process. One of the great interests of the polytropic concept lies in the simplicity of equation (7.1.9), which generalizes that of isentropic Pv Const. By varying k, it generates a large number of elementary thermodynamic processes: k0 k1 k k!

P Const. P v Const. Pv Const. v Const.

isobaric isotherm for an ideal gas isentropic for a perfect gas isovolume (isochoric)

7.1.3.2.3 Equivalence between the two approaches for the perfect gas Although different in the general case, these two approaches are equivalent for the perfect gas. For an ideal gas, the first form of equation (7.1.8) gives: Tds (1 p )cp dT

or

ds (1 p )cp

dT T

Moreover as ds cp (dT/T) r (dP/P), we have p cp dT/T r dP/P 0 whose integration is straightforward and gives, if cp Const: T Const. P"

with "

r 1 cp p p

With (k1)/k ", we find all calculations done: Pvk Const. or Tvk1 Const.

168

or

TP(1−k)/k Const.

(7.1.10)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

We thus find the form postulated by the integral approach, the polytropic coefficient k and efficiency p being linked by relationship: k 1 1 k p

(7.1.11)

For adiabatic compression, the polytropic coefficient k is always greater than , especially since the process is irreversible. Keep in mind that the equivalence between these two approaches is only valid for perfect gases. If the heat capacity of a gas depends on temperature, and even more on pressure, the differential form and integral form are not equivalent: if one assumes that the polytropic law is defined by the equation Pvk Const., it is no longer true that irreversibilities are uniformly distributed. Conversely, relation (7.1.11) involving cp(T), k is no longer a constant.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Practical Difference Between Isentropic and Polytropic Approaches Although they can be to a large extent considered as equivalent in a large number of cases, the polytropic approach is generally preferred to model the compression or the expansion in a multistage turbomachine, and the isentropic approach in displacement compressors, as the polytropic efficiency can be considered as an elementary stage isentropic efficiency. It is particularly appropriate to do so if you make sensitivity analyses varying the compression or expansion ratio. This is why gas turbine compressors and turbines are generally modeled using the polytropic reference in the examples provided with this book (Chapters 12, 13 and 16 of Part 3), and refrigeration machines using the isentropic reference (Chapter 19 of Part 3).

Differences generally exist at this level between the presentations made by authors. However, it is true that in most cases they do use in practice the polytropic under the assumption of perfect gas, so it loses some of its importance. Knowing the polytropic coefficient k, it is easy to calculate the final state of adiabatic compression, and therefore the increase in enthalpy and the compression work. For open systems, and, remember, for the perfect gas, we get: h cp(Tr Ta) cp Ta

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( k1)/k ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1 Pa va ⎜ ⎥ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ P 1 ⎥ ⎢⎝ a ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( k1)/k ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎥ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ P ⎥ ⎢⎝ a ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

(7.1.12)

Note that: Pr

∫

Pa Pr

k v dP Pa va k −1

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( k1)/k ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1⎥ p Pa va ⎢⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 1 ⎥ ⎢⎝ Pa ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( k1)/k ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1⎥ ⎢⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ Pa ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

(7.1.13)

∫ v dP p Pa

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isentropic efficiency 0.91 0.9 0.89

η

0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0

10

20 r

30

40

FIGURE 7.1.4 Isentropic efficiency function of compression ratio

The integration of vdP along the polytropic provides what might be called the “reversible polytropic work” (p p) of the reversible non-adiabatic process in which heat Q Ts would be provided to the fluid. Knowing the polytropic compression work, one can calculate the isentropic efficiency of the process, since we know the isentropic work s. For a perfect gas:

s

⎛ Pr ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎟⎠

( 1)/

−1

a

⎛ Pr ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎟⎠

( k1)/k

1

a

Figure 7.1.4 shows that for a constant polytropic efficiency (here equal to 0.9), the compression isentropic efficiency decreases as the compression ratio increases. 7.1.3.2.4 Formulations for ideal gases For an ideal gas, if one starts from differential equation (7.1.8), the calculation can be done as follows: Tds (1 p)dh or, for closed systems, Tds (1 p)du dh cp dT, ds (1 p)cp dT/T But as ds cp(dT/T) r(dP/P), pcp(dT/T) r(dP/P) 0 ds (1 p )

Tr

∫ ds(t)dt

Ta

r dP r(1 p ) dP

p P

p P r(1 − p )

p

Pr

∫

Pa

dP P

(7.1.14)

The difference in entropy is independent of cp and T for a polytropic compression and can be expressed as

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open systems: Δs

1 p

p

⎛P ⎞ r ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

(7.1.15)

⎛v ⎞ r ln ⎜⎜⎜ a ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ vr ⎟⎠

(7.1.16)

or closed systems: Δs

1 p

p

The calculation of the outlet compression temperature Tr can be done by reversing the entropy function at discharge pressure for the value s sa s. Knowing the inlet and outlet point states, k can then be identified by reversing Pvk Const. If one starts from the polytropic law Pvk Const, Tr is calculated by:

⎛ Pr ⎞⎟(k1)/k Tr Ta ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ a

p is then given by:

p

⎛P ⎞ r ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

⎛P ⎞ sr sa r ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

(7.1.17)

These relations, which generalize equation (7.1.11) for ideal gases, are valid for any polytropic, and allow us to get k from p, and vice versa. They are even more interesting that, as they do not explicitly call for the cp(T) law, they can be used as a first approximation to study real gases, even if they are not strictly applicable. To calculate the complete process, they must be completed by the equation providing the compression work. In the case of an adiabatic compression (Q 0), it is very simple: h We will see in the next section what they become for non-adiabatic compressions. For closed systems, we write: Ws P dv du Tds p du

Ws pu

7.1.3.3 Nonadiabatic polytropic compression As mentioned above, it is also possible to present a polytropic process as (non-adiabatic) reversible by definition, verifying law Pvk Const., which passes through the points corresponding to the inlet and outlet. The reversible compression work r put into play in this evolution can be directly calculated from the differential equation of the polytropic, noting that, p being constant: p v dP dh T ds p dh

which integrates directly to give r ph

Since the actual compression work h is equal to r/ p, it is reasonable to assume that the polytropic law Pvk Const is a reversible evolution. The real process is derived by taking into account the polytropic efficiency p. This way of putting it thus leads, for adiabatic compression, to a formalism similar to that obtained by considering the polytropic as irreversible.

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If now we consider non-adiabatic compression, it appears clearly in the differential equations (7.1.8) defining the polytropic, that parameter p can be considered an elementary isentropic efficiency. Using the term efficiency to describe it is confusing, and it seems better to rename it and consider it simply as a parameter # characterizing the polytropic, representative of the distribution of enthalpy between the compression work on the one hand, and the irreversibilities and the heat exchanged on the other hand. #

vdP vdP Tds

(7.1.18)

For the ideal gas, the non-adiabatic reversible polytropic law Pvk Const implies the following equality: r # r Qr with r Qr h and, as we have seen above, r #h By introducing an efficiency to characterize real compression irreversibilities as compared to the reversible polytropic:

r r r

(7.1.19)

with Q h and uncompensated work. Knowing # and , it is possible to calculate the compression work and to deduce heat Q exchanged with the outside. We easily get: # Δh

and ⎛ #⎞ Q ⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ h ⎜⎝

⎟⎠

(7.1.20)

The relevance of considering a polytropic process as reversible by definition and of characterizing the actual compression in relation to it by its polytropic efficiency is clear. One might criticize this approach by noting that the physical meaning of the polytropic efficiency

is not proven and in fact that it is perhaps just an arbitrary coefficient. To answer this, note first that one verifies that if the process is adiabatic # , and we find the previous result. We will show later that in the case of isothermal compression, which is the limit of cooled compression, still retains the sense of an efficiency. If the fluid is a non perfect ideal gas, the differential approach and the integral approach are not exactly the same here, but the above relations can still be used as a first approximation, provided that # varies slightly if k is constant, and vice versa. 7.1.3.3.1 Practical calculation Direct problem If we know the polytropic coefficient k of the process, Tr is calculated by: ⎛ Pr ⎞⎟(k1)/k Tr Ta ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ a

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

We obtain the characteristic # of the reference reversible polytropic passing by the inlet and outlet points by:

#

⎛P ⎞ r ln ⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

⎛P ⎞ sr sa r ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

(7.1.21)

The work of the reversible polytropic is then: r #(hr ha)

(7.1.22)

Knowing the polytropic efficiency of the real process from the reversible polytropic, we can deduce the actual compression work:

# ( hr h a )

(7.1.23)

The heat exchanged with the outside is: ⎛ ⎞ # Q = hr ha ⎜⎜1 (hr ha ) ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠

(7.1.24)

Inverse problem Knowing Tr, we calculate the polytropic coefficient k of the process by: ⎛ Pr ⎞⎟(k1)/k Tr Ta ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ a

We obtain the characteristic # of the reversible polytropic reference through the inlet and outlet relationship 7.1.21. Knowing the heat exchanged with the outside Q, is determined by: η

# (hr ha ) hr h a Q

(7.1.25)

We deduce #/ (hr ha). These results generalize easily to closed systems. Since they do not explicitly involve the cp(T) law, they can be used as a first approximation to study real gases, even if they do not strictly apply. 7.1.3.3.2 Limiting case of isothermal compression Isothermal compression is the limiting case of a cooled compression. The gas temperature at the compressor outlet being the same as at the input, the polytropic law comes down to the ideal gas law Pv const., and k 1. By taking equations written for non-adiabatic open system compressions, we have, for ideal gas: ⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞(k1)/k ⎥ ⎢ P r #(hr ha ) # cp Ta ⎢⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ 1⎥ ⎟ ⎜ P ⎥ ⎢⎝ a ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

If k → 1,

k 1 →0 k

and

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞( k1)/k k 1 ⎛⎜ Pr ⎞⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟ ⎟ 1 ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥→ ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ k ⎥ ⎢⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ ⎦ ⎣

r # cp Ta

As

k 1 ⎛⎜ Pr ⎞⎟ ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ k

1 k 1 1 r and cp # k

We get: ⎛P ⎞ r rTa ln ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ What we called non-adiabatic polytropic reversible compression work does correspond to the work obtained by direct integration of vdP with Pv Const. The polytropic efficiency is then also an efficiency in the usual sense.

7.1.4

Staged compression

In turbomachines, one often makes use of dimensionless parameters, whose values must be within relatively narrow ranges. One in particular defines the power factor

U2

(7.1.26)

where U is the peripheral velocity of the impeller. This factor cannot exceed certain values if we want a proper functioning (in the range 0.4 to 0.5 for a centrifugal impeller, much less an axial ring). To obtain a high discharge pressure, it would theoretically be sufficient to increase the peripheral velocity U. But the stresses induced in the metal by centrifugal force being proportional to U2, we are led in actual devices to limit the peripheral velocity to around 200 to 300 m/s. As the elementary compression ratio cannot exceed a certain value, achieving high compression ratios requires putting several stages in series. By analogy with hydraulic pumps, another quantity is also sometimes used to characterize a compressor: its pressure head, H /g, g being the acceleration of gravity. In positive displacement or piston compressors, this problem does not arise, and one can theoretically achieve in one section very important compression ratios. In fact, other technological problems (dead space, leaks) arise, that become predominant at high compression ratios, as will be discussed later. Relationship (7.1.6) shows that the isentropic compression work is proportional to the suction absolute temperature. When compression is to be staged, it is interesting in terms of thermodynamics (but not necessarily economically) to cool the working fluid in a heat exchanger between two stages, by reducing its temperature to a value close to that of suction. In this case, the compression is called para-isothermal. As the number of compression stages increases, the overall process gets closer to the isotherm. Assuming that the gas is perfect, that the fluid is cooled at its initial temperature and that the isentropic efficiencies of the n stages of compression are all equal, it is possible to

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

show that the total compression work is minimal if the intermediate pressures are a geometrical progression of ratio equal to the overall compression nth root: Pi1 P n r Pi Pa

(7.1.27)

When the above assumptions are not verified, the calculation of intermediate pressures must be done iteratively, but they often differ slightly from the values given by equation 7.1.27.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Improvement of a Gas Turbine Performance Thanks to Intercooling It is possible to increase the performance of a gas turbine by staging the compression and placing an intercooler between the compressors. An example is given in section 12.1.5.2 of Part 3. In this example, the main improvement is in capacity (about 30%), as the reduction of the air temperature at the compressor outlet is compensated by an increase of fuel consumption. A variant using a regenerator would allow the efficiency to be improved.

7.1.5

Calculation of a compression

in Thermoptim

The definition and calculation of processes involves a series of screens that differ by the type of process in question, but which nevertheless share certain characteristics (Figure 7.1.5): the name of the process is set at the top left; at the top right are a number of options and fields used to configure the process: “open” or “closed” system, “set flow” process, “observed” process (the latter two concepts are used to drive the automatic recalculation of a project); the left part is used to define the inlet and outlet points. To connect a point from this screen (if not already done from the diagram editor), double-click in the corresponding name field, and select it from the list. Generally, these points are distinct, but they can be the same, for example in the case of process-points; Buttons such as “Calculate”, “Save,” “Close”, “Delete” and “links” are also common. The latter, displayed only if requested in the Thermoptim Global settings screen, gives access to link browsers; energy type can be changed by double-clicking in the corresponding field; the value of the mass flow is by default initialized to 1. Its unit is deliberately not specified, so the user can choose in the simulator screen to work in mg/s in g/s or kg/s depending on the problem studied, while keeping a high readability. Obviously, the results of calculations on the energies or enthalpies (respectively on powers) put into play depends on the unit selected for the flow, and can be expressed in mJ, J or kJ (respectively mW, W or kW); finally, a text field can document the process. ● ●

●

●

● ●

●

For compressions and expansions (Figure 7.1.5), the calculation options available are: calculations can be performed either in an open system, in which case the input variables are temperature, pressure and enthalpy, or closed system, in which case it is the temperature, volume and the internal energy; the compression ratio can be set, in which case the outlet point pressure (or volume) is determined from that of the inlet point and the value of chosen, or calculated, in which case the ●

●

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 7.1.5 Compression screen

●

value of is evaluated from pressures or volumes of inlet and outlet points, considered as given. Whether for a compression or expansion, is greater than unity; the process can be adiabatic or not.

When adiabatic, it can be calculated using an isentropic or polytropic reference, and is characterized by an isentropic or polytropic efficiency s or p, as defined above, between 0 and 1. In this case, the polytropic exponent k appearing in the law Pvk Const. is calculated by Thermoptim. When it is non-adiabatic, the process is necessarily of the polytropic type and is based on the principles outlined section 7.1.3.3. It is characterized by the polytropic exponent k and the polytropic efficiency p (for compression, it is the ratio of reversible work to real work, and for an expansion it is the reverse). The heat exchanged with the outside Q is displayed in the field under the compression or expansion work Delta H or Delta U. Take care not to confuse the polytropic efficiency p with the polytropic exponent k. For an ideal gas, equations connecting them are 7.1.11 or 7.5.2 depending on whether compression or expansion are involved. Two complementary calculation methods can be selected, depending on the option which is checked at the bottom right of the screen: “Set the efficiency and calculate the process” causes a search of the outlet point state from the inlet point and the characteristics of the compression or expansion. If the process is non-adiabatic, the input parameters are the polytropic exponent k and the polytropic efficiency p. Heat exchanged Q, work put into play H and the outlet point state are calculated. “Calculate the efficiency, the outlet point being known” identifies the value of the compression or expansion efficiency leading to the outlet state. If the process is non-adiabatic, the input parameters are the adiabatic exponent k and heat exchanged Q. The work put into play H and the polytropic efficiency p are calculated. ●

●

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

Simple effect

Double effect

2 1 P1

P2 1

2

Stepped

FIGURE 7.2.1 Sketch of a piston compressor

7.2

Differential

FIGURE 7.2.2

Various piston compressors (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie mécanique)

DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSORS

A displacement compressor is characterized by encapsulation of the flow passing through it in a closed volume which is gradually reduced. A return of this fluid in the direction of decreasing pressure is prevented by the presence of one or more movable walls. In this type of machine, the kinetic energy imparted to the fluid usually does not play any useful role, unlike that which happens in turbomachinery. By design, the displacement compressors are particularly suitable for processing relatively low fluid flow rates, possibly highly variable, and under relatively high pressure ratios. Their operating principle is: a fixed mass of gas at suction pressure P1 is trapped in a chamber of variable volume. To increase pressure, the volume is gradually reduced in a manner which differs according to the technique used. Generally, the process follows a law close to a polytropic Pvk Const. By the end of compression, the chamber is in communication with the discharge circuit so that the compressed gas at pressure P2 can emerge. A new mass of gas at pressure P1 is then sucked into the inlet pipe, and so on, the operation of the machine is cyclical. The cycle is represented on the “Watt chart” which gives the fluid pressure as the function of the chamber volume (Figure 7.2.3).

7.2.1

Piston compressors

The chamber is the volume defined by a cylinder, one of its bases being fixed and the other being a movable piston in the cylinder bore, driven by a connecting rod system (Figure 7.2.1). The organs that control the discharge or admission are, in piston compressors, valves operated automatically by pressure differences between the chamber and the discharge or admission manifold. One denotes Vs the volume swept by the piston between its two extreme positions, and “dead space” εVs the minimum volume of the compression chamber. In the current achievements, ε is the order of 3 5%.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

P d d

c

c

a

P1 P1

c

P2

P P2

f

b e

a

b V

V εVs

FIGURE 7.2.3

FIGURE 7.2.4

Theoretical Watt diagram

Real Watt diagram

(1 ε) Vs

Pistons may be of different types depending on the application. We distinguish generally (Figure 7.2.2): single-acting pistons, which work only on one side. Simple in mechanical terms, they have the disadvantage of having an irregular torque because there is only one compression per revolution; double-acting pistons, whose both faces produce useful work. The volume is twice the previous, torque is smoother, but the connecting rod system must include a piston rod in a sliding seal, which raises sealing problems; staged pistons contain elements of different diameters, moving in concentric cylinders. This system is very well suited for high-pressure compressors with two stages. However, the mechanical stresses are important and the torque irregular; differential pistons are double acting pistons of different diameters to obtain a staged compression with a high pressure cell ring. Their main disadvantage is that it is difficult to obtain a good seal at high pressure. ●

●

●

●

7.2.1.1 Theoretical energy balance On its stroke of length L, the piston displacement sweeps Vs. If A is the cross-sectional area of the cylinder, one clearly has: Vs AL. The chart in Figure 7.2.3 is used to describe the machine cycle by four processes: a b: intake of fluid mass (m), which mixes with that (m0) already contained in the dead volume; b c: isentropic compression of fluid mass (m m0) to state 2; c d: expulsion of mass m; d a: isentropic expansion of mass m0 to state 1. Note that the mass of fluid in the chamber is not the same in the four phases of the cycle and that this will have to be taken into account when setting balances. In the theoretical cycle we assume that the fluid undergoes no change of state during the intake (a b) and discharge (c d) phases. Another major simplification is to admit that the two evolutions (b c) and (d a) are isentropic. Under these conditions, the thermodynamic cycle undergone by mass m0 trapped in the dead volume is limited to one round trip between isentropic states 1 and 2, which does not involve any net work.

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

The assimilation of the fluid to a perfect gas leads to the law Pv Const. and allows integration of the cycle work on the evolution 1–2. Expression (7.1.5) becomes: ( 1) / ⎛ ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜⎛⎜ P2 ⎞⎟ s P1v1 1⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ 1 ⎜⎜⎝⎜⎝ P1 ⎟⎟⎠ ⎠

(7.2.1)

Note that it is this expression that must be used, even if the compression is done in a closed system, because of the existence of the intake and discharge phases, occurring in open systems, and involving transfer work (Pv). 7.2.1.2 Actual piston compressor cycle Compared to the theoretical cycle just described, the actual Watt chart has a number of differences (Figure 7.2.4). valves do not maneuver instantly and only at points marked e and f are they at their maximum aperture, and even then they create throttling. It follows that the pressure is less than P1 during the intake stroke, and greater than P2 for the discharge stroke; the compression curve (b-c) does not follow the perfect adiabatic. Irreversibilities increase the entropy of the gas, and, for a given pressure, its specific volume. Point c is at the right of the theoretical c. It is characterized either by a polytropic law of exponent k, or by an isentropic efficiency . ●

●

For all these reasons, the actual work is greater than the theoretical work. There are also other losses not mentioned above: they are due to wall thermal actions, where the temperature stabilizes at a value intermediate between that of the suction and discharge T1 and T2, creating a “thermal shunt” that allows heat to pass from the heated fluid (on discharge) to the cold fluid (on admission), which is an additional irreversibility. 7.2.1.3 Determination of work per cycle Relation (7.2.1) is not sufficient to calculate the efficiency of a real machine, and it is necessary to rely on experimental results. Lacking a theory capable of determining the quantitative impact of all irreversibilities, one can just generally define the real internal compressor work compared to the isentropic work s calculated from the technological reference magnitude: the swept volume Vs (displacement). If the phenomena were reversible, a compressor of swept volume Vs would contain, in the absence of any dead volume, useful mass Vs/v1. But mass m0 ε Vs/v2 is recirculated due to the presence of dead space, and the useful mass becomes: ⎛v ⎞⎞ Vs Vs ⎛⎜ ⎜⎜1 ε ⎜⎜ 1 1⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟ m0 ⎜⎝ v ⎟⎠⎟⎠ v1 v1 ⎜⎝ 2 1/ ⎛ ⎞⎟ ⎛ P2 ⎞⎟ Vs ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜ Δmth ⎜1 ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 1⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ v1 ⎜⎜⎝ ⎝ P1 ⎟⎠ ⎠ mth (1 ε)

(7.2.2)

This relation shows that the more the compression ratio increases, the more important is the mass that recirculates and the more the useful mass decreases. There is therefore a maximum compression ratio beyond which the compressor runs without effect. Piston compressors have the advantage of working with variable compression ratios, and even automatically adjust over wide operating ranges, but at the cost of a decrease in their efficiency when the compression ratio exceeds a certain limit.

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In fact, the useful mass is less than the value given by equation 7.2.2, due to many technological imperfections. To characterize it, we introduce the concept of volumetric efficiency , defined as the ratio of the mass flow actually discharged to the theoretical mass flow, the latter being referred either to the swept volume, or to mth depending on the authors. We retain here the first definition, which leads to: m

Vs v1

(7.2.3)

Introducing the isentropic efficiency c (often called compression efficiency or indicated efficiency) and the mechanical efficiency m, characteristic of friction in the compressor, the specific compression work is usually written:

s

c m

and the compression work per cycle is: m

Vs s v1 c m

(7.2.4)

If N is the rotation speed (expressed in revolutions per minute), the compression power (assuming one cycle per revolution) is given by: Pc

N N Vs s 60 60 v1 c m

(7.2.5)

The compression power is expressed as a function of volumetric efficiency , representing the compressor filling losses, compression efficiency c, characteristic of the deviation of actual process compared to the isentropic, and mechanical efficiency m. 7.2.1.4 Volumetric efficiency Note that λ differs from the other efficiencies, since it appears in the numerator of relations 7.2.4 and 7.2.5. Although one is used to calling it volumetric efficiency, its meaning is very different: it represents the fraction of the displacement that produces a useful effect. Low volumetric efficiency is not inherently disadvantageous in terms of energy: it simply means that the mass flow passing through the compressor is less than that theoretically corresponding to the displacement. However, it is economically disadvantageous, since for a given specification, it leads to oversizing of the cylinder, and thus to a higher investment. Analysis and experimentation (see section 36.1 of Part 5) have shown that λ corresponds to losses due to various origins: dead space, pressure drop in the intake and discharge manifolds, wall effects (thermal shunt), sealing defects (at the piston rings), and finally pressure drop in the inlet and outlet valves. Overall, these losses combine to make the volumetric efficiency decrease substantially linearly with the compression ratio: 1 # # value is between 0.02 and 0.07.

180

P2 P1

(7.2.6)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

100% 90% η/λ 80% λ 70% η

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

P2/ P1

FIGURE 7.2.5 Volumetric and compression efficiencies

7.2.1.5 Compression efficiency The norm in the profession is to call compression efficiency the usual isentropic efficiency. In a piston compressor, three sources of losses, connected to the previous ones, mainly affect the compression efficiency (see section 36.1 of Part 5). Wall effects are very disadvantageous because, as illustrated by the Watt chart in Figure 7.2.4, they seriously increase the compression work by twisting to the right (b-c) the isentropic (b-c). Pressure drop in valves are next, followed by losses due to sealing leakages. At a given speed the shape of the compression efficiency as a function of the compression ratio shows the existence of a maximum around a rather low compression ratio (3-5). A relation of the Dehausse type can be used when no constructor data are available: ⎛P ⎞2 0.5

0.9 0.004 ⎜⎜ 2 5 ⎟⎟⎟ P2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ P2 0.3 P1

(7.2.7)

Volumetric and compression efficiencies intervening only by their ratios in the expression of work per cycle , we can represent / according to the compression ratio. We get for a given range of compressors a set of relatively grouped curves, each curve corresponding to a suction temperature. Figure 7.2.5 shows the curves giving volumetric efficiency (thin lines), compression efficiency

(bold line), and their ratio / (dashed). 7.2.1.6 Practical calculation of a piston compressor . We first determine the inlet conditions (P1, v1) and the fluid mass flow m. We deduce the theoretical . . volume flow V th mv which must enter the compressor. The pressure ratio r being known, manufacturer’s charts provide the values of c and . We deduce the actual volume flow rate to be transferred: Vth V λ

(7.2.8)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 7.2.6

Screw compressors (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie mécanique)

Knowing the swept volume Vs of each compression unit and the compressor rotation speed, we can select the most appropriate machine in the range. The compression power is equal to the product of specific work s/ c by the mass flow, s being determined by application of an appropriate equation of state, or by a reading on a thermodynamic chart, or from Thermoptim. The mechanical losses are then added to the compression power, to provide the total power consumption. These mechanical losses are taken into account either by a mechanical efficiency, or by a fixed value equal to the unloaded drive power.

7.2.2

Screw compressors

In screw compressors, compression is achieved by varying the volume between two rotors of appropriate shape, enclosed in a particular cylinder (Figure 7.2.6). The two rotors, or mobiles, have mating profiles, one forming lobes (male rotor), and the other cells (female rotor). These profiles are developed along the axis with a fixed pitch screw. The cylinder has a section formed by two intersecting circles. It surrounds the rotors with a very small clearance to minimize leakage. Ports are arranged at the inlet and outlet to allow transfer of fluid. There is no valve here. The number of lobes and alveoli not being the same, both screws rotate at different speeds, which has the effect of moving axially their line of contact by pushing the enclosed fluid. After aspiration (end of phase a in Figure 7.2.6), the cell volume of trapped gas is gradually reduced (phases b and c) until the rotation of the rotor discovers the exhaust hole. The discharge then continues to complete drain (phase d). In this type of compressor rotors are synchronized either by gears or by mutual mechanical drive. In the latter case, it is imperative to carefully lubricate the contact line between the male and female

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

lobes, which is done by injecting a liquid that can be oil or water, or, for refrigeration applications, the refrigerant in the liquid state. This injection, performed in relatively large quantities (about ten liters of oil per m3 of gas sucked), is also used to seal and cool the compression to approach an isothermal operation, better in energy terms as we have seen in section 7.1.2.1. However, it is then necessary to separate the liquid from the compressed gas, which requires special equipment and leads to additional pressure drop. 7.2.2.1 Compression efficiency In screw compressors, as also in the vane or lobe compressors, the compression ratio is determined by the geometry of the machine, which determines the internal volume ratio Vi V1/V2c, construction volumetric ratio that can only be modified by acting on the shape of the exhaust opening (the index c refers to the constructional structural characteristics). It follows that their compression ratio is fixed and the machine does not automatically adjust to different compression ratios, as do reciprocating compressors with valves. However, the absence of valves is an advantage in terms of maintenance, the latter being mechanically highly stressed parts. If the discharge pressure Pr is less than the constructive pressure P2c, rapid expansion from P2c to Pr occurs at the opening of the exhaust port. Otherwise, there is sudden compression of the gas cell from Pr to P2c, then discharge at this pressure. In both cases, this induces a loss, which can be evaluated as follows. The compression work is equal to the sum of the transfer work Δ(Pv) and external forces 2 WA ∫ 1 P dv: v2 c

∫ P dv Pr v2c P1v1 v1

Introducing the internal pressure ratio i, given by: i Vik

(7.2.9)

k being the compression polytropic exponent, and with Pr/P1, we get:

⎤ P1v1 ⎡⎢ (k1)/k i (k 1) k ⎥ ⎥ k 1 ⎢⎣ Vi ⎦

The compression efficiency is then: P1v1 [( 1) / 1] 1 ηs ⎤ P1v1 ⎡⎢ ( k1) / k i (k 1) k ⎥ ⎥ k 1 ⎢⎣ Vi ⎦ (k 1) ( −1) / [ −1] 1

s ⎤ ⎡ ( k1) /k ⎢ i + ( k 1) − k ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ Vi ⎦ ⎣

(7.2.10)

However screw compressors have the advantage of being able to vary the internal volume ratio Vi, through a sliding drawer, which alters the discharge port. The “Vi” can thus vary continuously within a range of values around 2.2 to 5, depending on the power and the pressure ratio required.

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Compression efficiency 1 0.95 variable Vi 0.9

Vi 3

Vi 2.5 0.85

Vi 3.5

η

0.8 0.75 0.7

Vi 4

0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 1

3

5

7

9

11

ρ

FIGURE 7.2.7 Compression efficiency

Figure 7.2.7 gives the compression efficiency curves for fixed and variable Vi compressors. It shows that for a given internal pressure ratio i, the compression efficiency varies slightly with the operating compression ratio, with a maximum at P2/P1 i. However, the curve is fairly flat, so that a screw compressor maintains a proper efficiency even for compression ratios well above the nominal value. Given the shape of the curve, much steeper on the left than on the right, the operating point is chosen slightly right of the optimum, to maintain good efficiency even in case of disturbance of the operating regime. Figure 7.2.7 also shows the efficiency gain that can be expected if one adopts a variable Vi. The counterpart is an increased compressor cost, due to the presence of the sliding drawer. For refrigeration installations where power control drawers already exist, the addition of a Vi variation drawer is generally justified. 7.2.2.2 Volumetric efficiency The volumetric efficiency of screw compressors is much better than that of piston engines, for the following reasons: The expansion loss due to the dead space is very low because it is small; the pressure drop at suction and discharge is low due to the absence of valves; there is no thermal bridge: in steady state, the machine temperatures remain stable; conversely, losses due to sealing defects may be more important because of the length of the section leakage and difficulties of sealing the ends. ● ● ● ●

The volumetric efficiency depends on the compression ratio and the internal pressure ratio i. It varies almost linearly with the compression ratio, from a value of 0.98 or 0.99 for a compression ratio equal to 1, to values of 0.75 or 0.8 for compression ratios up to 20. With a variable Vi, excellent volumetric efficiencies are obtained over a very wide range. The practical calculation of a screw compressor is done similarly to that of a piston compressor. Once the design Vi is determined, a comparison is made between the performance of variable Vi

184

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

and the machine in the manufacturer’s range with the nearest Vi. The choice is then made according to the extra cost of the sliding drawer and its control.

7.2.3

Criteria for the choice between displacement compressors

Since the communication with the compression chamber is done through the automatic valve whose opening is triggered by the pressure difference on their faces, piston compressors can work at variable pressures. They can therefore operate through self-adaptation according to inlet and outlet conditions on a wide compression range. Screw compressors however generally perform better than reciprocating compressors, if they are provided with a sliding drawer. However, each of them corresponds to rather different capacity ranges. In general, reciprocating compressors are suitable for low capacity (less than 75 kW mechanical drive), while screw compressors can match compression power of the order of 1 MW or greater. Screw compressors are more expensive because they are more difficult to manufacture and the cost also increases with the sliding drawer and its control. Reciprocating compressors are limited in pressure ratio, as we have seen, and do not tolerate the presence of liquid at the suction. On these two points, screw compressors have advantages.

7.3

DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

7.3.1 General Unlike positive displacement machines where the fluid is enclosed in a closed volume, in a dynamic compressor, a continuous flow of fluid takes place to which energy is communicated through moving blades driven by a rotor. In this chapter we limit our ambition to establish the main results that are needed to understand the operation of dynamic compressors, and, given that the operation of the expansion turbines is quite similar to that of dynamic compressors, we will directly put up a number of results valid for all turbomachinery. There are two main types of fluid flow relative to the rotor of a turbomachine: axial flow, almost always performed in turbojet dynamic compressors, and radial flow which is widely used for centrifugal dynamic compressors, including for refrigeration or automobile engine supercharging. We will always consider the technical fluid to be compressible, either an ideal gas or a condensable real fluid. Consequently, the phenomena are governed by the fundamental laws of steady compressible flows which we begin by establishing in section 7.3.2. We will show that by varying the velocity of a gas, it is possible to change its pressure. In general, a turbomachine consists of four elements in series (Figure 7.3.1). an inlet convergent C, or distributor, which is a fixed part whose function is to properly orient the fluid veins entering the impeller, and accelerate them slightly; the impeller I, or rotor, driven by a rotational movement around an axis. This wheel has vanes defining channels between which the fluid flow is distributed. It communicates to the fluid the mechanical energy of the blades in the form of kinetic, heat and pressure energy; the diffuser D is a fixed component that serves to transform in pressure part of the kinetic energy gained by the fluid when passing through the wheel. Depending on circumstances, the diffuser may or not involve blades. It is said to be partitioned or smooth; a volute V, also fixed, corrects the fluid lines on the periphery of the wheel, and guides them to the device outlet. ●

●

●

●

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Volute

V

Diffuser

D

Impeller

I

C

Convergent

FIGURE 7.3.1 Sketch of a centrifugal compressor

For the reasons discussed in section 7.1.4, turbomachinery frequently has several stages, each having a limited pressure head. This is called multistage turbomachinery. In axial turbomachinery, successive stages are juxtaposed by compact groups in which the volute is no longer necessary, and where the convergent and the diffuser situated between two moving wheels can be combined to form a single crown whose role is to straighten the fluid lines so they appear correctly on the input of the second impeller. Under such conditions, the middle stages have only two components. It also happens that, for reasons of simplicity, a turbomachine even single staged may be composed of but two components, one fixed and one mobile. In a turbine, it is essential to have expansion and guide nozzles at the inlet of the impeller, while the diffuser plays a secondary role and may eventually disappear. In a dynamic compressor, conversely, the wheel inlet guide plays a secondary role in the recovery of the outlet kinetic energy. We can possibly suppress the inlet distributor.

7.3.2 Thermodynamics of permanent flow In the previous sections, we assumed the kinetic energy variations of fluids undergoing processes were negligible, which allowed us to eliminate dK in our calculations. In dynamic compressors, this assumption is no longer valid, the practical effect being obtained by converting into pressure the kinetic energy of the fluid. 7.3.2.1 Compressible perfect fluid in steady-state We restrict ourselves initially to the case of steady flows where the absolute pressure and the three velocity components are assumed to be constant over time. The flow occurs in fixed pipes, which implies the absence of moving walls. These conditions are obtained in the convergent and the diffuser of a turbomachine. We assume initially the fluid is perfect from the hydrodynamic point of view, that is to say without viscosity (note that an ideal gas is not necessarily a perfect fluid from this point of view).

186

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

We obtain the law of a compressible fluid flow applying the first law of thermodynamics to a stream tube, taking into account the forces of gravity in calculating the enthalpy. According to (5.4.7), we have : vdP dK gdz The walls being fixed, 0, and the fluid being perfect, 0. We have thus: dK vdP gdz 0 which, in integral form, reads: C2 + ∫ vdP gz Const. 2

(7.3.1)

This relationship is a generalization of the Bernoulli’s equation of incompressible flows, which corresponds to the particular case when v Const. C2 P gz Const. 2 In the form (7.3.1), it shows that even in the case of a reversible process, the flow law is complex because it depends on many factors (the initial state of the fluid, the final pressure, the external heat exchange). Relationship (7.3.1) has been established in the case of an absolute steady flow. It can be generalized in the case of a relative steady flow, where the pressure and velocity values are fixed at every point of a system driven by a uniform movement. These are the conditions encountered in the impeller of a turbomachine. This requires us to express that the useful work is equal to 0 (fixed walls), plus the work of inertial forces corresponding to the driving acceleration. These are the following laws: system driven by a uniform translation motion (axial turbomachinery case): driving acceleration is zero, equation (7.3.1) remains valid; system driven by a uniform rotation (centrifugal turbomachinery case): the acceleration drive is radial, and the work of the corresponding centrifugal inertia force is 2R2/2. Posing U R, drive velocity, equation (7.3.1) becomes: ●

●

C2 U 2 ∫ vdP gz = Const. 2

(7.3.2)

7.3.2.2 Viscous steady compressible fluid Viscosity changes the above relations only slightly. The useful work remains zero, the walls being stationary, and the work of viscous forces is zero, if one applies the first law to a vein extending to the wall, because the velocity of a viscous fluid is always zero at the wall. According to (5.4.7), we have: 0 vdP dK gdz We deduce: C2 ∫ vdP gz ∫ Const. 2

(7.3.3)

The effect of friction is ultimately a decrease in the head. We thus find the concept of “pressure drop” . ∫

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

In the present state of our knowledge, as we do not a priori know how to compute , it is experimentally determined. 7.3.2.3 Adiabatic Flows Basic law In the foregoing, no assumption was made on the heat exchange of the flow with the outside, which may vary from the perfect isolation (adiabatic process), to the infinitely developed contact with a source (isothermal process). The real changes are always very close to the adiabatic since the gases are very poor heat conductors (see 5.3.6). Therefore it is assumed that the processes are always adiabatic, the actual process being irreversible, while the theoretical reference is isentropic. In what follows, we neglect the potential energy gz, which is perfectly legitimate, given the relatively low altitude variations of the fluid, compared to the variations of kinetic energy and enthalpy (see 5.2.1). The fundamental law of adiabatic flow in a fixed reference follows directly from (7.3.3). It reflects the conservation of total enthalpy h K, and is written along a stream tube: h

C2 Const. 2

(7.3.4)

Assuming further that the flow is reversible adiabatic (ds 0) then: dh v dP, and v dP + C dC = 0

(7.3.5)

It is possible to change the fluid pressure acting on its velocity and vice versa. In the case where the reference is no longer fixed, but driven by a relative permanent rotation movement of drive velocity U R, the relation is written: C2 U 2 h Const. 2

(7.3.6)

or v dP + C dC − U dU = 0

(7.3.7)

This relation shows that in a dynamic compressor rotor, compression can be achieved by reducing the fluid velocity C or increasing the driving velocity U. In an axial compressor, the diameter of the wheel is approximately constant, and the first effect is dominant, while a centrifugal compressor is able to combine both, which allows it to provide much higher compression ratios in one stage. Stagnation properties We have already introduced in the previous section the total enthalpy h K, and in section 5.3.1 the total energy u K. We call stagnation pressure the pressure Pi indicated by a Pitot tube placed in an perfect gas flow, and stagnation temperature the isentropic temperature Ti measured by a thermometer placed in a flow so that the process bringing the flow to rest in front of the thermometer would be isentropic. Given (7.3.4), h C2/2 and the gas being perfect, we have: h cpT

188

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

The total or stagnation temperature is given by: Ti T

C2 2cp

(7.3.8)

The isentropic equation (5.6.8) gives the stagnation or total pressure: PT/(1) Const.

or

⎛ T ⎞/(1) Pi P ⎜⎜ i ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ T ⎠

Introducing the flow Mach number: Ma

C rT

and noticing that: cp

r 1

we get: ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎟ /( 1) Pi P ⎜⎜⎜1 Ma ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.3.9)

These two relationships are interpreted as follows: in any isentropic flow of a perfect gas in a tube with fixed walls, the stagnation temperature and pressure are conservative. In addition, the value of the stagnation properties is that they allow us to write the equations governing the flow by formally removing the velocity C, which greatly simplifies the expression. Varying the section of a vein Let us study what should be the section variation of a fluid stream undergoing an adiabatic expansion or compression in a reversible manner. In what follows, we assume that the fluid is a perfect gas. In order for the flow to be reversible and adiabatic, three equations must simultaneously verified: the continuity equation, which indicates that the flow is constant in any section of the flow; . . If S is the section, m being the fluid flow, we get SC/v m; It comes: dS/S dC/C dv/v the isentropic equation Pv Const.; Combined, and introducing the Mach number Ma, the first two equations lead to: ● ●

●

dS v dP 2 (1 Ma2 ) S C

(7.3.10)

the kinetic equation (7.3.5) v dP C dC 0. These last two equations, for various sonic operation modes, allow one to simply analyze the changes in pressure and velocity in the convergent and divergent, as shown in Figure 7.3.2. This shows that, for subsonic flow, compression corresponds to a deceleration of the fluid, and expansion corresponds to an acceleration, while the reverse is true for supersonic regimes. We find a well-known result of fluid mechanics: a sonic nozzle must be comprised at the throat inlet by a convergent of decreasing section, and at the throat outlet by a diverging increasing section. We call such a converging-diverging nozzle configuration a Laval nozzle (Figure 7.9.1).

●

189

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

P Sonic flow

Supersonic flow

P M 1

M1

dC 0 dP 0

R

Nozzle

Diffuser dC 0 dP 0

a U

Diffuser

C1 dC 0 dP 0

C

R1 Ra

Nozzle

C

U

dC 0 dP 0

U

1

r

Cr

Ca

FIGURE 7.3.2

FIGURE 7.3.3

Adiabatic flow geometries

Velocity profile in an axial compressor

7.3.2.4 Changes in pressure and fluid velocity in a compressor In a dynamic compressor, the evolution of the fluid is increased pressure, which, for a subsonic regime, requires that the section of the vein is increasing, while the velocity decreases. Evolution is a two time process (Figure 7.3.3): in the impeller, the relative velocity drops sharply, while the absolute velocity increases. The stator (diffuser) then slows the absolute velocity down. To analyze in detail the operation of dynamic compressors, it would be necessary to make a detailed kinematic study of the evolution of fluid through the various organs. Developments that would require such an analysis do not seem justified given our approach, oriented rather on systems than components, so we content ourselves at this stage to present the principle of these calculations, before considering the overall performance of compressors, based on dimensionless analysis. Further analysis will be provided in Chapter 37 of Part 5. We refer interested readers to the books of L. Vivier (1965) and M. de Vlaminck & P. Wauters (1988) cited in the bibliography. We denote with index a the fluid suction, r the discharge, 1 the rotor output, and R is the relative velocity. In the impeller, the application of (7.3.6) gives: 2(h1 ha) (U12 Ua2) (Ra2 R12) In the diffuser: 2(hr h1) C12 Ca2 Summing, we get: 2(hr ha) (U12 Ua2) (Ra2 R) (C12 Cr2) Since Cr is somewhat equal to Ca, one can write: 2(hr ha) U12 C12 R12 (Ua2 Ca2 Ra2) However, as shown in the velocity triangle (Figure 7.3.3): → → → → → R C U and R2 C2 U2 2 U ⋅ C hr ha U1 ⋅ C1 U a ⋅ Ca

(7.3.11)

This relationship is Euler’s theorem, which connects the enthalpy change and thus the useful work to the velocity profile in the compressor.

190

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

Ca β1 U

Ra

α1

α1

U C1

R1 βa

Cr

βa U

C1

β1 Rotor

Diffuser

FIGURE 7.3.4 Velocity triangle

In an axial compressor, the drive velocity being substantially the same at the inlet and outlet of the wheel, this relationship is simplified, and yields: hr ha U ⋅ (C1 − Ca )

(7.3.12)

→ → Generally one makes sure that Ca be perpendicular to U at the inlet of dynamic compressors, so that these relations become simpler yet: U1 ⋅ C1

(7.3.13)

Velocity triangle and shape of the blades Euler’s relation is used to define the profile of the blades: in order for the fluid to flow in the rotor with the least possible irreversibilities, shocks must be avoided, whether from discontinuities in the fluid streams or from shock waves which can propagate if the velocity is too high. The thermodynamics of flows finds here one of its limits: the exact shape of the blade profile calls upon fluid mechanics and is thus outside the scope of this presentation. We will just give some indication of the results, only for axial compressors. → → Given the Euler relationship, we seek to maximize the scalar product U 1 . C 1 UC1 cos #1. Therefore angle #1 must be as small as possible. vector → Suppose the drive velocity U is known. To avoid shock in the blades, the relative velocity → R must at all times be parallel to blades, which sets its angle " with the drive velocity U . → → Entry speed Ca → being perpendicular to U , the inlet velocity triangle immediately gives angle "a and defines vector Ra. → → At the outlet we obtain similarly "1 and R1, knowing that the absolute velocity C1 must generally remain subsonic to avoid shock in the diffuser vanes. By continuity the blade profile can be plotted (Figure 7.3.4). However as discussed later, technological issues lead manufacturers to choose the type of wheel and to set some reduced design parameters. We do not, therefore, generally know U as has been assumed here, but a number of relationships exist between the velocity triangle quantities, so that it is determined by reasoning similar to that which was just presented. To determine the blade thickness, whose distance between them defines the cross-section available for the fluid, we must give, in addition to the Euler relation, the equation of continuity. Moreover, even more than for the profile of nozzles, it is necessary to reduce the curvature to prevent detachment of the fluid streams along the compressor blades, because the pressure gradient

191

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

exerted here is unfavorable, both in the rotor and in the diffuser. This constraint is much stronger for dynamic compressors than for turbines.

7.3.3

Similarity and performance of turbomachines

When the dynamic compressor is not working at its design conditions, performance generally suffers in larger proportion than in the case of positive displacement compressors. The reason is that dynamic irreversibilities (shock, detachment of fluid streams, etc.) are rising quite rapidly once the flow no longer corresponds to the geometry of the blades. We will now further analyze the characteristics of turbomachinery, and the adaptation of a machine at different operating regimes. These regimes depend not only on basic variables consid. ered in the design (N, V, h), but also on the characteristic parameters of the fluid passing through the machine. In the most common conditions, 7 independent physical variables may affect the efficiency of a turbomachine: a characteristic dimension (e.g. wheel diameter D), the rotation speed N, the fluid mass flow, the stagnation pressures at the inlet and outlet Pa and Pr and the total enthalpy at the entrance ha and exit hr. As mentioned in section 7.3.2.3, we choose the stagnation properties to eliminate from the equations the fluid velocity at the entrance and exit of the machine. Among these 7 variables are involved three basic units (M, L, T). The application of the VaschyBuckingham theorem reduces to 7 3 4 the number of dimensionless variables characteristic of the operation of the machine. The variables most commonly chosen are: a flow velocity Cf Mach number: ✬

(M a ) c

Cf Cs

with Cf

a a a mv 4mv 4mrT 2 A D D 2Pa

and Cs speed of sound in the fluid (Cs

rTa by equating the fluid to a perfect gas), thus:

(M a ) c ✬

U Cs

(M a ) u

with U D N 60 rTa

the ratio of inlet and outlet stagnation pressures: Pr Pa

192

(7.3.14)

D 2Pa

a wheel Mach number (M a ) u

●

rTa 4m

DN 60

(7.3.15)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

●

the isentropic efficiency of the stage:

s =

(hr )s ha hr − h a

or

s

hr h a (hr )s ha

depending on whether a compressor or a turbine. When choosing a given machine and a particular fluid, the dimensionless numbers (Ma)c and (Ma)u become proportional to reduced variables of simpler expressions: (M a ) c ÷

Ta m Pa

c) (corrected mass flow m

N (corrected rotation speed Nc ) Ta

(M a ) u ÷

(7.3.16)

(7.3.17)

Other dimensionless quantities are also commonly used by manufacturers: flow factor $ and enthalpy factor %, or Rateau coefficients and . The flow factor $ It is natural to look at both Mach numbers representative of flows in the machines, (Ma)c and (Ma)u. The ratio of these two quantities, independent of fluid properties, determines the shape of the velocity triangle, and corresponds to a first dimensionless property: the flow factor $ which ensures kinematic similarity over the entire flow boundaries. $

(M a ) c rTa 60 rTa 4m (Ma )u D 2Pa DN

$

240 V Cf 240 2 3 U ND

(7.3.18)

This factor $ is proportional to another widely used dimensionless quantity: the second Rateau coefficient . The enthalpy factor

Turbomachinery is used either to expand a fluid to produce energy or to provide energy to a fluid. The flow being, as we noted earlier, close to adiabatic, because of low exchange surfaces and velocities, it is logical to take as a reference energy the expansion or compression isentropic work |hs|. We have: hs Pa va 1

⎞⎟ ⎛⎛ ⎞( 1) / ⎜⎜⎜ Pr ⎟ 1⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎝⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ ⎠

(7.3.19)

The ratio of the reference energy to a well chosen kinetic energy is a dimensionless quantity of interest. A first idea is to use the speed of sound Cs. We get: hs 1/ 2Cs2

2 1

⎛⎛ ⎞( 1) / ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ Pr ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎜⎜⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜⎝⎝ Pa ⎠ ⎟⎠

(7.3.20)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Usually this kinetic energy is taken equal to 1/2 U2, corresponding to the maximum kinetic energy in the rotor. This way of doing is equivalent to multiplying by (Ma). This defines the enthalpy factor %, equal to twice the first Rateau coefficient (itself equal to the power factor introduced in section 7.1.4). In practice, the performance of a machine is usually given in the form of characteristic curves for constant values of the corrected rotation speed Nc: Pr c) f (m Pa

⎛P ⎞

s f ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠

c) f (m

or

Curves of equal efficiency can be directly plotted on charts: Pr c) f (m Pa Sometimes, the curves are presented in relation to reference values of the corrected mass flow rate or corrected speed. Note that the performance maps of turbomachinery (as well as displacement machines) play a unique role in that they constrain intensive variables with extensive variables, whereas usually they are independent: the flow affects the compression ratio. Examples of experimental results are presented in the following pages, corrected flows and corrected speeds being reported to their nominal values. 7.3.3.1 Performance maps of dynamic compressors We content ourselves in this section to present some general results concerning the performance maps of dynamic compressors, which will be completed in Chapter 37 of Part 5 on the off-design behavior of these machines. For dynamic compressors (Figures 7.3.5 to 7.3.7) the corrected mass flow is used as abscissa. The ordinate is the pressure ratio or the isentropic efficiency. The corrected rotation speed is still used as parameter. They have the same shape as diffuser characteristics, for different rotation speeds.

2 1.9

Surge limit

1.8 1.7 P/PO

1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3

N

1.2

TO

1.1 1 0

0.02

0.04 . M TO PO

FIGURE 7.3.5 Dynamic compressor performance map

194

0.06

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

The corrected rotation speed strongly influences the performance of dynamic compressors. This is easily explained considering that in such a machine, energy is transmitted to the fluid by the rotor in the form of kinetic energy. At most, this energy is 1/2 U2, that is to say, is proportional to N2. It is therefore natural that the sensitivity of these machines to regime change is dramatic. In addition, fluid mechanics tells us that the fluid flow in the blades is destabilized here by the pressure gradient. As soon as one deviates too much from the nominal operating conditions, there is a significant risk of stream separation along the blades. Besides a strong sensitivity of isentropic efficiency, this results in a double limitation of range of use of the machine: the risk of surge at low flow (which depends on the network in which the compressor discharges, cf. next section), and stalling on the side of higher flow rates. Some flexibility is indeed possible in this type of machine only if you can freely adjust the rotation speed and possibly the angle of incidence of certain rows of blades (guide vanes). Axial compressors The compression ratios per stage that can provide axial compressors are relatively low, generally between 1.2 and 2. 5 1 0.8

P/Po

Surge limit

ηs

4 1

3

N

0.4

0.9

0.2

0.8 N

2

0.9 1 0.5 0.6 0.70.8

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.7 1

0.2

0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 · M

0.4

1

0.6 ·

0.8

1

1.2

1.2

Po

FIGURE 7.3.6 Axial compressor performance map 5 1 0.8

P/Po

Surge limit

ηs

4 1 0.9

0.5

1 0.2

0.4

0.2

0.8

2

0.6

0.6 0.7 0.9 1 N — √To

0.4

3 Maximum efficiency line

0.6

0.2

0.7 N — √ To 0.6

0.4

0.6 0.8 · M√To

1

1.2

Po

0.8

1

1.2

· M√To Po

FIGURE 7.3.7 Centrifugal compressor performance map

195

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

P/Po

P/P0

2 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1

Surge limit

C B B&

B N

A

To 0

0.02

0.04 ·

m

FIGURE 7.3.8

FIGURE 7.3.9

Circuit losses

Stable operation point

0.06

To Po

Centrifugal compressors Characteristics of centrifugal compressors are steeper than those of axial compressors, making them more stable. Due to the acceleration that the fluid receives during its passage through the rotor, the compression ratio per stage they can provide is much more important, between 2.5 and 9. It will be noted on the characteristic of Figure 7.3.11 that we can equip the (pressure flow) performance map by including the iso-isentropic efficiency lines. The locus of these values corresponds substantially to portions of ellipses. They are commonly called efficiency islands. 7.3.3.2 Surge in dynamic compressors When a dynamic compressor delivers in a receiver circuit, its operating point is determined by the intersection of its characteristic curve and that of the circuit. The losses of the circuit being in first approximation proportional to the square of flow rate, the shape of the circuit characteristic is given in Figure 7.3.8. The ordinate intercept, sometimes called static load, corresponds to terms independent of flow in the generalized Bernoulli equation (7.3.3). The operating point of a compressor evolves thus according to its rotation speed, so that at any time, the power dissipated in the circuit equals the shaft power of the machine, and passes from A to C when the rotation speed increases (Figure 7.3.9). Things do not always happen as simply, as a zone of unstable operation may appear in the left part of the dynamic compressor performance map maximum for the reasons explained below. Let us first check that a point such as B is stable (Figure 7.3.9). Suppose that the machine being in nominal operation at point B at constant speed, the flow drops suddenly. Given the shape of the characteristic of the machine, its operating point tends to move to B, while the resistance of the circuit drops to B&. It follows that the compressor has more power (B B&) than that required by the resistance of the circuit, which has the effect of increasing the flow through it, and thus brings the point to B. The system is naturally stable. If the operating point lies to the left of the compressor characteristic maximum, two cases may arise: if the slope of the characteristic of the circuit is greater than that of the machine, a reasoning similar to the previous shows that the system is stable. if, as in the chart of Figure 7.3.10 it is the compressor characteristic which is the steepest, we see that any flow-rate reduction translates into a reduction of the power of the machine faster than circuit resistance. So there is amplification of the initial disturbance, and the system is unstable. Complex phenomena occur then, depending on the mechanical inertia of the entire system. The flow rate decreases very rapidly (20 to 80 milliseconds) and may even reverse. ●

●

196

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

2 1.9

Surge limit

1.8

P/P0

1.7 1.6

M

1.5 1.4

B&

1.3

B

B

1.2 1.1 1 0

0.02

0.04 · M √T0

0.06

P0

FIGURE 7.3.10 Unstable operation point

Circuit resistance falls accordingly, the discharge manifold empties and the compressor available power becomes surplus, which leads to a very rapid increase in flow. Very quickly, the point of functioning returns to the right of B. The discharge pipe is filled, the pressure rises, and flow lowers again: cyclic conditions are met. We call this instability a surge cycle, whose period varies between 0.5 and 5 seconds. Surge is generally very detrimental to the mechanical compressor, which is subjected to intense vibration that can put rotor and stator in touch. The phenomena involved are very complex because of the inertial effects associated with filling and emptying the collector network. They are still poorly known. So manufacturers recommend users to avoid operating in the left of the performance map maximum of their machines, bounded by the surge limit called surge line. As it is not always possible to meet this constraint, it is often necessary to provide check valves at the outlet of the machine, or more complex devices when it is not enough. Instrumentation and modern control provide opportunities to detect the onset of surge, which is accompanied by changes in pressure and flow as well as in suction temperature for axial compressors. The anti-surge control must be able to react very quickly given the phenomenon speed, increasing the flow through the opening of a bypass valve.

7.3.4 Practical calculation of dynamic compressors To be able to size their compressors quickly with sufficient accuracy, manufacturers take full advantage of the similarity rules. The main difficulty, however, is that the situation is not as simple as in the case of positive displacement compressors. In the latter case, in fact, an entire range of machines can be represented with sufficient accuracy by the same set of charts giving the volumetric efficiency and the compression ratio as a function of compression ratio. In the case of turbomachinery, this is approximately true, and manufacturers prefer to use a characteristic per wheel, if they want good accuracy, because the shapes of efficiency islands may vary significantly from one machine to another, even for a given range. However they use similarity rules for the flow, and, very often, performance maps are plotted in a particular system of axes, combining the enthalpy and flow factors (or Rateau coefficients) and the wheel Mach number.

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1.8 Mau 1.6

1.6 1.4 0.76

% Mau2

1.2

Mau 1.5

1 0.8

0.74

0.8

Mau 1.4

Mau 1.3 0.72 Mau 1.2

0.78

0.6 0.7

0.4

Mau 1.1

0.2 0 0.03

0.04 0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.11

u d Mau

FIGURE 7.3.11 Centrifugal compressor performance map

We find generally a head coefficient in the ordinate and a flow coefficient in the abscissa. York in France, a leading manufacturer of compressors for industrial refrigeration, uses as ordinate the factor introduced earlier, and as abscissa a factor product of and (Ma)u and therefore proportional to (Ma)c

Cs

hs (Ma )u2 Cs2

V (Ma )u Cs D 2

rTa being the speed of sound at inlet and and the Rateau coefficients.

The characteristic obtained has the form given figure 7.3.11. The practical calculation of a compressor runs as follows. We are given the volume flow at the inlet and the desired compression ratio, as well as the suction conditions, which enables us to calculate the speed of sound Cs. On a thermodynamic chart, using either tables or equations of state or Thermoptim, we determine the isentropic compression work s, which gives the value of . We choose a priori a machine i.e. a wheel diameter, which determines the value of . On the performance map, it is then possible to check if the wheel chosen is well suited, that is to say if the operation point is at the right of the efficiency maximum to avoid any risk of surge. Knowledge of the wheel coefficient allows us to determine the Mach number and hence the tangential velocity U. Since U DN/60, the rotation speed can be deduced. It is then possible to study the behavior at variable flow and constant speed ((Ma)u Const.), and the possible operation at part load and variable speed, to determine if the proposed operating ranges are compatible with the possibilities of the machine.

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7.3.5 Pumps and fans The mechanical and thermodynamic study of flows in pumps and fans is to a very large extent similar to that of dynamic compressors, but with an important simplification: for them it is quite legitimate to assume that the fluid is incompressible. The expression for the isentropic work is considerably simplified, since hs vP or hs P/. For a pump, the data provided is generally the pressure head H, and g being the acceleration due to gravity, hs gH. Under these conditions, a pump or fan will be represented in Thermoptim by the same component as a compressor. The steam power plant cycle model presented in section 9.1 specifically calls for such a component to represent the plant feedwater pump whose role is to compress at high pressure the cycle water condensed at low pressure. We will not detail here the various technological solutions that exist for pumps or fans. Note however that a critical phenomenon can occur at the pump inlet: cavitation, which occurs when the suction pressure falls below the saturated vapor pressure of the fluid at the temperature considered. No precaution is taken in Thermoptim to ensure that cavitation in a pump is prevented. Let us recall that the conditions of non-cavitation are given by the manufacturers as a hydraulic minimum load that must exist at the pump inlet. Called the NPSHR (Net Positive Suction Head Required), it is determined experimentally and depends on the wheel rotation speed. The NPSHR equals the net positive suction height available (NPSHA) minus the absolute saturation vapor pressure of the fluid. It is expressed in meters. The NPSHA, i.e. that which exists at the pump inlet, must exceed the NPSHR, whose value is generally determined as the threshold below which cavitation appears in the pump and degrades its efficiency by 3%. To avoid cavitation in a pump, reduce the pressure drop in suction to prevent the tank pressure becoming too low and, in the case of a suction pump, prevent the suction height being too great.

7.4

COMPARISON OF THE VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPRESSORS

7.4.1 Comparison of dynamic and displacement compressors Before we compare the axial and centrifugal compressors, it is interesting to situate them in relation to displacement compressors. As already mentioned, the fundamental difference between these two types of machines is that dynamic compressors operate with a constant pressure head, while displacement compressors have a constant volume ratio. Generally speaking, dynamic compressors are well suited for compressing large fluid flows. For small flows, they must rotate at very high speeds to maintain reasonable efficiencies, which requires fragile and expensive multiplying gear. Displacement compressors are then preferable, as such problems do not arise. A simple calculation can give an idea on the speeds required in turbomachinery. In order for the flow to remain close to adiabatic, it is necessary that the speeds of the machines are large enough. The previous examples have shown that the magnitude of wheel Mach numbers are routinely about 1.5. Equation (7.3.16) gives: ND

1.5 rT

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Moreover (7.3.18) provides another relationship between N and D: ND 3

4V $2

We deduce: D 0.922 (rT)0.25

V $

(7.4.1)

N 0.518 (rT)0.75

$ V

(7.4.2)

In general: 0.518(rT)0.75

$ $min

N 0.518(rT)0.75 max V V

(7.4.3)

For air at 300 K, and expressing N in rpm, we get: 20,000

$ $min

N < 200,000 max V V

$ is between 0.01 and 0.6 for centrifugal compressors, and 0.3 and 1 for axial compressors. For centrifugal compressors we obtain: 20,000

1 1 < N < 155,000 V V

110,000

1 1 < N < 200,000 V V

and for axial compressors:

. For flow V 10 l/s 0.01 m3/s (already a significant value), the speed should exceed 200,000 rpm with a centrifugal compressor, and 1.1 million rpm for an axial compressor, that is to say be 140 to 750 times greater than that of a piston compressor (1,500 rpm). It is clear that such speeds are totally unrealistic, which is why dynamic compressors are not used for small flow rates. Dynamic compressors are well suited for compressing large fluid flow-rates, but only under relatively low pressure ratios. For very large capacities (beyond a few MW on the shaft), dynamic compressors have however virtually no competitors, although the screw machines allow us to reach increasingly high capacities. The absence of valves and many other moving parts is an important advantage for dynamic compressors which, when well balanced, are easier to maintain than displacement compressors. 7.4.2

Comparison between dynamic compressors

Centrifugal compressors are characterized by an enthalpy factor higher than axial machines, and a lower flow factor. at a given pressure, the flow is lower in a centrifugal compressor than in an axial compressor; the design of centrifugal compressor cells allows intermediate cooling between each compression stage, whereas this is impossible in the axial dynamic compressors. This significantly reduces the compression work, as has been shown before; ● ●

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

●

●

●

for the same value of the peripheral velocity U, the axial compressors require a larger number of stages (in a ratio of 3 to 4), given the lower values of the power factor ; for this reason, axial compressors are preferred when the pressure ratio is low. However, to increase the power factor, manufacturers select higher peripheral speeds for axial machines; axial compressors have a performance map flatter and therefore less stable than centrifugal ones.

Centrifugal compressors can maintain a stable operation over a flow range much wider than axial machines, which justifies the latter being mainly used at constant flow and speed.

7.5

EXPANSION

Nowadays, most expanders are turbines. The theory of turbines is very close to that of dynamic compressors, the thermodynamics of expansion being distinct from that of compression essentially by some definition changes.

7.5.1 Thermodynamics of expansion In the preceding pages we explained the laws of compression, indicating that those of expansion differ only by a different definition of isentropic efficiency. This short section provides relations for expansion. The isentropic work is still given by (7.1.5) or (7.1.6). 7.5.1.1 Irreversible expansion In an irreversible expansion, shaft work is less than the isentropic work, because the irreversibilities have the effect of increasing the entropy of the fluid and its temperature, and are therefore reflected by a shift (a–r) to the right of the isentropic (a–s) (Figure 7.5.1).

T

Pa

a Pr

r s

s

FIGURE 7.5.1 Real expansion process

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

We define in this case the isentropic efficiency by:

s

h ha r s hs h a

(7.5.1)

This definition, the reverse of that of the isentropic compression efficiency, leads to a value s 1. Again, it must be stressed that given the current state of our knowledge, we are not able to assess a priori the value of the expansion isentropic efficiency, which is measured experimentally. 7.5.1.2 Polytropic expansion Similarly to what we did for compression, we define a polytropic expansion as a process in which, for any infinitely small stage, the isentropic efficiency remains constant and equal to the polytropic efficiency p.

p

vdP Tds dh vdP dh Tds

τ s

1 dh

p

Posing: k 1 1 p k

(7.5.2)

We find the polytropic law (7.1.9): Pvk Const. With this convention, the shaft work in a polytropic expansion can also be written according to equation (7.1.6): Pa va 1

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎞(k1)/k ⎥ ⎢⎜ Pr ⎟⎟ 1⎥ ⎢⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ Pa ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

The difference in entropy is independent of cp and T for a polytropic expansion and can be expressed as: ⎛P ⎞ s (1 p )R ln ⎜⎜ a ⎟⎟⎟ (open systems) ⎜⎝ Pr ⎟⎠ v Δs (1 p )R ln r (closed systems) va

or

7.5.1.3 Calculation of a heated polytropic for an open system If you know the polytropic coefficient k of the process, Tr is calculated by: ⎛ P ⎞(k1)/k Tr Ta ⎜⎜⎜ r ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pa ⎟⎠ If one assumes that the reversible polytropic reference passes through the inlet and outlet points, we must first identify the polytropic efficiency pref by applying between these two points s (1 p) R ln(Pr/Pa). The shaft work for the reversible polytropic is then: ref

202

1 ( hr h a )

p

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

Isentropic efficiency 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.93 η

0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 0.90 0.90 0

10

20 r

30

40

FIGURE 7.5.2 Isentropic efficiency function of expansion ratio

Knowing the process efficiency (isentropic or polytropic), we can deduce the actual work of expansion:

pref

(h ha )

The heat to provide is then: ⎛

⎜ Q hr ha ⎜⎜1 ⎜⎝

pref

⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ (hr ha ) ⎟⎟ ⎠

(7.5.3)

While a polytropic compression leads to k , we obtain in the case of a polytropic expansion: k . Unlike what happens in a compressor, given a constant polytropic efficiency (0.9 in Figure 7.5.2), the expansion isentropic efficiency increases when the expansion ratio increases. This arises because the irreversibilities taking place at high temperature (and pressure) are partially recovered in the subsequent expansion stages, as they have the effect of warming the fluid.

7.5.2 Calculation of an expansion

in Thermoptim

In Thermoptim the calculation of expansions is done in a manner analogous to that of compression, with the same screen. You should therefore refer to what was presented in section 7.1.5.

7.5.3 Turbines Geometrical arrangement The general layout of a turbine is given Figure 7.5.3. The stator is made of guide nozzles which accelerate the fluid, while the wheel (rotor) converts into mechanical energy at least part of the enthalpy available.

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P U P

C Stator Stator

C

W

Rotor a

Rotor

1

r

R1 Ca

Rr C1

U

U

Cr

FIGURE 7.5.3 Velocity and pressure profile in an axial turbine stage

· M√To

N

Po

√To 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

P/Po

FIGURE 7.5.4 Turbine performance map

Changes in pressure and fluid velocity in a turbine In a turbine, the evolution of the fluid is an expansion. The compressible flow equations indicate that for a subsonic regime, the section of the vein should decrease, and the velocity increase. This evolution takes place in two steps (Figure 7.5.3): in the stator, the absolute velocity increases, while in the impeller the relative velocity increases, and the absolute velocity decreases.

7.5.4 Turbine performance maps Just as we did section 7.3.3.1, we will only present in this section some general results concerning performance maps of turbines, which will be completed in Chapters 15 of Part 3 and 37 of Part 5 dealing with the off-design behavior of machines. In the case of a turbine (Figure 7.5.4) it is conventionally the pressure ratio which is used as abscissa. As ordinate, we find the corrected mass flow or isentropic efficiency of the machine. The curve parameter is still the corrected rotation speed, which plays a secondary role. We can see the flexibility of turbines to adapt to various operating conditions: efficiency tends to deteriorate only when we dramatically reduce the pressure ratio or the speed. This flexibility is

204

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

particularly due to the flow stability in the blades due to the gradient of pressure therein. But what is most remarkable is the stability of the flow for the high pressure ratios, which comes from the supersonic regime, which takes place in at least part of the machine (the flow is choked at the place where the speed of sound is reached). The limiting value reached by the flow, when the pressure ratio exceeds the critical ratio is called critical flow. It is proportional to the throat section, which is obviously independent of the rotation speed, which explains the weak influence of this parameter. In a supersonic nozzle the corrected mass flow is proportional to the throat section and independent of inlet conditions. When the nozzle is caused to operate outside the rated conditions, the fluid flow somehow adapts to the shape of the duct. The decrease in efficiency resulting from this adaptation is especially important when one wants to exceed the design pressure ratio. As the expansion ratio remains above its critical value, the flow stays below the critical flow. When its value decreases beyond this value, the flow maintains a constant value. If you want to go beyond the critical expansion ratio in a converging diverging nozzle, the flow cannot increase sufficiently, and the expansion continues beyond the exit section with large oscillations at the outlet of the nozzle. Indeed, if the flow is supersonic and the pressure in the outlet chamber does not match that used for the design, the following phenomenon takes place: if the outlet chamber pressure is greater than the nominal pressure, there is hyper-expansion in the nozzle, and thus sharp contraction at the outlet, otherwise, there is hypo-expansion in the nozzle, and thus sudden expansion at the exit. The explanation for this phenomenon is clear: beyond the contracted section, the fluid velocity exceeds the speed of sound. Consequently, the conditions set on the outlet vein of this section may no longer influence the flow at the inlet of the throat. It continues downwards to the throat as if the final pressure was the rated outlet pressure, and if the actual pressure is different, a discontinuity is inevitable.

7.5.5 Degree of reaction of a stage The study of the energy balance of a stage showed that the enthalpy change takes place partly in the rotor, and partly in the diffuser. We call the degree of reaction ε the fraction of the enthalpy change that takes place in the rotor. With the notation of Figure 7.3.3, we have: ε

h1 ha h ha 1 Δh hr − h a

(7.5.4)

By definition, ε is between 0 and 1. In a dynamic compressor stage 0.5 ε 1, is commonly obtained. The lower limit (ε 0.5) is approximated in the axial dynamic compressors. As for the upper limit (pure reaction: ε 1), it is reached in the case of a single stage machine whose diffuser is nonexistent or of negligible effectiveness. In a turbine stage, pure reaction is impossible. Two limiting cases frequently arise: impulse turbines, in which ε 0: any expansion of the fluid is then carried out in fixed blades or nozzles, at the inlet of the wheel, and the inlet and outlet pressures of the rotor are equal; reaction turbines, where ε 0.5: the expansion is then evenly distributed between the nozzle and the wheel. ●

●

Each of these two types of turbine has advantages and disadvantages of its own. As we have said, it is not our intention to develop here in detail the theory of turbines. Simply note that the impulse

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turbines are generally used for head stages of multistage sections or for small capacity units, while reaction turbines are proving well suited for the low-pressure sections. Indeed, a first advantage of using impulse turbines in the high pressure sections is that the entire expansion being made in the stator, the rotor is not subjected to a high pressure difference, which limits the mechanical constraints. A second advantage is that the flow in these turbines can be reduced by using partial injection, which is to only supply a fraction of fluid in the stator vanes. This type of operation is made possible in this case because the pressure is the same on both sides of the rotor, and no parasitic flow is expected in the non-injected parts. However, the efficiencies of these turbines are slightly (2–3%) worse than those of reaction turbines, which are subjected to significant axial thrust, and do not use partial injection. Because irreversibilities taking place in the top stages are partially recovered in subsequent stages, we can tolerate that their efficiency is slightly lower, which allows us to use impulse turbines in this case.

7.6

COMBUSTION

Combustion phenomena are of particular importance in the study of energy technologies, because they are the source of most heat and power production in the world: more than 90% of global consumption of primary commercial energy comes from burning coal, oil or natural gas. The study of combustion is to determine the state and composition of combustion products, and consequently, their thermochemical properties including the amount of energy that is involved in the reactions. Moreover, the combustion conditions largely determine the quantities of pollutants emitted by energy technologies. The purpose of this section is to determine as closely as possible the combustion characteristics that are important in terms of energy: the thermodynamic properties of the products (cp, M, h, s), the energy released by combustion (Hr), the concentration of unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) and pollutants. From these elements, it becomes possible to optimize the combustion, i.e. to obtain the best combustion efficiency by adjusting the air/fuel ratio or the excess air, which sets out the flame temperatures and losses by the fumes. To achieve this goal it is necessary to know how to characterize fuels and write the complete reactions, stoichiometric and with excess or lack of air, taking into account the dissociation where it exists, which requires knowledge of general principles that govern equilibrium reactions (law of mass action), and finally calculate the energies released. In the remainder of this book, we will always assume that the combustion reaction involves gaseous species, and that the various components are treated as ideal gases. Dalton’s law then allows us to consider that the combustion products follow the ideal gas law. The fundamentals you should make sure to understand are the following: air factor (7.6.2.4), adiabatic combustion temperature (7.6.4.6), CO2 dissociation (7.6.3.2), quenching temperature (7.6.1.6) and heating value (7.6.4.5).

7.6.1

Combustion phenomena, basic mechanisms

Combustion reactions are rather unusual chemical reactions, typically brutal, where the nonequilibrium is the rule, equilibrium the exception. In these circumstances, it is still impossible to determine exactly during the reaction the evolution of thermodynamic functions characterizing the systems involved. They can only be calculated assuming that equilibrium conditions are met before and after the time of combustion.

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

7.6.1.1 Complete reactions, dissociation Generally, a chemical reaction involving two reactants and two products can be written as: '1A1 ' 2A 2 ↔ ' 3A 3 ' 4 A 4

(7.6.1)

Experience shows that the unfolding of a combustion reaction is highly dependent on temperature. At low temperature, the reactants generally do not react spontaneously. For the reaction to start, it is necessary to bring an activation energy, usually in the form of an electric spark. They say that the mixture is in false equilibrium. If the reaction is triggered artificially, it is brutal, and total if the temperature remains low enough. The combustion is said to be complete, or without dissociation. At high temperature, reaction is usually incomplete. The composition of the reaction medium depends on the degree of progress of this reaction, the ratio between the number of moles of reactants that have been converted and the total number of moles of reactants. This degree of progress depends on the kinetics and the law of mass action at equilibrium. The reactants are not completely oxidized, and we talk of dissociation. If, starting from such a situation, we gradually decrease the temperature of reactants, the composition stabilizes and remains unchanged only above a certain threshold. It is said there is quenching of the reaction. In the energy systems that we study, combustion will be either complete or incomplete, depending on cases. We show in this section how it can be calculated with some simplifying assumptions. The general thermodynamic study of combustion reactions is part of the thermodynamics of chemical processes. In this chapter, we limit ourselves to only those aspects necessary for our purposes, i.e. mainly the study of variations of the thermodynamic functions of the reactive mixture (internal energy, enthalpy, entropy) caused by variations in chemical composition. The study of the mechanism of the reaction kinetics (limit of false equilibria, means of triggering the reaction mixture in a false equilibrium, methods of propagation of the reaction, kinetics etc.) is much more complex. We will discuss it here only very briefly and qualitatively. In what follows, as has been said in the introduction, we limit ourselves mainly to the study of combustion reactions in the gaseous phase. Even when fuel is introduced as a liquid (oil, diesel), the products are then present in gaseous form. 7.6.1.2 Combustion of gaseous fuel mixtures A gaseous fuel mixture, in practice generally composed of air and fuel gas, is defined by its molar or mass composition. It is customary to relate the composition of any mixture to that of the stoichiometric mixture, i.e. with exactly the amount of oxygen required for complete combustion. The richness R is defined as the ratio of the number of moles (or mass) of fuel in a predetermined amount of mixture, to the number of moles (or mass) of fuel in the stoichiometric mixture. R 1 corresponds to stoichiometric mixture, R 1 to excess air, and R 1 to excess fuel (lack of air). In subsection 7.6.2.4 we will introduce two more quantities directly related to richness, which are also widely used for the study of non-stoichiometric combustion: air factor and excess air e. Conditions of self-ignition and propagation of combustion We have seen that a fuel mixture based on a given fuel is generally stable at room temperature. By heating, it is possible to trigger the combustion reaction from a certain temperature, called selfignition. The H2 mixtures burn spontaneously at 550 C, those based on CO and CH4 around 650 C. It sometimes happens that a self-ignition delay appears, which can reach 200 K for CH4. The auto-ignition temperature depends of course on the fuel and the composition of the mixture, but it is also a decreasing function of pressure, with some peculiarities (cool flames, long selfignition delays), for which we refer to the literature.

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The value of self-ignition temperature is that it defines an upper limit which must not be reached, whether for reasons of safety when handling fuel, or for more specific applications, such as burning in gasoline engines. When a fuel mixture is heated to a temperature above its self-ignition temperature, the reaction is triggered after some delay, the said auto-ignition delay, which becomes shorter at higher temperatures. This delay is related to basic mechanisms of combustion presented in paragraph 10.6.1.5. Moreover, in a given mixture of air and fuel, combustion, initiated locally by a spark, can only spread if the richness is between two limits said lower inflammable Ri and higher inflammable Rs. If the richness is outside of this interval, the mixture is either too lean or too rich, and combustion cannot be maintained. These limits depend on the temperature and fuel type. At room temperature, limits Ri and Rs for most hydrocarbons are respectively close to 0.5 and 4. They diverge as the temperature increases. Flame propagation To avoid self-ignition of gaseous fuels, it is necessary that the mixture is ignited locally before reaching the self-ignition temperature one way or another. In practice, an electric spark is generally used for this purpose. Once the mixture is ignited, combustion spreads from the ignition point, in a reaction zone called the flame front, corresponding to the surface which separates the burned gases from the mixture still intact. The case where the fuel and oxidizer form a homogeneous mixture before the start of the reaction is referred to as premixed flame. Experience shows that the propagation can take place in two very different modes: deflagration and detonation. The difference between them is the relative speed at which the flame front moves in the mixture. In the deflagration, this speed is low, the order of several cm/s to a few m/s, whereas in the detonation, it far exceeds the speed of sound in the mixture (several thousands of m/s). In the deflagration, the combustion is mainly propagated by conduction: the layer of combustion gas heats the next layer of still intact mixture. When it is in turn brought to the auto-ignition temperature, it ignites, and so on. The gases being poor conductors, the propagation speed is low. In detonation, the combustion is propagated by a shockwave that moves at a speed exceeding the speed of sound in the mixture, causing an almost instantaneous reaction at its passage, with sudden changes in velocity, pressure and temperature. Given this shockwave, detonation is a very dangerous combustion mode, which causes engines to deteriorate rapidly. Very abrupt changes in pressure induce, in any parts submitted to the thrust of the gases, very destructive steep front elastic waves. The joints are subjected to shocks, valves and seats leak, deformed by the wave. When it occurs in an engine, it is usually called knocking combustion mode. In addition, when the fuel is a hydrocarbon, the detonating combustion is always initiated by a decomposition of the molecule, releasing black smoke and the engine gets dirty. We will study in detail in Chapter 13 of Part 3 what solutions are adopted to prevent detonation in internal combustion reciprocating engines. Study of the deflagration A mixture whose richness is between the flammability limits burns with a certain deflagration speed. This speed, often called laminar velocity, is the velocity of the flame relative to the reaction mixture that feeds it, in a laminar flow. Its value, which also depends strongly on the nature of the fuel, is a function of richness, temperature and pressure. In general, for a given temperature, the maximum speed of deflagration corresponds to a richness slightly above 1, often around 1.2. Deflagration speeds are also low, a few cm/s to a few m/s. For a given richness, they are an increasing function of temperature and a decreasing function of pressure. Turbulence exerts a complex effect on the deflagration speed: it increases it significantly if it is already noticeable at rest; it decreases it near the flammability limit otherwise, and under these

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

conditions can prevent the spread of combustion (blowing on a fire stirs it up if it is intense, blows it out otherwise). 7.6.1.3 Combustion of liquid fuels The phenomena described above for gaseous fuels are similar in the case of liquid fuels, with some differences. A droplet of a liquid fuel that is injected into a mass of air, ignites spontaneously when the temperature exceeds a certain value, called fuel self-ignition temperature Tai. This temperature depends mainly on the fuel, and incidentally on air pressure, diameter and drop speed. The self-ignition temperatures thus measured range from 350 C to 500 C depending on the fuel. Note that they are relatively low, much lower than those of gaseous fuel mixtures. Ignition and combustion delays Experience shows that, when injecting a droplet of liquid fuel into an air mass whose temperature T exceeds the self-ignition temperature Tai, it does not catch fire instantly, but after some delay, the said inflammation delay, which depends mainly on the difference (T Tai) and the type of fuel, secondarily on the diameter and drop velocity. The mechanisms involved are complex, part of the liquid fuel generally evaporating to form, mixing with the oxidant, the reactive medium that selfignites depending on its composition and pressure and temperature conditions. In addition, complete combustion requires an additional delay, the said combustion, which, apart from the difference (T Tai), depends essentially on the diameter and drop velocity as well as air turbulence. When T exceeds Tai, the ignition delay is never very large, but it rarely falls below 2 milliseconds. The combustion delay is similar, provided that the fuel is finely pulverized (an average diameter of drops of a few microns) and injected at high speed, at a pressure exceeding 100 bar. Nevertheless, the overall ignition and combustion delay is of the order of several milliseconds. Diffusion flames Unlike premixed flames, where the fuel and oxidizer are mixed before the start of the reaction, the combustion of fuel introduced in the liquid state in the oxidizer is governed by the speed at which reactive chemical species inter-diffuse. This is called the diffusion flame. The reaction zone of such a flame is thicker than that of a premixed flame. Richness varies from infinite value in the fuel to zero in the oxidizer. There are laminar diffusion flames (candles, oil lamps) and turbulent confined diffusion flames whose applications are numerous, either in industry or in conventional diesel engines.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Main Difference between Diesel and Gasoline Engines An important difference between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine is not in the mode of introducing fuel, which in modern gasoline engines is also injected, but when the fuel is introduced, which determines the nature of gas when the reaction starts and the type of combustion which takes place inside the engine, as will be explained in detail in Chapter 13 of Part 3. In the gasoline engine, fuel is introduced well in advance so that the cylinder is full, when ignition occurs, of a substantially homogeneous gaseous mixture. In the diesel engine, fuel is injected at the last moment and burned as fine liquid droplets as and when it is introduced (diffusion flame).

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7.6.1.4 Thermodynamics of combustion at equilibrium The law of mass action is fundamental to studying the incomplete combustion reactions at equilibrium. It can be easily derived from the second law of thermodynamics. Let us first express the Gibbs energy of the gas put into play. Expressions (5.6.6) and (5.6.7) allow us to calculate the molar Gibbs energy of an ideal gas, from G H TS: T

T

H H0 ∫ Cp (t) dt T0

S S0 ∫

Cp (t)

T0

t

dt R ln

P P0

If the index 0 values represent the reference state, the value of the Gibbs energy at temperature T and any pressure is given by: G H T S G0* (T) RT ln

P P0

G*0(T) representing the term independent of P in the Gibbs energy. Note that G*0(T) is not the reference state Gibbs energy G0. This way of decomposing G has the sole purpose of separating variables P and T. If, as is customary, P0 1 bar, we get: G G0* RT ln P

(7.6.2)

Let us consider combustion equation 7.6.1. We will investigate how one writes the equilibrium condition (5.4.22). By definition, the degree of reaction is the ratio ε of the number of moles of a reactant (usually the first of the equation) that reacted, to the total number of moles of this reactant capable of reacting. At equilibrium, dT 0, dP 0, and equation (5.4.22) (idni)T,P 0 becomes: (1'1 2'2 3'3 4'4) dε 0 This equation must be verified regardless of the value of ε. We have: 1'1 2'2 3'3 4'4 0 However, for an ideal mixture, the chemical potential is equal to the partial Gibbs energy (5.4.23): i G(T, Pi) Using equation (7.6.2) and separating variables, we find: rT('1 ln P1 '2 ln P2 '3 ln P3 '4 ln P4) '1G*0 1 '2G*02 '3G*03 '4G*04 The second part of the equation represents the difference between the terms independent of the pressure of products and reactants free energies, and is sometimes called the free enthalpy change of reaction, denoted G0, expressed in molar variables. G0 is defined, recall, for a given reference state, that we choose here the temperature of the mixture and P0 1 bar: G0 f(T, P0). Logarithmic terms can be grouped in the form: G0 RT ln

210

P3'3 P4'4 P1'1 P2'2

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

G0 being a function only of temperature, the term under the logarithm is itself a function of temperature only, and is independent of the system pressure (but of course depends on the reference pressure P0). Kp is defined as the equilibrium constant, with: kp

P3'3 P4'4 P1'1 P2'2

and

G0 RT ln Kp

At equilibrium, the partial pressures of the components are proportional to their mole fractions: Pi xiP. Therefore: Kp

x 3'3 x 4'4 '3' −' ' 4 1 2 P x1'1 x 2'2

(7.6.3)

P is the pressure of the system, 'i are the stoichiometric coefficients of the combustion reaction, and xi the mole fractions of various constituents in products. Equation (7.6.3) is called the law of mass action. Combined with the balance equations of chemical species involved, it allows us, if we know the variation of Kp with temperature, to determine the equilibrium concentrations of the components for a given reaction. The presence of non-reactant gases does not question the law of mass action. However, it can strongly influence the progress of the reaction, since the partial pressures are changed, because of the increased total number of moles in the mixture. When several reactions can take place in the same mixture, the laws of mass action for the different reactions must be checked simultaneously, knowing they are coupled together because, of course, the calculation of the partial pressures cannot be done independently. Table 7.6.1 gives the values of the equilibrium constants for the main reactions that may occur in combustion. It shows that for all these reactions, Kp is an increasing function of temperature, which means that the degree of reaction increases with temperature. Note that, for this set of values, the pressure must be expressed in bar, and the coefficients used in the equations are the stoichiometric coefficients. One can obtain an estimate of Kp from the approximate formula valid in limited temperature ranges: ln(Kp) A

B T

For the reaction known as water gas O2 H2 ↔ CO H2O, in the range 1000 to 2200 K, covering much of the usual combustions, we take as values A 3.387 and B 3753, P being expressed in bar and T in Kelvin. 7.6.1.5 Elements of chemical kinetics In many cases, and as soon as we are to take into account emissions of pollutants, the assumptions of complete combustion are too restrictive. It is then necessary to refine the calculations to determine as precisely as possible the degree of reaction. This is possible by using thermodynamics, if time is sufficient for equilibrium to be reached, and otherwise by using chemical kinetics. In this section we give some elements to address this particularly difficult issue. As indicated above, a fuel mixture is generally stable at room temperature. Statistical thermodynamics can explain this: the reaction depends on the number of shocks that may arise between the various reactants, and hence temperature. Specifically, chemical kinetics reveals that the actual mechanism of combustion can be decomposed into a series of simple reactions, called basic steps, which involve reactive species called free radicals (atoms or groups of atoms with one or more unpaired electrons).

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TABLE 7.6.1 Values of the equilibrium constant Kp T (K)

500 41

1000 18

1500 10

2,000

2,500

6

0.0006 0.0002

H2 ↔ 2H

5 10

5 10

3 10

3 10

O2 ↔ 2O

1 1046

2 1020

2 1011

4 107

N2 ↔ 2N

96

2 10

9 10

44

4 10

27

19

H2O ↔ H2 1/2O2

1 1023

9 1011

2 106

0.0003

0.006

27

12

7

8 10

9 1014

H2O ↔ OH 1/2H2

7 10

5 10

5 10

0.0002

0.0054

CO2 ↔ CO 1/2O2

9 1026

6 1011

5 106

0.0013

0.0363

9

5

0.02

0.0593

1/2O2 1/2N2 ↔ NO

2 10

9 10

0.0033

CO2 H2 ↔ CO H2O

0.0073

0.6934

2.5645

4.529

6.0814

T (K)

3,000

3,500

4,000

4,500

5,000

H2 ↔ 2H

0.0248

0.3451

2.5119

11.858

40.926

O2 ↔ 2O

0.0126

0.2399

2.1878

12.19

48.529

8

6

N2 ↔ 2N

10

2 10

5 10

3 10

8 10

5

0.0011

H2O ↔ H2 1/2O2

0.0454

0.1941

0.5781

1.3583

2.6915

H2O ↔ OH 1/2H2

0.0543

0.2838

0.975

2.5586

5.5081

CO2 ↔ CO 1/2O2

0.3273

1.5488

4.9204

11.995

24.322

1/2O2 1/2N2 ↔ NO

0.1222

0.2042

0.2992

0.4009

0.5058

CO2 H2 ↔ CO H2O

7.2111

7.9799

8.5114

8.8308

9.0365

For example, the following reaction as such has a negligible probability of occurring: 1 H 2 O2 → H 2O 2 For it to take place, where M is a partner of any collision (O2, H2, N2, …), a chain like this must be put into place: . initiation O2. M→ 2 Ο M. branching Ο H2 → OH . H. branching O2. H → Ο H Ο. propagation Ο H H2 → H2O H ● ● ● ●

The initiation reaction produces the first free radicals. In a reaction involving. a hydrocarbon, it usually corresponds to a thermal decomposition of the molecule, releasing a H . The branching is an essential step that multiplies the number of available radicals in the reaction, while the propagation preserves their number, while participating in the production of intermediate or final products. Breaking reactions can finally complete the chain by transforming a free radical into a stable chemical species, either in homogeneous phase or in contact with walls. The reaction path can be explained in the light of what was just seen: when the temperature is low (less than the self-ignition temperature), the number of free radicals is very low, and the breaking reactions consume them all, so that combustion cannot take place. Above a certain temperature, this situation is reversed, and the number of free radicals increases. The conditions are then ripe for burning to develop. All these phenomena explain why a combustion reaction actually has a very high degree of complexity. If you want to be precise, it is necessary to follow in detail the various chemical species that may appear, and consider all relevant equations.

212

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

For example, for methane, you can find in the literature mechanisms that consider 46 species reacting as a function of 234 elementary coupled equations: 129 decomposition reactions of CH4, 21 reactions of hydrogen (H, H2) and oxygen (O, O2), and 84 reactions characteristic of the formation of nitrogen oxides NO during combustion. It is certainly possible to build simplified models of the overall reaction, according to various methods. To understand the main kinetic phenomena, experience proves that it is necessary to distinguish at least three phases in the combustion of a hydrocarbon: 1. decomposition of fuel molecules .by pyrolysis, producing olefins CnH2, also called intermediate . . hydrocarbons and free radicals H , O and OH; 2. oxidation of hydrocarbon radicals and intermediates to CO and H2; 3. oxidation of CO and H2 to give the final products of combustion CO2 and H2O. 7.6.1.6 Quenching temperature Thermodynamics of combustion at equilibrium allows one, from the law of mass action, to determine the degree of progress of reactions depending on the temperature and pressure. For this law to be applicable it is necessary first that the reaction speeds are larger than the residence time of reactants in the combustion chamber, and second that cooling conditions for the fumes are known. For most combustion reactions, the assumption of a medium at equilibrium can be chosen without introducing too much error. An exception should however be made as we will see in section 7.6.5 for the oxidation reaction of nitrogen, which leads to the formation of NOx. This reaction has a very slow kinetics, so that the degree of reaction is generally much less advanced than at equilibrium. The study of combustion kinetics is also necessary if one wants to explain the quenching phenomena that appear when dissociation takes place (at temperatures above 1800 K), followed by a sudden cooling of the fumes. Due to dissociation, some combustion reactions are not complete. The speed of slow reactions may then not be sufficient in the case of rapid decrease in temperature, so that molecular recombinations that would have taken place normally (that is to say at equilibrium, the reactions being reversible) cannot be attained. In these conditions unburned hydrocarbons may remain. It is said that there is quenching of the reaction. This explains the presence of CO in the flue gas, even with excess oxygen and for a homogeneous mixture. We call the quenching temperature the temperature to be used in the law of mass action to get the actual exhaust gas composition. You should refer to specialized literature for further developments on this subject. In what follows, unless otherwise stated, we always assume that chemical reactions could develop and achieve equilibrium without kinetic considerations affecting these phenomena.

7.6.2 Study of complete combustion In this section we will deal with complete combustion, that is to say, such that all possible oxidations are carried out. After presenting the different ways of representing the oxidizer (usually air) and fuel, we will study successively the non-stoichiometric and stoichiometric combustion. In the next section, we will see how to take into account the existence of unburned hydrocarbons. 7.6.2.1 Air composition A combustion reaction involves the oxidation of a fuel with oxygen or a substance containing oxygen, such as air. In most cases in practice, it is air, and it is accepted as a first approximation that all components other than oxygen are inert during the reaction.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

TABLE 7.6.2 COMPOSITION OF NORMAL AIR Component

Molar fraction %

Molar mass kg/kmol

Mass fraction %

N2

0.781

28

0.756

Ar CO2

0.009

(40)

0.012

O2

0.21

32

0.232

N2 atmosph.

0.79

(28.15)

0.768

The composition of normal air is given in Table 7.6.2. To simplify the study of combustion reactions, other inert gases are combined with nitrogen, by defining an atmospheric nitrogen which allows us to consider the dry air as a mixture of two ideal gases, whose composition is indicated below. From these values, it follows that the ratio (atmospheric nitrogen)/oxygen is 3.76 in volume, and 3.31 in mass. In Thermoptim, calculations are made with greater precision, the number of components being up to the user. Among the protected ideal gases, i.e. whose composition cannot be changed by the user, we find the above defined atmospheric air. 7.6.2.2 Fuel composition To study the quality of combustion, it is convenient to represent the fuel by a standardized formula reflecting its actual composition. For an ash-free fuel, the chemical elements to be retained are: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. The fuel can therefore be described by the formula: C Hy Ox Nz Su The stoichiometric coefficients y, x, z and u can be easily determined: from mass fractions (C), (H), (O), (N) and (S), which gives: ✬

y ✬

12.01 (H) 12.01 (O) 12.01 (N) 12.01 (S) , x , z , u 32.07 (C) 1.008 (C) 16 (C) 14.008 (C)

from the exact formula if it is a pure substance or a mixture of pure chemically defined substances, relating the chemical formula to the unit of carbon. For compound CnHmOp we get : y

✬

(7.6.4)

m , n

x

p n

(7.6.5)

from volume or mole fractions if it is a gaseous fuel.

For a mixture of fractions [H2], [CO], [CnHm], [CO2], [N2], [H2S], [SO2], we get: 2[H 2 ] Σm[Cn Hm ] 2 [H 2S] [CO] Σn[Cn Hm ] [CO2 ] 2[N 2 ] z [CO] Σn[Cn Hm ] [CO2 ] y

[CO] 2[CO2 ] 2[SO2 ] [CO] Σn[Cn Hm ] [CO2 ] [H 2S] [SO2 ] u [CO] Σn[Cn Hm ] [CO2 ] x

(7.6.6)

7.6.2.3 Stoichiometric combustion We call a stoichiometric combustion a combustion without excess or lack of air, where all available oxygen is completely consumed.

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

Assuming that nitrogen reacts only in negligible proportions and is found after combustion in molecular form, the general equation of a stoichiometric combustion is: ⎛ y x⎞ y z C H y Ox Nz Su ⎜⎜1 u ⎟⎟⎟ O2 → CO2 + H 2O u SO2 N 2 ⎜⎝ 4 2⎠ 2 2

(7.6.7)

Depending on circumstances, coefficient (1 (y/4) u (x/2)) may be greater or less than unity, depending on the existing availability of oxygen in the fuel. In most cases x y/2 2 u, but for some lean gases, the reverse situation may exist For most conventional fuels, the values of z and u are very low and often negligible, while the condition x y/2 is always verified. We can then simplify the symbolic formulation above by writing: y x a 1 1 4 2 4

(7.6.8)

which leads to the conclusion that formula C Hy Ox becomes: CHa x H2O a represents what is called hydrogen available for combustion referred to the complete oxidation of a carbon unit, and a y 2 x. With these conventions, the complete oxidation of fuels of formula (CHa x H2O) can be described by the equation: ⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a⎞ a CHa ⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 3.76 N 2 ) → CO2 H 2O 3.76 ⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ N 2 ⎜⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 4⎠

(7.6.9)

while there is conservation of the constitutive water x H2O. This reaction is the fuel combustion without excess or lack of air. If there is lack of air, some of the carbon is oxidized into carbon monoxide CO. To fully determine the reaction we have seen above that it is necessary to study the conditions of chemical equilibrium of the dissociation reaction of carbon dioxide, which depend primarily on temperature and correspond to the equation: 1 CO2 ↔ CO O2 2 Combustion quality The combustion quality is primarily determined by two factors: the combustion efficiency, which characterizes the degree of fulfillment of the chemical reaction, or if one prefers, the absence of unburned hydrocarbons or incompletely oxidized compounds; the level reached by the combustion temperature, determined by the ratio of the amount of heat released by burning to the amount of reactants and products. ●

●

In practice, we can optimize combustion by playing on an excess of air. A large excess air ensures that at any point, enough oxygen is available for combustion and therefore reduces the risk of unburned hydrocarbons. However, it dilutes the fumes, whose temperature drops. 7.6.2.4 Non stoichiometric combustion When the combustion is not stoichiometric, it can be defined in several ways, usually by its excess air e, or its lack of air (e), or the richness R already introduced in section 7.6.1.2, or its inverse the air factor . The formulations vary according to existing professional practice. For example, it is

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

customary to speak of richness for gasoline engines, or excess air for boilers. In Thermoptim, we have selected the air factor, very useful in practice. Excess air is the percentage of air not consumed by the stoichiometric reaction. Richness R is defined as the ratio of the number of fuel moles in a given quantity of mixture, to the number of fuel moles in the stoichiometric mixture. From these definitions, it follows the equivalence: R

1 1 e

and

1 e

1 R

(7.6.10)

Let us consider how a non-stoichiometric reaction is written as a function of air factor : In case of excess air, is greater than 1, and there is too much oxygen. The reaction writes: ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ a⎞ a⎞ a a⎞ CHa + ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 + 3.76N 2 ) → CO2 + H 2O + ( − 1) ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ O2 + 3.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ N 2 ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 4⎠ 4⎠ (7.6.11) In case of lack of air, is less than 1, and while there is enough oxygen to oxidize all the carbon in carbon monoxide, and a fraction in carbon dioxide, the reaction becomes: ⎛ a ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜1 ⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 1 ⎛ a⎞ 2 ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ 4⎠

(neglecting dissociation of CO2 in H 2O)

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ a⎞ a⎞ ⎛ a ⎞⎞ CHa + ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 + 3.76N 2 ) → ⎜⎜ 2 ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟ CO2 ⎜⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 4⎠ 4⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ a⎞ a ⎞⎞ a + ⎜⎜ 2( − 1) ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟ CO + H 2O + 3.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ N 2 ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ 2 4⎠ ⎝⎜

(7.6.12)

If the lack of air is more important, there is not even enough oxygen to form all the carbon monoxide.

7.6.3

Study of incomplete combustion

In most cases, the combustion is not complete: for many reasons, various products including unwanted pollutants exist in the flue gas. Efforts are generally made to minimize this phenomenon penalizing both energy production and the environment, but it cannot be completely avoided. In this chapter we explain the principle of calculations that can be performed to characterize the incomplete combustion reactions. The results we obtain are the basis of combustion characterization methods from the flue gas analysis, which are of great practical importance. Note that the analysis of gases can be made before or after condensation of water they contain. In principle, of course, one passes from one to another without difficulty, provided the humidity of the air before combustion is known. If these data are missing (which is most common), it is best to proceed on the basis of dry gas, that is to say after they have been sufficiently cooled so that the water they contain is condensed and is eliminated.

216

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

7.6.3.1 Mechanisms of formation of unburned hydrocarbons The formation of unburned hydrocarbons can come from two main causes: either from lack of oxygen, related to poor homogeneity of the mixture of oxidizer/fuel or from a lack of reactivity of combustion, particularly due to too low a temperature. The mechanisms involved are very complex and cannot be described exhaustively in the context of this book. However, we can consider three limiting cases corresponding to the previous causes. In the first case, fuel CHa can be locally heated at high temperature in a CO2 and H2O environment, complete combustion products having not diffused to make room for oxygen. The fuel may then, due to the high temperature, be decomposed into carbon and hydrogen, strongly reducing, which will separate the molecules of CO2 and H2O. This type of situation occurs very frequently: in the boilers or combustion chambers of gas turbines, where the fuel is fed into a burner, then mixed with the oxidizer, and burned. Whatever the nature of the fuel (gas, liquid or solid) and burner technology, a homogeneous mixture is not immediately realized, so that local areas may exist lacking air, even in the presence of overall excess air. A chain of reactions between these components is then established, as determined in first approximation by the law of mass action, and therefore the conditions of pressure and ambient temperature. The global chemical equations involved are as follows with of course many more basic steps (see 7.6.1.5): a CHa → C H 2 2 CO2 C → 2CO H 2O C → CO H 2 CO2 H 2 → CO H 2O

(7.6.13)

In the second case, the fuel is decomposed in a more complex manner, the most volatile parts being easily vaporized in the gas phase and oxidized, while the heavier undergo cracking which enriches them in carbon. The phenomenon leads to the formation of dry or oily soot depending on whether or not hydrogen is completely released. Tar or heavily polluting smoke can also be formed. This situation exists in some boilers in the presence of significant excess air and can occur in diesel engines incorrectly set. In the third case, the reaction is locally quenched on the walls of the combustion chamber, due to a double phenomenon: on the one hand, the surface temperature is lower than the flame and secondly the wall inhibits the branching and propagation of free radical reactions, which reduces dramatically the combustion kinetics. This occurs especially in reciprocating internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, there is a deposition on different surfaces (cylinder head, cylinder, piston, valves) of a layer of partially processed fuel mixture. The result is the presence in the exhaust of unburned hydrocarbons (often referred to as UHCs), which can to some extent be equated to a methane CH4 equivalent. In diesel engines, the phenomenon is due to the strong heterogeneity of combustion: liquid fuel is injected into a mixture of hot air and combustion products, which burns by self-ignition, and whose nature changes during the combustion between pure air and exhaust gases. At the center of the jet, richness is infinite, whereas it is null in some areas. There can thus be simultaneously excess air in a zone of the chamber, and lack of air in another. Thus, a wrongly set diesel engine can simultaneously produce soot, unburned hydrocarbons of the CH4 type and CO. In what follows, we will show how the calculations can be conducted to characterize the combustion of three main categories of incomplete reactions. It is possible to study the combustion phenomena in a finer way, but at the cost of significant complication of the calculations, which must then

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

be made with heavy computer calculation programs, which bring into play simultaneously up to several hundreds of dissociation equations. 7.6.3.2 Composition of fumes without soot or unburned hydrocarbons In the first case where the only unburned hydrocarbons are CO and H2, we can write the combustion equation as follows: ⎛ a⎞ a a CHa + ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 + 3.76N 2 ) → (1 − k1 )CO2 + k1CO2 + k1 CO + (1 − k2 ) H 2O + k2 H 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 4 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ k a a a + ⎜⎜ ( − 1) ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ + 1 + k2 ⎟⎟⎟ O2 + 3.76 ⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ N 2 ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ (7.6.14) ⎝ 4⎠ 4⎠ 2 4⎠ The equilibrium between species giving unburned hydrocarbons is governed by the equation: CO2 H2 ↔ CO H2O

(7.6.15)

As can be seen, because the reaction involves a constant number of moles, this equilibrium is independent of pressure, and is a function of temperature alone. According to the law of mass action, we have here: a k1 (1 − k2 ) [CO][H 2O] 2 = k1 (1 − k2 ) Kp = = a [CO2 ][H 2 ] (1 − k1 )k2 (1 − k1 )k2 2

(7.6.16)

We get thus: k2(1 k1)Kp k1(1 k2) k2 =

k1 k1 + Kp(1 − k1 )

(7.6.17)

Let k k1, to simplify the notations. For a given fuel, the combustion can then be described by only three parameters: , air factor, k, CO2 rate of dissociation and Kp. The analysis of dry flue gas (after condensation and removal of H2O) then provides the volume or partial molar fractions. Letting be the sum of fractions of various constituents, we get: ⎛ a⎞ a k 3Kp(1 − k) a = 4.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ + + − ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 k + Kp(1 − k) 4

(7.6.18)

Let g(k) we get:

218

(1)

[CO2 ]

(2)

[ CO ]

1 k Σ k Σ

Kp(1 k) a k Kp(1 k) 4

(7.6.19)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

(3)

⎛ a⎞ 3.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ [N 2 ] Σ ⎛ a⎞ k ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ 1 g(k) ⎝ 4⎠ 2 [O2 ] Σ

(4) (5)

[H 2 ]

(6)

ka 2(k Kp (1 k))Σ

⎛ a⎞ a k 4.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ 3g(k) ⎝ 4⎠ 2 2

These volume fractions depend only on four parameters: , k and Kp, characterizing combustion, and a characterizing the fuel. Suppose that we know [CO] and [CO2] (we shall see later that their determination is relatively easy). (1) and (2) can be combined to give k, by: (7)

k

[CO] [CO] [CO2 ]

1 [CO] [CO2 ]

and recombining with (2) : (8)

If a and Kp are known (which implies that the quenching temperature of the reaction is known), g(k) can be calculated, and is provided by (6). Then (3), (4) and (5) allow one to fully characterize the reaction.

[N 2 ] ⎛ a⎞ 3.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ ([CO] + [CO2 ]) ⎝ 4⎠

(7.6.20)

If Kp is not known, the value of [O2] allows us to eliminate g(k) between (3) and (6), and thus determine . In the case where in addition the value of a is uncertain, knowledge of [H2] allows us, as we can ascertain, to solve the problem.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Practical Calculation of Combustions The developments presented in this section are of paramount importance in practice: – When analysis of dry flue gas is available, they allow one to fully characterize the combustion by determining the value of the CO2 dissociation rate and the quenching temperature; – When the value of the CO2 dissociation rate and the quenching temperature are known or estimated, they allow us to fully calculate the combustion, as for example in the gas turbine model presented section 9.3 of this Part. They have been implemented in Thermoptim and constitute the basis for the practical calculation of all combustions taking place in internal combustion engines or boilers which are presented in this book, namely in Chapters 12, 13 and 16 of Part 3.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Establishment of the Biard chart Now let us suppose the fuel is known, and therefore the value of a. The determination of and k can be done by choosing two independent relations among the five previous equations, since we set the value of Kp by studying the reaction at a given temperature T. Note that [CO] and [H2] are proportional, so we can often only consider their sum. Some devices directly determine the amount of unburned hydrocarbons by measuring the heat from the catalytic oxidation of CO H2, whose heating values are close enough to be assimilated. The detection of [CO2] and [O2] being relatively easy, it is usually from their equations that and k are determined. The system: [CO2 ]

1 k Σ

⎛ a⎞ k ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ 1 g(k) ⎝ 4⎠ 2 [O2 ] Σ can be rewritten as: ⎛ a⎞ a k 4.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ 3g (k) ⎝ 4⎠ 2 2 [CO2 ] 1 k ⎛ a⎞ k [O2 ] = l ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ − 1 + g(k) ⎝ 4⎠ 2 By expanding, we get: ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ a⎞ a k ⎢ 4.76 ⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟ + + + 3g(k) ⎥ [CO2 ] = 1 − k ⎟ ⎜ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 2 ⎛a k ⎞ 1 − k − ⎜⎜⎜ + + 3g(k) ⎟⎟⎟ [CO2 ] ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞⎟ a 4.76 ⎜⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟ [CO2 ] ⎝ 4⎠

(7.6.21)

Replacing in the [O2] equation we get: ⎛a ⎞ k (1 k) (4.76[O2 ] 1) ⎜⎜⎜ 4.76 3.76 1.76g(k) ⎟⎟⎟ [CO2 ] 0 ⎝2 ⎠ 2

(7.6.22)

For k Const., this relationship defines in the plane ([O2], [CO2]) a bundle of straight lines which all pass through point O of coordinates (0.21, 0) (Figure 7.6.1). They cut the y-axis at coordinates: ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 1 k ⎥ ⎢ 0; ⎥ ⎢ a k ⎥ ⎢ 4 . 76 3.76 1.76g(k) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 2

220

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

For k 0, maximum point P has coordinates: ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0; ⎥ ⎢ a ⎢ 4.76 3.76 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ Note that line k 0 corresponds to perfect combustion, without unburned hydrocarbons. Point P represents then the neutral or stoichiometric combustion. Elsewhere [CO]

k Σ

and

[H 2 ]

ka 2(k Kp(1 k))

We have: [CO] k [CO2 ] 1 k [H 2 ] ka [CO2 ] 2(k Kp(1 k)) (1 k) Both expressions depend only on k, not , [O2] or [CO2]. We can therefore directly graduate lines k const. in ([CO]/[CO2]) or ([H2]/[CO2]). For Const., the curve linking [CO2] and [O2] is given by parametric equations based on k: [CO2 ]

1− k

(7.6.23)

⎛ a⎞ k ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ 1 g(k) ⎝ 4⎠ 2 [O2 ] In the general case they are decreasing curves concave upwards. All these curves can be represented in the Biard chart, established for a given quenching temperature, an example of which is given Figure 7.6.1. Establishment of the Ostwald chart In some cases it is possible to simplify the above expressions by a number of additional approximations. In the temperature range of normal combustion in the presence of excess air (10001500 K), we have seen that constant Kp of the law of mass action can be approximated by the equation: Kp exp (3.387 (3753/T)), which varies here between 0.7 and 2.6. Assuming that in the expression of Kp, k1 and k2 are very small compared to 1, we obtain: Kp

k1 k2

Experience shows that we can consider that the equilibrium is frozen when the fume temperature drops below a certain limit. We assume in what follows that it can be characterized by a Kp value close to 2.

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T 1200°C 18% 16% P k0

14%

[CO2]

12%

k 0.2 k 0.4

10% 8% 6% 4%

k 0.6 k 0.8

2% 0% 0%

λ 0.6 2%

4%

λ 1 λ 1.2 λ 1.5

λ 0.8

6%

8%

10% [O2]

12%

14%

λ2 16%

O 18%

20%

FIGURE 7.6.1

Biard chart for light fuel oil (T quench 1200 C)

Combustion can then be described by two parameters only: , or e, characterizing the excess air, and k k1 2k2. The above equations are simplified, since function g(k) becomes linear and we can eliminate k in the relationship between [CO2] and [O2]. All curves Const define in this case a second straight line bundle. This double bundle has the following interesting features: line k 0 passes through point O, of coordinates: ●

[CO2]O 0 [O2]O 1/4.76 0.21 which corresponds to ! and through point P of coordinates [CO2 ]P

1 4.76 3.76

a 4

[O2]P 0 which corresponds to 1 The slope of this line is equal to 4.76/(4.76 3.76(a/4)) O is the point common to all the straight lines k const, since it is determined by the air composition; line k 1 is the x-axis of equation [CO2] 0; line 1 passes through point P above, and meets the x-axis (k 1) in Q, with coordinates: ●

● ●

[CO2 ]Q 0

[O2 ]Q

1 ⎛ 1⎞ 2 ⎜⎜⎜ 4.76 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ 4⎠

and whose position is independent of a. This line has slope: 8.52 4.76 3.76

222

a 4

0.095

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

18% 16%

[CO] 0 % [CO] 2 % [CO] 4 % [CO] 6 % [CO] 8 % [CO] 10 % [CO] 12 %

P

14%

[CO2]

12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%

O

Q

0%

λ 0.8 λ 0.9 λ 1 5%

0%

λ 1.2 λ 1.5 10% [O2]

λ2 15%

20%

FIGURE 7.6.2 Ostwald chart for heavy fuel

Any normal combustion must have a composition ([CO2], [O2]) located in the triangle OPQ, the closest to P. This is called an Ostwald chart. It has the appearance of Figure 7.6.2. The assumption of linearity of the iso-air ratio curves is better verified in the case of heavy fuel oil than for natural gas. 7.6.3.3 Composition of fumes with soot and without CO or HC If one accepts that in case of low activation of the reaction, there is essentially dry soot composed of carbon, the combustion equation becomes: ⎛ a⎞ a CHa + ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 3.76N 2 ) → (1 k)CO2 kC H 2O ⎝ ⎠ 4 2 ⎛ ⎞⎟ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ a a ⎜⎜ ( − 1) ⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ k ⎟⎟ O2 + 3.76 ⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟N 2 ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ 4⎠ 4⎠ ⎠

(7.6.24)

An analysis similar to the previous would allow one to determine the concentrations of the different species. 7.6.3.4 Composition of fumes without soot and with CO and HC In the third case, when the unburned hydrocarbons are of type CO, HC(CH4) and H2, we can write the combustion equation as follows: ⎛ a⎞ a CHa ⎜⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 3.76N 2 ) → (1 x)CO2 yCO (x y)CH 4 (1 t) H 2O ⎝ 2 4⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ at 4(x y) a y at a H 2 + ⎜⎜ ( − 1) ⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟⎟ + x + + ⎟⎟⎟ O2 3.76 ⎜⎜1 ⎟⎟⎟ N 2 ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ 2 4⎠ 2 4⎠ 4⎠

(7.6.25)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

The law of mass action gives here: a y(1 t ) [CO][H 2O] 2 Kp [CO2 ][H 2 ] (1 x) at 4(x y) 2

(7.6.26)

Here also calculations could be carried out as in 7.6.3.2. 7.6.3.5 Analysis of fumes The above paragraphs show the relevance of knowing the composition of the fumes. It allows us to fully characterize the combustion reaction, and therefore to get access to all the thermodynamic properties and energy products. To analyze the smoke, two broad categories of methods exist: discontinuous and continuous analyzers. With the exception of high precision but heavy and expensive devices, such as chromatographs and spectrometers, discontinuous analyzers are generally relatively imprecise. They are based either on selective chemical absorption of fume components (Orsat analyzers), or on the measure of their thermal conductivity (catharometers), or on calorimetric methods (measurement of unburned hydrocarbons by combustion on catalytic hot wire). The continuous monitors are now much used, as pretty accurate (about 1% of full scale), and very practical for use because they operate continuously. There are four main categories: infrared analyzers selective type NDIR (Non Dispersive Infra Red) are used to measure concentrations of CO2, CO or unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs). Their principle is to compare the IR absorption bands of these gases with those of standard gases; flame ionization detectors (FID) type analyzers provide a much better accuracy than previous analyzers to measure the concentration of unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs). Their principle is to measure the electrical conductivity of smoke, which is directly proportional to the concentration of charged particles, i.e. for hydrocarbon molecules, the number of carbon atoms C; the chemiluminescence analyzers are used to detect nitrogen oxides NOx. Their principle is to measure the infrared radiation emitted during the oxidation of NO to NO2 by ozone O3; pneumo-paramagnetic analyzers determine the oxygen concentration O2 in the fumes. Their principle is to measure the magnetic susceptibility1 of smoke, which is almost equal to that of oxygen, other gases having magnetic susceptibilities from 100 to 200 times lower, with the exception of nitrogen oxides present in very small quantities. ●

●

●

●

Table 7.6.3 summarizes the various types of analyzers used. For most energy applications, knowledge of the first three gas concentrations is generally considered sufficient, data on NOx only being required for pollution controls, and concentrations of other gases being calculated from relationships of the type we have established in the preceding pages. As we have indicated, we generally consider that the unburned hydrocarbons UHCs are in the form of a methane equivalent CH4.

the magnetic susceptibility H of a substance is equal to its permeability minus one unit, being the ratio of the magnetic flux density in the substance to the magnetic flux density in the vacuum. Among all gases present in the fumes, O2, NO and NO2 are the only paramagnetic (H 0), the others being diamagnetic (H 0). 1

224

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

TABLE 7.6.3 VARIOUS TYPES OF ANALYZERS

CO2

principle

scale

selective infrared analyzers (NDIR)

05 % 020 %

CO

selective infrared analyzers (NDIR)

0–2.5 % 0–25 %

HC

selective infrared analyzers (NDIR)

0–10 %

flame ionization detector (FID)

0–100 % 0–10 ppm 0–100 ppm 0–1000 ppm 0–10000 ppm

O2

paramagnetism

NOx

chemiluminescence (CL)

0–21%

7.6.4 Energy properties of combustion reactions 7.6.4.1 Thermodynamic properties of species in reaction One of the main objectives of combustion studies is the determination of energy exchanges that occur when chemical reactions take place. For this, it suffices to know the internal energies or enthalpies of reactants and products, because the energy exchange at stake does not depend on intermediate reactions, but only on initial and final states of chemical species in reaction. We define the combustion heat of reaction as the change in internal energy or enthalpy of the mixture, depending on whether the reaction takes place at constant volume or constant pressure. For a reaction at constant volume, we have: Qv (Ur)v (Up Ur)v At constant pressure: Qp (Hr)p (Hp Hr)p

(7.6.27)

Evidently, the calculation of heats of reaction implies knowledge of the internal energies Ur and Up or enthalpies Hr and Hp of reactants and products. As mentioned previously, the principle of their calculation is based on the assumption that the different constituents are reacting in the gaseous state, and each of them is comparable to an ideal gas. Their mixture under these conditions is itself an ideal gas. If we note xi the molar concentrations and yi the mass concentrations of the various constituents, we have, let us recall: Pi xiP M xiMi In mass units h yihi ⎛ T cpi (t ) ⎞⎟ s yisi ( T, Pi ) ⎜⎜⎜ yi ∫ dt r yi ln Pi ⎟⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ t

225

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

In molar units H xiHi ⎛ T Cpi (t ) ⎞⎟ S x iSi ( T, Pi ) ⎜⎜⎜ x i ∫ dt R x i ln Pi ⎟⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ t Note that in an equilibrium reaction, the xi and yi depend on temperature, because of the law of mass action. The evaluation of hi and si is based on a reference common to all substances, at a temperature of 25 C and a pressure of 1 bar. The internal energy and enthalpy of different substances, known as heats of formation uf or hf are determined in this reference state by methods that are outside the scope of this book; they are available in tables (e.g. JANAF Tables, Chase et al. 1985). 7.6.4.2 Enthalpies of formation For all elements, or simple substances, the value of enthalpy of formation hf is chosen equal to 0 in the reference state. For compound substances, it is not zero, but its value is the enthalpy consumed or released during the chemical reaction that leads to the development of the compound. If we have: '1A1 '2A2 ↔ '3A3 with A1 and A2 simple substances of enthalpies of formation equal to 0, hf3 (Hp Hr)p Hp The determination of thermodynamic functions, temperature and pressure of the reaction is then done using formulas (5.6.5) (5.6.6) and (5.6.7) for ideal gases. T

∫

h(T) = hf +

cp (t) dt

(7.6.28)

298.15

7.6.4.3 Entropies of reference Similarly, we can tabulate the values of entropy of different substances in this reference state. For this purpose, reasoning is based on a principle, derived on experimental observations, sometimes called the third law of thermodynamics, which states that when the temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of pure substances approaches zero. Reference entropies can thus be determined by integration between 0 and 298.15 K of equation: ds

dh dP v T T

For an ideal gas, for P0 1 bar, 298.15

s0

∫ 0

cp (t) t

dt

s0 is usually read directly from tables, and calculating the entropy of an ideal gas at temperature T and pressure P is done by applying equation (5.6.7): T

s s0

∫

298.15

226

cp (t) t

dt r ln(P)

(7.6.29)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

TABLE 7.6.4 ENTHALPIES AND ENTROPIES OF FORMATION M kg/kmol Carbon monoxide

CO

28.01

h0 kJ/kmol

s0 kJ/kmol/K

110,530

197.56

Carbon dioxide

CO2

44.01

393,520

213.64

Water (vapor)

H2O

18.02

241,820

188.72

Water (liquid)

H2O

18.02

285,830

69.92

Methane

CH4

16.04

74,850

186.16

Ethylene

C2H4

28.05

52,280

219.83

Ethane

C2H6

30.07

84,680

229.49

Ammonia

NH3

17.04

46,190

192.33

Acetylene

C2H2

26.04

226,730

200.85

Propane

C3H8

44.09

103,850

269.91

n-Butane

C4H10

58.12

126,150

310.12

n-Pentane

C5H12

72.15

146,440

348.69

n-Hexane

C6H14

86.17

167,200

388.40

n-Heptane

C7H16

100.20

187,820

427.77

n-Octane

C8H18

114.22

208,450

466.73

Benzene

C6H6

78.11

82,930

269.20

Methyl alcohol

CH3OH

32.05

200,670

239.70

Ethyl alcohol

C2H5OH

46.07

235,310

282.59

Table 7.6.4, extracted from (Holman, 1988), gives the enthalpies and entropies of formation of some common substances. 7.6.4.4 Heats of reaction Once the enthalpies of formation of various chemical species are known, the calculation of heat of reaction is simple. Let us use general equation 7.6.1 considered at the beginning of the chapter: '1A1 '2A2 ↔ '3A3 '4A4 Let us note hfi the enthalpies of formation of the Ai. We obtain the heat of reaction by writing: Hr '1hf1 '2hf2 '3hf3 '4hf4

(7.6.30)

In an equilibrium reaction, the heat of reaction Hr is a function of 'i and thus xi. Therefore, when the reaction is not complete or there is dissociation, the heat of reaction is different from that obtained under stoichiometric conditions, as shown in the following example. Let us calculate for example the heat of reaction of octane for a stoichiometric reaction: C8H18 12.5O2 3.76 12.5N2 → 8CO2 9H2O 3.76 12.5N2 Hr hfC8H18 12.5hfO2 8hfCO2 9hfH2O Hr 208450 0 8(393520) 9(285830) 5,512,180 kJ/kmol The molar mass of octane being 114.22 kg/kmol, its heat of reaction mass is equal to: Qp 48,259 kJ/kg

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

If the reaction is not stoichiometric, but occurs in the absence of air, the formation of carbon monoxide decreases the heat of reaction. For richness equal to 1.25, for example, the reaction becomes: C8H18 10O2 37.6N2 → 3CO2 5CO 9H2O 37.6N2 Hr hfC8H18 10hfO2 3hfCO2 5hfCO 9hfH2O Hr 208450 0 3(393520) 5(110530) 9(285830) 4,097,230 kJ/kmol i.e. a decrease of 25.7% over the stoichiometric reaction. 7.6.4.5 Higher and lower heating value In most cases, the reaction products are found in the gaseous state at the end of combustion, but it is possible at low temperature, that some of them are liquid or even solidify, releasing a heat of condensation or solidification. The problem arises especially during the combustion of hydrocarbons, water appearing among the products. The maximum energy release is obtained when the water contained in the fume is liquefied. The complete value of the heat of reaction is named Higher Heating Value or HHV. Where all the water produced remains in the vapor state, it is given the name of Lower Heating Value or LHV. If only a fraction of the water condenses, the heat of reaction is an intermediate value between the HHV and LHV. Based on the above definitions, we identify four heating values which are particularly interesting: at constant pressure or volume, and lower or higher. In fact, heating values at constant pressure and volume are substantially equal. However, enthalpies of vaporization are far from negligible (for water, it is approximately 45 MJ/kmol at 0 C). So there are significant differences between the values of fuel HHV and LHV, and it is important to specify which one is used. In conclusion, therefore, to determine the energies involved in a complete combustion reaction, you should use the fuel heating value, specifying whether it is the higher heating value (HHV) or the lower heating value (LHV). The heating values of specific fuels commonly used in internal combustion engines are fairly close to each other. One can indeed show that hydrocarbon LHV range is from 44 MJ/kg to 40 MJ/ kg when we consider products of distillation of increasing molar weight. For gaseous fuels, heating values are generally expressed in kJ/m3N. They are obtained by dividing the heat of reaction in kJ/kmol by the volume occupied by a normal kilomol (0 C, 1 bar), i.e. 22.414 m3. In Thermoptim, the LHV values of gases are displayed in the compound gas editor screen. 7.6.4.6 Adiabatic flame temperature If we assume that the reaction takes place without heat exchange with the outside, that is to say adiabatically, it is possible to calculate the temperature reached by the mixture. To do this, simply write that the enthalpy of the products is equal to that of the reactants in the initial state. Temperature Tad is thus given by: Tad

Hp Hp0 ∫ Cpp (t) dt Hr T0

228

(7.6.31)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

with Tr

Hr Hr0 ∫ Cpr (t) dt T0

Values with index 0 are relative to the reference state (298.15 K, 1 bar), and Tr is the temperature of the reactants when the combustion has been initiated. We therefore should resolve: Tad

∫

T0

Tr

Cpp (t) dt Hr0 Hp0 ∫ Cpr (t) dt T0

Since by definition (Hr) Hr0 Hp0 Tad

∫

T0

Tr

Cpp (t) dt (Hr ) ∫ Cpr (t) dt

(7.6.32)

T0

In the general case of an equilibrium reaction in the presence of dissociation, this equation can be very complex, since Hr depends on Tad by the law of mass action. In the case where the reaction is complete, (7.6.32) corresponds to solving a polynomial with real coefficients in Tad, which can be done iteratively, for example. In practice, the calculation of adiabatic temperature Tad has a number of pitfalls. It is particularly important to take into account the variation in the number of moles during the reaction. For this, the best way is probably to think in molar units and to use the coefficients of the chemical reaction. With the general equation considered earlier in this chapter: '1A1 '2A2 ↔ '3A3 '4A4 We have seen that the calculation of the heat of reaction is very simple by writing: Hr '1h01 '2h02 '3h03 '4h04 For this reaction, the general equation (7.6.32) becomes: Tad

Tr

T0

T0

(' 3 +' 4 ) ∫ Cpp (t) dt (Hr ) ('1 ' 2 ) ∫ Cpr (t) dt Where Cp represents the molar heat capacity. It is also possible to take into account incomplete reactions (non-stoichiometric conditions, dissociation), provided the value of equilibrium constants Kp are set, iterating once the temperature Tad is known. 7.6.4.7 Combustion in boilers To design and conduct boilers, the assumption is often made that the combustions are complete, to avoid too complex calculations. Moreover, volume flows involved are of importance, because of their influence on losses from fume and combustion efficiency. The practice has led to them being characterized by notions of airflow required and smoke developed. 7.6.4.7.1 Airflow required and smoke developed Assuming complete combustion, the energy released is characterized by its heating value, higher or lower. To qualify the gas volumes involved, airflow required and smoke developed are introduced,

229

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

whose main value is to firstly determine the losses through the smoke, and secondly to design the air and exhaust fumes supply arrangements. We define the airflow required Van (or neutral air volume) as the amount of air necessary and sufficient to ensure complete combustion of the unit quantity of fuel (or neutral stoichiometric combustion) and smoke developed Vfn (or neutral volume of smoke) as the amount of gas produced by combustion of the theoretical unit of fuel. In the latter case, you must specify whether you are interested in dry gas (Vfns), that is to say sufficiently cooled so that water vapor is totally condensed or in moist fumes (Vfnh). By default, the smoke developed relates to dry gas (Vfns). Reaction in the presence of excess air is in turn characterized by the actual volume of air Var and the real volume of smoke (dry Vfrs or moist Vfrh). Given the definition of air factor: Var Van Moreover, the volume of smoke in the presence of excess air is equal to the smoke developed, plus the excess air, which did not participate in the combustion reaction: Vfrs Vfns ( 1)Van Vfrh Vfnh ( 1)Van Let us recall that these relationships are valid if the reaction is complete, i.e. if there are no unburned hydrocarbons or formation of nitrogen oxides NOx, otherwise the oxygen balance is no longer verified. If the fuel is gaseous, the unit used to quantify is the normal cubic meter, or if liquid or solid, the kilogram. Airflow required, smoke developed and air or smoke volumes are expressed in m3/m3 or m3/kg. 7.6.4.7.2 Relationships with excess air and flue gas composition It is possible to generalize the developments presented in paragraph 7.6.3, to investigate the relationship between excess air, flue gas composition and airflow required and smoke developed. In what follows, we refer to dry gas. The reasoning can be easily transposed to moist smoke. The stoichiometric equation for the complete combustion of any fuel has been established above (7.6.7): ⎛ y x⎞ y z CH y Ox Nz Su ⎜⎜⎜1 u ⎟⎟⎟ O2 → CO2 H 2O uSO2 N 2 ⎝ 4 2⎠ 2 2 In the presence of excess air, and introducing hydrogen available for combustion we obtain: ⎛ a ⎞ ⎛a ⎞ CHa Nz Su xH 2O ⎜⎜⎜1 u ⎟⎟⎟ (O2 3.76N 2 ) ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟⎟ H 2O uSO2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 4 ⎡ ⎛ a ⎞ ⎛ a ⎞ z⎤ (λ 1) ⎜⎜⎜1 u ⎟⎟⎟ O2 ⎢ 3.76 ⎜⎜1 u ⎟⎟⎟ ⎥ N 2 ⎜ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎥⎦ 4 4 ⎣ In what follows, the concentrations of species may be referred to either dry or moist smoke. What matters is that the calculations are done consistently. [CO2 ]

230

1 Vfr

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

⎛ a ⎞ ( 1) ⎜⎜⎜1 u ⎟⎟⎟ ( 1) Van ⎝ ⎠ 4 4.76 [O2 ] Vfr Vfr (λ − 1)Van [O2 ] ( 1)Van Vfn 1 Vfr Vfn ( 1)Van Vfn ( 1)Van 0.21 Let us call [CO2]0 the CO2 concentration of flue gases (dry or moist, as the case may be) obtained for a stoichiometric combustion. [O2 ] [CO2 ] 1 = 1− [CO2 ]0 Vfn 0.21 [CO2 ] [O2 ] + =1 [CO2 ]0 0.21

[CO2 ]0 =

(7.6.33)

Here we find a generalization of Equation 7.6.22 presented above. In taking average values for [CO2]0, we obtain the following relations: natural gas: ⎛ [O ] ⎞ [CO2 ] 0.12 ⎜⎜1 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 0.21 ⎠ LPG: ⎛ [O ] ⎞ [CO2 ] 0.14 ⎜⎜1 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 0.21 ⎠ heating oil: ⎛ [O ] ⎞ [CO2 ] 0.15 ⎜⎜1 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 0.21 ⎠ heavy fuel: ⎛ [O ] ⎞ [CO2 ] 0.16 ⎜⎜1 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 0.21 ⎠ coal: ⎛ [O ] ⎞ ⎛ [O ] ⎞ [CO2 ] 0.18 ⎜⎜1 2 ⎟⎟⎟ to 0.2 ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ 0.21 ⎠ 0.21 ⎠ Moreover, as: [O 2 ]

( 1)

Van 4.76

Vfr

( − 1)Van 4.76(Vfn ( 1)Van ) Var ( 1) [O 2 ] Vfr 4.76 [O 2 ]

(7.6.34)

231

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

1 e

1 [O2 ] Vfr 1− 0.21 Var

(7.6.35)

e 1

Vfn 1 0 21 . Van −1 [O2 ]

(7.6.36)

These last three expressions can often be simplified by considering only a first approximation for most fuels, Var ⬇ Vfr. They allow, knowing the oxygen concentration of the smoke, the excess air to be directly determined. The latter is widely used because it helps to know the excess air from the airflow required and smoke developed, which depend only on the fuel, and the value of the oxygen concentration of fumes. 7.6.4.7.3 Summary combustion tables When the fuel is characterized by its weight formula, the determination of combustion is as follows. For each component, we calculate: the number of moles per kg of fuel (nm 1000 %mass/M) ; the number of moles of oxygen reacting (nm for C or S, nm/2 for H2) ; the associated nitrogen (3.76 times the number of moles of oxygen) (the airflow required (mol/kg) is deduced by summing); the number of moles of CO2, SO2, N2, H2O in the products; the smoke developed (mol/kg) is deduced by summing. ● ● ●

●

Values in m3N/kg are obtained by multiplying previous values by 0.02214. Table 7.6.5 provides the calculations for stoichiometric combustion of methane, with determination of airflow required and smoke developed. Based on the theoretical analysis presented above, we can see that one of the main characteristics of fuels is the ratio a of the number of hydrogen atoms to that of carbon. Sometimes it is rather its reverse, C/H 1/a which is used. A classification of fuels most often used in boilers can be found in Table 7.6.6. 7.6.4.8 Combustion efficiency In a boiler or a heat engine, the total energy released by combustion is not always used: a part is carried away by the fumes, another corresponds to losses through the walls etc. To characterize these losses, we introduce the concept of combustion efficiency, one difficulty being that definitions vary according to the authors and the types of use. When it is possible to isolate the combustion from other phenomena, it is quite natural to call combustion efficiency the ratio of useful energy at the output of the combustion chamber to the energy theoretically available to the burner. The losses in the combustion chamber in this case essentially correspond to losses through the walls and loss by incomplete combustion, which can be characterized by the concept of LHV (or possibly HHV) efficiency, the ratio of energy available in the burner to the heating value of the fuel.

c

c

232

useful energy LHV

LHV losses by walls losses by incomplete combustion LHV

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

TABLE 7.6.5 METHANE COMBUSTION Fuel

N2

CO2

234.78

62.44

124.01

62.44

233.13

186.45

124.45

467.92

Neutral air

592.37

M

75

12.01

62.44

25

2.02

100

9.51

H2

Flue gas

62.44

% mass C

total

Neutral air comp.

O2

62.44

N2

H20

234.78

0.00

233.13

124.01

467.92

124.01

Dry neutral flue gas

530.36

Moist neutral flue gas

654.37

Neutral air volume

13.271

m3n/kg

Dry neutral flue gas volume

11.872

m3n/kg

Water vapor volume

2.625

m3n/kg

Moist neutral flue gas volume

14.497

m3n/kg

CO2 volume

1.390

m3n/kg

N2 volume

10.482

m3n/kg

HHV

12.28

kWh/kg

LHV

10.78

kWh/kg

Vfns/Van

SO2

89.46%

CO2n

11.71%

C/H

0.25

TABLE 7.6.6 CLASSIFICATION OF FUELS Fuel

C/H

HHV

LHV 3

gaseous

kWh/m

kWh/m

gaz

gaz

Vfns/Van

Vfnh

CO2ns

m3n

%

3

natural gas

0.269

12.28

11.15

0.908

11.72

12.06

Com. propane

0.41

27.4

24.7

0.917

25.4

14.1

Com. butane

0.42

32

0.926

33.1

14.3

m3n

%

liquid/solid

35.5 kWh/kg

kWh/kg

light fuel oil

0.54

12.7

11.9

0.937

12.02

15.28

heavy fuel oil

0.68

11.52

10.89

0.947

11.12

16.06

coal

0.88

7.3 à 9

0.962

dry wood

0.66

5.15.4

0.99

5.15.3

2

0.977

2.78

5.45.8

garbage

LHV

18 à 20 20

LHV losses by incomplete combustion LHV

LHV is the combustion efficiency as calculated in Thermoptim. When the combustion cannot be isolated from other phenomena, things become more difficult. For example, in an automobile engine cylinder, the combustion starts at the end of the compression phase and continues during the early phase of expansion. The precise definition of combustion efficiency becomes very complex. In boilers, combustion takes place simultaneously with the exchange of heat by convection and radiation between the combustion products and the heated fluid. The losses in this case include

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three terms: the incomplete combustion losses, losses through the walls, and losses by the fumes, usually predominant, corresponding to the enthalpy of the still hot gases released into the air. We then often define the combustion efficiency as the ratio of useful energy actually transferred to the fluid to the energy theoretically available to the burner. As the first two types of losses are generally lower than the loss by the fumes, they are frequently neglected. The combustion efficiency is then:

c

useful energy LHV − loss by the fumes loss by the fumes 1 LHV LHV LHV

The combustion efficiency in this case depends crucially on the temperature of the fumes, the smoke losses being directly proportional. We understand why it is desirable to cool the smoke as much as possible when it is possible to do so.

7.6.5

Emissions of gaseous pollutants

The major gaseous pollutants are sulfur, nitrogen and carbon oxides. In addition, emissions of CO2, a fatal combustion product, are now increasingly regarded as pollutants because of their impact on the greenhouse effect. SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and SO3 (sulfur trioxide) emissions depend only on the sulfur content of fuels, the formation of SO3 resulting from complete oxidation of sulfur. At low temperature, SO3 combines with flue gas condensation to form highly corrosive sulfuric acid H2SO4. The reaction beginning at temperatures below 180 C, it is imperative that the fumes are discharged above this limit in cases where the fuel is heavy fuel oil (3.5% S). Finally, the stack height is determined by the minimum levels of ground-level concentration of SO2. NOx nitrogen oxides come in the forms of NO (nitric oxide) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). They come either from the presence of nitrogen in the fuel or from an unwanted oxidation of the air nitrogen. It was shown that the rate of formation of nitrogen oxides from fuel impurities is much higher than that from the air nitrogen, since the binding energy of the nitrogen molecule is much greater than that which connects the nitrogen atoms to carbon atoms or hydrogen. To limit the emission of nitrogen oxides from the combustion air, several possibilities exist: to lower the excess air (though this increases the temperature), making a staged combustion, or flue gas recirculation, thereby lowering flame temperatures without increasing the excess oxygen. One can indeed show that the excess oxygen (and air) promotes the onset of nitrogen oxides, by studying the reaction: 1 1 O2 N 2 ↔ NO 2 2 If we complete equation (7.6.14) of unburned hydrocarbons formation to reflect the dissociation of nitrogen, we can write: a CHa (1 ) (O2 3.76 N 2 ) → (1 − k1 ) CO2 k1CO 4 a a (1 − k2 ) H 2O + k2 H 2 2 2 k1 a a k (( 1) (1 ) k2 − 3 )O2 4 2 4 2 a k3 3.76 (1 )N 2 k3NO 4 2

234

(7.6.37)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

The constant Kp of the law of mass action for the dissociation reaction of nitrogen is very low (between 105 and 3 102 for temperatures between 1,000 and 2,200 K). Under these conditions, k3 is very small, and k3/2 can be neglected before the number of moles of oxygen, of nitrogen and total. Therefore, at equilibrium: [NO] Kp[O2]0.5[N2]0.5

(7.6.38)

Since [N2] is almost constant and close to 78%, we get: [NO] 0.88Kp[O2]0.5 [O2] being an increasing function of excess air, [NO] is too. This equilibrium value, however, is rarely reached, because the kinetics of NO formation is much slower than that of combustion. The concentration limit is thus lower than that which would suggest the maximum temperatures were reached, but instead the reaction freezes very early, so it is difficult to limit emissions of nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide CO is a product of incomplete combustion, which indicates a malfunction of the boiler. Global CO2 emissions To estimate CO2 emissions, at a country or global level, from the combustion of fossil fuels or biomass, there are a number of methodological problems, briefly discussed below. Firstly, the amounts of primary fuels recorded include non-energy uses that do not result in CO2 emissions (such as use of oil as feedstock for petrochemicals, and bitumen). It follows that, strictly speaking, you must deduct non-energy uses from the primary balance. Secondly, the amount of CO2 emitted depends on the fuels burned, whose diversity disappears from primary balances, where you only find three categories: coal, oil and natural gas. Equivalence ratios, often varying from one country to another, are used for conversions, and as we have only aggregated values, we can only adopt an average estimation method. This can be even more delicate when all primary energy is usually expressed in a common unit, usually a ton of oil equivalent. Finally, in practice, many reactions are incomplete, due to the onset of dissociation at high temperature. In this case, the energies involved may differ significantly from theoretical values corresponding to complete reactions.

7.6.6

Calculation of combustion

in Thermoptim

The combustion screen (Figure 7.6.3) is the most complex of those of processes, given the number of existing options. You should refer to the beginning of section 7.1.5 for an overview of the process screens. 7.6.6.1 Declaration of fuel In case of excess air, non-stoichiometric complete combustion of fuel CHa with atmospheric air is given by equation (7.6.11). Thermoptim uses a generalized equation of this type, where the oxidizer can be any compound gas including oxygen, and fuel is either given as CHa, or declared as a pure or compound gas. The definition of fuel is in the upper right of the screen (Figure 7.6.4). If the fuel is a pure or compound gas, it may contain one or more of the following reactants: CO, H2S, CnHmSpOq, n, m, p and q being decimal numbers less than 100. Inert gases taken into account are: Ar, CO2, H2O, N2, SO2. Note that the fuel is always assumed to be gaseous, which may cause a slight error if it is in the liquid state. The fuel and oxidizer can both contain reactive oxygen and inert gases, even if it is normal that the fuel contains no oxygen, nor the oxidizer fuel. It is thus possible to calculate complex combustion,

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 7.6.3 Combustion screen in Thermoptim

FIGURE 7.6.4 Fuel process link

such as that of a fuel mixture made before introduction into the combustion chamber (fresh charge of a gasoline engine). The reaction products are CO2, H2O, SO2 as well as CO and H2 if there is dissociation, and fuel if the reaction is not complete. The software analyzes the chemical formulas of the fuel and oxidizer components, and deduces the reaction that takes place. Calculations can then be executed. Chemical formulas are obtained by decoding the names of the substances. When the fuel is a gas, the name that appears on the screen (here “fuel”) should be that of a process (e.g. a process-point) to determine its flow rate. The process itself is connected to a point to specify the substance name and state. The example below is taken from the Getting Started example n 22 « gas turbine ». It relates to the natural gas available at the LNG terminal of Gaz de France at Montoir de Bretagne (France) and illustrates how to declare a fuel whose composition is given Figure 7.6.5.

2

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/logiciels/thermoptim/documentation/guide-prise-en-mains/switchLanguage/en

[CRC_In_4]

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

FIGURE 7.6.5 Fuel composition

Each constituent, except for nitrogen, is a fuel, whose chemical formula appears in the first part of the name that sometimes is followed by a comment, separated from the formula by the character « ` ». By analyzing the chemical formula of each constituent and its molar fraction, Thermoptim completely characterizes the fuel. This substance is associated to a point, allowing specification of its temperature, which is taken into account for the calculation of the outlet gas temperature. The flow rate is associated with a process-point, whose name serves as parameter for the combustion. To find the oxidizer flow rate, the software searches if there is a process whose outlet point is the inlet point of the combustion process, or if it is connected to a node. Messages inform the user if a problem occurs, either because there are several processes that lead to the inlet point, or because no process or node is connected to it. When the fuel is given in the form CHa (“CHa type” must be selected), it is necessary to enter the values of a, and of its enthalpy of formation hf0 (relative to the formulation CHa). It is then impossible to specify the flow rate. 7.6.6.2 Open systems and closed systems It is necessary to specify if the combustion takes place in an open or closed system. For open systems, the pressure must be set to a certain value. It can be done either «by the user», which means that this value will be that of the outlet, or «by the inlet point», which corresponds to a combustion at constant pressure equal to that of the upstream oxidizer. For closed systems, one can choose between three possibilities: set volume, set pressure, or constant temperature combustion. For the two first cases, two different modes of setting the volume or the pressure exist: «by the user» or «by the inlet point». In the third case, the combustion temperature is constant and equal to that of the upstream oxidizer. In the two last cases (set pressure and constant temperature), the volume varies with combustion, so that a part of the energy liberated by the combustion transforms directly into mechanical energy due to the expansion of the volume. The first law of thermodynamics indicates indeed that internal energy variation (U) is the algebraic sum of the heat ((Hr LHV th) and the work (W 兰Pdv) received by the system. Thermoptim calculates the value W and displays it just below the value of the energy liberated in the combustion. This value is subsequently taken into account as useful energy when the cycle balance is calculated. One can refer, for more understanding of this subject, to examples on diesel3 and spark ignition4 engines presented in the portal. 7.6.6.3 Characteristics of combustion The dissociation of CO2 to CO can be taken into account by checking the appropriate option. In the case of atmospheric air the combustion reaction is given by equations (7.6.14) and (7.6.15). 3 4

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/enseignement/cours-en-ligne/seances-diapason/session-s38en-exercise http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/enseignement/cours-en-ligne/seances-diapason/session-s39en-exercise

[CRC_ln_5, CRC_ln_6]

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

This equilibrium is independent of pressure, and is a function of temperature. With the assumption that the kinetics of combustion is sufficiently fast for the equilibrium to be reached, the law of mass action can be written: Kp

[CO] [H 2O] k1 (1 k2 ) f (Tf ) [CO2 ] [H 2 ] (1 k1 )k2

Thermoptim uses an approach of this type, but generalized. If one chooses to take dissociation into account, a frame is displayed in which must be entered k1, dissociation rate of CO2, and Tf quenching temperature which is used for calculating the constant Kp. To account for any heat loss from the combustion chamber, not necessarily adiabatic, we introduce a thermal efficiency th, initialized to 1 by default (right at the center of the screen). This efficiency differs from the combustion efficiency LHV, calculated by the software based on the dissociation rate and the quenching temperature (see 10.6.4.8). In the bottom left of the screen are located two fields, one corresponding to the air factor , and the other to the temperature Tc at the end of combustion. It is possible to set either of these values, and calculate the other, or to calculate both from the fuel and oxidizer flows. The air ratio may be higher or lower than 1. If it is below 1, the software considers this a lack of combustion air leading to the formation of carbon monoxide CO. If the air ratio is too low for all available carbon to be oxidized to CO, a message warns the user. 7.6.6.4 Calculation options The option «Calculate T» determines the outlet gas temperature Tc, from the value set for . If the fuel is a gas, the mass flow rate of the « fuel » process is adjusted in order that the relationship between the volume flow rates of oxidizer and fuel is equal to the air factor. The mass flow rate of the combustion process is set equal to the sum of fuel and oxidizer flow rates, which means that the combustion process behaves, at the hydraulic level, as a flow rate mixer. The option «Calculate lambda» determines , from the value of Tc set. Flow rate calculation rules are analogous to those of the preceding option. If the enthalpy released by the stoichiometric combustion does not allow it to reach the desired temperature, a message warns the user. The option “Set the fuel flow rate” determines and Tc from the characteristics of the oxidizer and the fuel, which must be a gas. The mass flow of the combustion process becomes equal to the sum of the flows of fuel and oxidizer. If the fuel is type CHa, nothing is done. When combustion is calculated, the value of combustion efficiency LHV is determined. An example is given in Chapter 9.3. 7.6.6.5 Special case of pre-mixed reactants As indicated above, it is possible to burn a reactant mix that is prepared before it is introduced to the combustion chamber (for example a fuel-air mixture prepared in a carburetor, which can be easily modeled in Thermoptim by a mixer node). In this case, there is no longer a need to specify a fuel that is already present in the oxidizer. In order that the software knows that this is the case, it is necessary to choose option «CHa type», and set the values of a and hf0 to zero, or select option “premixed” (versions 1.4 and above). As it is clear in this case that the notion of air factor loses its meaning, this parameter is used to represent the burnt fraction of the reactants (. If ( 1, we assume that only a fraction ( of the mix has reacted, and that (1 () has not reacted. Combustion gases are then considered as a dual gas mixture: first the reaction products, including inert gases, and second the fraction of the initial mix that has not reacted. This allows one to start from a given mix, and to separate its combustion in several phases, for example constant volume, then constant pressure, then constant temperature.

238

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

Flame Fuel Turbine

Compressed air

Primary zone

Secondary zone

Dilution zone

Cross-section of a gas turbine combustion chamber T (K) 2,500 2,000 1,500

Temperatures in a gas turbine combustion chamber

FIGURE 7.6.6 Sketch of a combustion chamber

One can refer, for more understanding of this subject, to the example on spark ignition engines cited above. 7.6.7 Technological aspects Technologically, energy production combustions take place in two general classes of devices: combustion chambers (reciprocating or continuous flow), and boilers. The first are used to produce high pressure and temperature combustion gases that are then expanded, e.g. in a turbine. The latter realize simultaneously in the same chamber combustion and transfer to a fluid of the heat available in exhaust gases. We limit ourselves in what follows to a brief overview of these technologies, which will be discussed in more detail in Part 3. 7.6.7.1 Combustion chambers For example, the combustion chamber of a gas turbine must satisfy severe constraints: ensure complete combustion of fuel, minimize the pressure drop (which represents an increase in compression), ensure good temperature stability at the turbine inlet, and occupy a volume as small as possible while allowing proper cooling of the walls. The chart in Figure 7.6.6 is a section of a flame tube type combustion chamber, very commonly encountered in practice. The compressed air exiting the compressor enters on the left side. It splits into two streams, one that provides wall cooling, the other entering directly into the combustion chamber, where it serves as oxidizer for the fuel injected into the central part. Given the low excess air locally, the flame reaches a high temperature (up to 2500 K) in the primary zone. Through holes at the periphery of the flame tube, the outside air mixes with exhaust gases in the transitional zone, where the temperature drops to around 2000 K, and in the dilution zone, where one seeks to achieve a gas flow temperature as stable as possible to avoid the risk of local or momentary overheating. In flame tube cylinder chambers, six to twelve tubes of this type are mounted in parallel around the axis of the gas turbine. They are interconnected in order to balance the pressures and enable propagation of the ignition.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

These flame tubes are very compact, their dimensions amounting to several tens of centimeters at most. Subjected to intense and high temperature heat fluxes, the materials they contain are resistant steel sheet potentially coated with ceramic. 7.6.7.2 Boilers Boilers are much larger than combustion chambers, because of the need to transfer fume heat to another fluid, which requires large exchange surfaces. In many applications, this fluid is pressurized water, which vaporizes inside the boiler, which then behaves like a triple heat exchanger as the water passes from liquid form (economizer), vaporizes (vaporizer), and becomes steam (superheater). There are two main types of boilers, known from the fluid that circulates inside the tubes: fire tube boilers, and water tube boilers. In the first, the flame develops in a corrugated tube, then the flue gases pass inside tubes, in one or more passes, water being at the outside. Within the second type, water circulates by natural or forced convection between two drums placed one above the other, through a network of tubes. The flame develops in a furnace lined with tubes that absorb the radiation. A second tube bundle receives heat by convection from the flue gases. The water rises in the tubes subjected to radiation, and falls by the convection assembly. The fire tube boilers can achieve flue gas temperatures lower (220 to 250 C) than water-tube boilers (300 C) without an economizer, which gives them a slightly better efficiency.

FIGURE 7.6.7

Industrial boiler (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique)

240

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

However, the former are limited to capacities lower than the latter, for reasons of mechanical strength and safety (with a very large volume of water under pressure). Their main area of use is the supply of saturated steam under low pressure ( 15 bar), and represent over 60% of the French stock of boilers, against 20–25% for water tube boilers, which are well suited for the supply of superheated steam at medium and high pressure. A water tube boiler consists of a furnace where the combustion takes place leading to flame temperatures from 1200 to 1500 C, and whose walls are lined with smooth or finned steel pipes, which contain the pressurized water (50 to 180 bar). Heat is transferred primarily by radiation and by convection. For heat to be transferred, it is necessary that the total tube area is very large, which prohibits the use of high-grade steels: their surface temperature is limited to about 650 C. Figure 7.6.7 shows two sectional views of a Carosso water tube steam boiler. The circulation of water between the two large drums D is provided by thermosiphon, vaporization taking place in the tube bundle that connects them.

7.7 THROTTLING OR FLASH We call throttling the adiabatic expansion of a fluid in a fixed wall device such as a filter, a valve, or a refrigerator expansion valve. The process being adiabatic Q 0. Since the walls are fixed, 0. If the kinetic energies are negligible, which is usually the case, the first law is then written h Q 0. Throttling is an isenthalpic process. In Thermoptim, the throttling process screen (Figure 7.7.1) is one of the simplest, as only one action can be performed. You should refer to the beginning of section 7.1.5 for an overview of the process screens. The calculation of the process is to determine the temperature and entropy of the outlet point knowing its pressure and enthalpy. An example is given in section 9.2. This process can also model a flash expansion.

FIGURE 7.7.1 Throttling process screen in Thermoptim

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

7.8 WATER VAPOR/GAS MIXTURES PROCESSES In section 5.6.7 we presented the definitions and conventions for moist mixtures, i.e. in practice mixtures of a compound gas and water whose composition may vary due to condensation or vaporization of this water. In this same section, we outlined the principles governing the calculation of these mixtures. The main practical application of these studies is air conditioning to control temperature and humidity in indoor environments, but the problem is more general. In this section we present the basic treatments that undergo moist mixtures, and we illustrate each with examples pertaining to air. Air processing cycles involve different processes discussed below (Wang et al., 2000). To represent these processes, professional practice has established the use of Carrier or psychrometric charts, or Mollier charts for moist mixtures (see Figure 5.6.20 to 5.6.22) of the kind that are built into Thermoptim. The main processes that can undergo moist mixtures are: mixture, heating, cooling, with or without water condensation, humidification, by water or steam, dehumidification, and finally, for air conditioning applications, it is often useful to determine the supply conditions for obtaining desired comfort. In what follows, we present these basic operations and associated technologies, recall the equations that come into play, and how they can be determined with Thermoptim and represented in moist mixture charts.

7.8.1

Moist process screens

To study changes that may undergo a moist mix, a “moist” process has been introduced. In fact, it corresponds to six different processes, which are distinguished by their category. The screen looks like the one given in Figure 7.8.1, but it varies slightly depending on the category. You should refer to the beginning of section 7.1.5 for an overview of process screens. This is a “supply” moist process, to calculate the supply conditions for maintaining desired comfort, given water and thermal loads. Before detailing how to use this screen, which will be done in section 7.8.7, let us point out some points valid for all moist processes. First, Thermoptim calculates moist mixture processes to the extent that they are represented by their dry gas and specific or relative humidity. The reason is simple: this mode of representation eliminates the need to introduce a new substance for each value of relative humidity. It should be noted that this way of working is quite exceptional in Thermoptim: for all other processes, the calculations are made from the exact composition of the substance considered. If then the coupling must be made between moist processes and other processes, care should be taken to link them with moist mixtures of appropriate composition. In addition, the quantities being preferentially expressed in specific units, flows that appear on the moist processes are dry gas flows. The concept of effectiveness is often used to describe the actual processes versus theoretical or ideal processes. In practice, these generally correspond to changes whose final state is saturated (full humidification, cooling to saturation). The upper right corner of the screen recalls the general characteristics of the process, while the left shows the inlet and outlet points, indicating their temperature, pressure, enthalpy and specific humidity. The settings of the various categories of moist processes and calculation methods are located in the central and lower right parts.

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

FIGURE 7.8.1 Supply process in Thermoptim

7.8.2 Moist mixers 7.8.2.1 Principle and equations A moist mixer is used to determine the particular properties of mixture of several moist gases. This operation takes for example place when two pipes containing mixtures of different humidities come together to form a single vein. In practice, it is most often air mixtures in air conditioning systems, for example a mixture of outdoor air and recycled inside air (see Example 9.4). The operation being adiabatic, the total enthalpy and the total mass flow rate are always conserved. For two branches, one obtains: qmix m 1 q1 m 2 q2 m m 1 m 2 m There is usually conservation of the total specific humidity: tot m 1w1 m 2w 2 mw

(7.8.1)

except where there is supersaturation, in which case a portion of the water is condensed. In this case, the liquid water must be subtracted from the specific humidity. The three previous equations show that in a (w, q) coordinate system, and when there is no supersaturation, the point representative of the mixture is the barycenter of the two points representing the moist mixtures, the coefficients being equal to their mass flow rates. It follows that the three points are aligned, and that the determination of the mixture can be done simply graphically in a moist mixture chart using this system of axes. In the Carrier (w, t) chart, this is only true in first approximation.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

100 w

0.021

q

2

2

84 0.017 68 0.013

m

0.009

52

m 1

36

1 t

w

0.005 0

8

16

24

32

40

20 0.005

0.009

0.013

0.017

0.021

FIGURE 7.8.2 Moist mixture in Carrier and Mollier charts

FIGURE 7.8.3 Moist gas mixer

The representation of the mixture of two moist air flows 1 and 2 in the chart is given in Figure 7.8.2. The mixture m is located at the junction of the two light and dark aligned segments. The enthalpy being conserved, we begin by looking at the saturation conditions qmix. If the saturated specific humidity wsat exceeds wtot, wmix wtot. Otherwise, wmix wsat. The dry temperature is in the first case that corresponding to qmix and wmix, and in the second that of saturation. 7.8.2.2 Calculation of a mixture in Thermoptim The moist mixer node can determine the properties of a moist mixture of several dry or moist gases. A moist mixer (Figure 7.8.3) differs from a simple mixer as follows: firstly, it accepts as branches moist as well as non-moist processes. Since the flow of moist processes is referred to the dry gas, the moist mixer makes the necessary corrections; second, its main vein must be a moist process. If this is not the case, a message warns the user, and the calculations are done as if it were a simple mixer. ●

●

In general, the outlet point is located on the mixing line. In case of supersaturation, a message informs the user and Thermoptim searches the mixing point on the saturation curve, ensuring conservation of enthalpy. Excess water is then displayed in the upper right. The values that are displayed are not expressed relative to dry gas.

244

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

100 w

0.021

q 84

0.017

0.013 1

68

2

52

1

2

0.009

36 t

w

0.005 0

8

16

24

32

40

20 0.005

0.009

0.013

0.017

0.021

FIGURE 7.8.4 Moist heating in Carrier and Mollier charts

7.8.3 Heating a moist mixture 7.8.3.1 Principle and equations The heating of a moist mixture is a constant moisture operation. In the Carrier chart, it is represented by a horizontal segment oriented to the left, in the Mollier chart by a vertical segment oriented upwards (Figure 7.8.4). The heating is generally carried out in heating coils that can be of several types: air coils traversed by hot water supplied by boilers; air coils forming the condenser of a refrigerating machine (see Figure 7.8.6); electric battery heated by the Joule effect. ● ● ●

The equation is: Q mair (q2 q1)

(7.8.2)

Q mair (1 w) (hmm2 hmm1)

(7.8.3)

After processing, it reduces to:

hmm being the enthalpy of the moist mixture . If Q is known, we reverse the equation, which gives t2. 7.8.3.2 Calculation of heating in Thermoptim This process (Figure 7.8.5) can perform various calculations of evolution of a moist mixture. Depending on circumstances, the water content of the inlet and outlet points can be the same or different. Two actions are possible here: calculate the process, assuming the inlet and outlet points are known, in which case Delta Q and the water involved are determined; determine the state of the outlet point, the enthalpy change and the water involved being known. ✬

✬

7.8.4

Cooling of moist mix

7.8.4.1 Principle and equations To cool a moist mixture, it is passed through a special heat exchanger called a cooling coil, which can be cooled by ice water or by direct evaporation of a refrigerant (Figure 7.8.6). The mixture

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 7.8.5 Moist heating process

FIGURE 7.8.6

Cooling coil (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique)

being in contact with the cold surfaces sees its temperature decrease. Depending on circumstances, there may be condensation or not. If there is no condensation, specific humidity remains constant and cooling can be represented by a horizontal segment oriented to the left in the Carrier chart, and vertically oriented downwards in the Mollier chart. If condensation occurs, which is very often the case, the segment is oriented to the bottom left in both charts (Figure 7.8.7). Theoretical perfect cooling in a cooling coil of infinite size would cool the moist mixture at the coil saturation temperature. It is customary to characterize a real process in taking this cooling as theoretical reference, introducing effectiveness ε of the cooling coil and its average surface temperature ts. In the U.S. another approach is generally retained: the bypass factor method is based on the assumption that a part of the total flow which goes through the coil is never in contact with the cold

246

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

100 w

0.021

q 84

0.017 1

68 1

0.013

52

0.009

36 2

t

w

0.005 0

8

16

2

24

32

40

20 0.005

0.009

0.013

0.017

0.021

FIGURE 7.8.7 Moist cooling in Carrier and Mollier charts

surface: it bypasses it. Thus the final state of the air exiting the cooling coil corresponds to the mix between both streams. Calling b the bypass factor, we could easily show that ε 1 b. The advantage of both methods is that values of ε and b of a given coil are coil characteristics largely independent of conditions of use. To calculate point 2, we first search the saturation conditions wsat(ts): wsat (ts)

M H 2O Mdg

Psv P Psv

and

q(t s , wsat )

We calculate the end moist properties in view of effectiveness: ε

w 2 w1 wsat w1

which gives: w2 εwsat (1 ε)w1

(7.8.4)

q2 εq(ts, wsat) (1 ε)q1 We then search t2 such that q2 q(t2,w2). A problem may arise when, in the psychrometric chart, the line from point 1 intersects the saturation curve at two points. Indeed, in this case the point calculated from effectiveness may be in the saturated zone. This is called early condensation. Two possibilities exist: if one sets the outlet point specific humidity w2, the end point lies on the saturation curve for wsat w2; if we set the effectiveness, it is on the saturation curve for qsat q2. We must therefore ensure that the point is not found in the saturated zone. 7.8.4.2 Calculation of cooling in Thermoptim This process (Figure 7.8.8) allows one to study the cooling of a moist mixture on a cooling coil, with or without condensation. The cooling conditions are specified on the right of the screen: surface temperature and effectiveness of the cooling coil, if both are known. If the effectiveness is not known, the outlet point humidity must be given to calculate the process.

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FIGURE 7.8.8 Moist cooling process

●

●

Two actions are possible here: the effectiveness being set, calculate the outlet point moisture. If early condensation occurs (see above), the outlet point is sought on the saturation curve, the enthalpy being calculated from the effectiveness of the battery; the humidity of the outlet point being set, calculate its temperature and the coil effectiveness. In case of early condensation (see above), the outlet point is searched on the saturation curve for the specific humidity desired.

7.8.5

Humidification of a gas

7.8.5.1 Principle and equations To humidify a gas, we can proceed in two ways: injecting steam into the gas, usually slightly superheated, or spraying water in very fine droplets with a diameter of 5 to 20 m by ultrasound or compressed air, making sure to avoid condensation on the walls (Figure 7.8.9); spraying water to form rain that wets the gas (Figure 7.8.10), the contact surface between gas and water being very important and the gas being far from the saturated state, the water vaporizes and the gas humidity increases. In this case, the vaporization of water requires heat input, which can be supplied by both water and gas, or gas alone, in which case it is called adiabatic humidification. With this type of device there is however a risk of bacterial growth and it is therefore less used. ●

●

Humidification is mainly used in air conditioning, for example to humidify in winter a very dry outside air before blowing it in a warm interior, or in summer to provide passive cooling. As has been presented for the cooling of a moist mixture, the reference being the theoretical wetting leading the gas to saturation, the real humidification is characterized by the previously defined effectiveness ε.

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FIGURE 7.8.9

FIGURE 7.8.10

Steam humidification

Humidification by water spray

Cases of non-adiabatic humidification (vapor or liquid water) If we know the humidification effectiveness ε, we first find the boundary saturation conditions wsat: Such as wsat w1

mwater mair

and q(t, wsat) q1 (wsat w1) hH2O

(7.8.5)

with wsat

M H 2O Mdg

Psv (t ) P Psv (t)

We then calculate the final moist conditions in view of effectiveness: w2 εwsat (1 ε)w1 q2 εq(t,wsat) (1 ε)q1

(7.8.6)

We then seek t2 such that q2 q(t2, w2). If we know the water absorbed by the fluid mwater, w2 is directly calculated: w 2 w1

mwater mair

We then seek t2 such as q(t2 ,w2) q1 (w2 w1) hwater. If we seek the boundary saturation conditions, we deduce the effectiveness ε. Humidification by water or steam spraying is reflected in the Carrier chart by a line segment tilted to the right or left according to the enthalpy of the fluid injected, and in the Mollier chart by a segment inclined towards the right. Figure 7.8.11 shows a humidification with steam superheated at 115 C. Case of adiabatic humidification We begin by looking at the saturation conditions at the wet-bulb temperature wsat(t): wsat (t)

M H 2O Mdg

Psv (t) P Psv (t)

and

q(t, wsat )

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100 w

0.021

q

2 84

2

0.017 68 0.013

52 1

0.009

36

1 t

w

0.005 0

8

16

24

32

40

20 0.005

0.009

0.013

0.017

0.021

FIGURE 7.8.11 Spray humidification in Carrier and Mollier charts 100

w

0.021

q

84 0.017 68 0.013

2

0.009

52 1

1

2

36 t

w

0.005 0

8

16

24

32

40

20 0.005

0.009

0.013

0.017

0.021

FIGURE 7.8.12 Adiabatic humidification in Carrier and Mollier charts

We calculate the final moist conditions in view of effectiveness: w2 εwsat (1 ε)w1

(7.8.7)

q2 εq(ts, wsat) (1 ε)q1 We then seek t2 such that q2 q(t2, w2) Adiabatic humidification is reflected in the Carrier chart by a line segment tilted to the left corresponding to t Const., and in the Mollier chart by a nearly horizontal segment, q being approximately constant (Figure 7.8.12). 7.8.5.2 Calculation of humidification in Thermoptim Two distinct but similar types of processes are used to study either water or steam humidification, or adiabatic humidification (Figure 7.8.13). The humidification conditions are specified on the right of the screen: water or steam temperature and pressure, and humidifier effectiveness, if known. If effectiveness is not known, the outlet point humidity must be given to calculate the process. Two actions are possible here: the effectiveness being set, calculate the outlet point moisture. If condensation occurs early (when the line connecting the inlet point at the point of the saturation curve at the surface ●

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FIGURE 7.8.13 Adiabatic humidificator screen

●

temperature intersects the saturation curve at two points), the outlet point is sought on the saturation curve, the enthalpy being calculated from the humidifier effectiveness; calculate the outlet point to get the desired humidity. When there is early condensation (see above), the outlet point is searched on the saturation curve for the specific humidity desired. The effectiveness of the humidifier is then calculated.

7.8.6

Dehumidification of a mix by desiccation

7.8.6.1 Principle and equations In order to dehumidify a moist mixture by desiccation it passes over a bed of solid hygrophilic adsorbent, which extracts moisture from the gas by exothermic physical (adsorption), or physico-chemical (chemisorption) effect. The regeneration of the desiccant is made by the opposite effect, warming. Among the systems that accomplish desiccation, one of the most used takes the form of a rotary regenerative heat exchanger which simultaneously dehumidifies an air stream and regenerates part of the desiccant (Figure 7.8.14). The same equations govern the two effects. The equation of adsorptive dehumidification or desiccant regeneration is provided by the enthalpy balance, which is written here, Ls being the heat of sorption: (1 w2) (hmm(t2) hmm(0 C)) (1 w1) (hmm(t1) hmm(0 C)) Ls (w2 w1) 0

(7.8.8)

Knowing w2, simply invert this expression in t2, taking care that the composition of the moist mixture varies between points 1 and 2. Knowing t2, w2 is obtained by expressing the above equation as a function of dry gas, which leads to a simple first order polynomial equation in w2. Dehumidification by adsorption results on the Carrier chart in a line segment tilted to the right, and on the Mollier chart in a segment close to the horizontal, q increasing slightly (Figure 7.8.15).

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FIGURE 7.8.14

Rotary regenerative heat exchanger (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique) 100

w

0.021

q

84 0.017 68 0.013

52 2

1 0.009

1

36 w

2 0.005 0

8

16

24

32

40

20 0.005

0.009

0.013

0.017

0.021

t

FIGURE 7.8.15 Desiccation process in Carrier and Mollier charts

That the operation is carried out at substantially constant enthalpy does not mean it is free in terms of energy, since the desiccant must be regenerated. 7.8.6.2 Calculation of a desiccation in Thermoptim This process (Figure 7.8.16) allows the study of dehumidification by desiccation or regeneration of the desiccant. Different types of desiccant materials are proposed, their name and their heat of sorption being displayed in the right of the screen in kJ/kg. If the user wishes he can change the latter. Two actions are possible here: the outlet point temperature being known, calculate its moisture; calculate the outlet point temperature to obtain the desired humidity. ● ●

Note that the same process calculates both desiccation and the desiccant regeneration, according to the relative values of the inlet point and outlet point. For regeneration, the software does not check, however, if the temperature is sufficient.

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FIGURE 7.8.16 Desiccation process

7.8.7 Determination of supply conditions 7.8.7.1 Principle and equations In air conditioning a space, we often experience the following problem: we want to maintain the atmosphere inside a building at a given dry bulb temperature and relative humidity. External climatic conditions are known: dry bulb temperature and relative humidity. We must evacuate the internal and external thermal loads of known magnitude, and a quantity of water corresponding to the internal gains. Depending on countries, calculations are slightly differently expressed: in the . . U.S. for example, sensible Q.s and latent Q.1 loads are considered (T. Agami Reddy, 2001) while in France we talk of enthalpy Qs and water meau loads (AICVF, 1999). This simply means that in the first case, water to be extracted is directly converted in energy terms (BTU/hr or kW), while in the second it is expressed in kg/s. Lwater being the latent heat of evaporation at indoor air temperature, we have: =m eau L water Q 1 In addition, for reasons of hygiene and comfort, the supply temperature should generally not be less than a given value, and the proportion of recirculated air should not exceed a limit. You have then . to determine the supply conditions, that is to say the flow rate mair and state of the air blown, so that the atmosphere obtained is the desired one. 1) if the air flow is known, equations are: balance on water: wsu w1

water m air m

(7.8.9)

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enthalpy balance: q(t su , wsu ) q1

m water hwater (t1 ) Q s air m

(7.8.10)

hwater(t1) being the enthalpy of water at temperature t1. or (U.S.notations) q(t su , wsu ) = q1 +

Q Q s l air m

You therefore determine wsu, then seek tsu such that q q(tsu, wsu). 2) if the supply temperature is known, the method is as follows: balance on water: air = m

wsu − w1 water m

(7.8.11)

enthalpy balance: q(t su ,wsu ) = q1 +

+m water hwater (t1 ) Q s (wsu − w1 ) air m

(7.8.12)

tsu being known, wsu can be calculated by: q(tsu,wsu) hdg(tsu) hdg(0 C) wsu(hH2O(tsu) hH2O(0 C)) wsuL0water ⎛ Q ⎞ s q1 w1 ⎜⎜ hlwater ⎟⎟⎟ hdg (t) hdg (0 C) ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ m water wsu Q s hlwater (t1 ) hH2O (t su ) hH2O (0 C) L0water water m

(7.8.13)

. Note that eliminating mair from equations (7.8.9) and (7.8.10) yields: =

m water hwater (t1 ) Q q1 q1 s water wsu w1 m

is called the enthalpy-moisture ratio. It expresses that . variations of specific enthalpy and humidity are proportional whatever the air flow rate value mair: all points lying on a straight line called the condition line or load line satisfy the sensible and latent loads, i.e. are solutions of equations (7.8.9) and (7.8.10). . The position of point “su” on the line determines the value of mair. It depends on various factors, such as the maximum allowable temperature difference to avoid any inconvenience (usually 6 to 12 C according to the technique used). 7.8.7.2 Calculation of supply conditions in Thermoptim This process connects the point describing the known indoor conditions (inlet point) to the point corresponding to the supply conditions sought (outlet point). Its screen is given at the beginning of this section (Figure 7.8.1). Let us point out that the determination of supply conditions does not really correspond to what we called a Thermoptim process until now: this is strictly speaking a misnomer. The problem is

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

finding the thermodynamic state of air to be blown into the space to be cooled in order to compensate for thermal and water loads. There are two possible options in this case: determine the temperature and the specific humidity of the supply point when the dry gas flow rate is known; set the supply temperature, so that Thermoptim determines the specific humidity of the supply point, as well as the dry gas flow rate required. ●

●

Fields in the right of the screen allow you to enter the water (rate of moisture gain) and thermal (sensible rate of heat gain) loads to be removed, respectively in kg/s and kW, which defines the supply line. It is assumed that the water load must be dissipated at the inside point temperature. Note that units here are not exactly those generally used in the US where the water load is usually directly expressed in kW. Thermoptim then calculates the value of the sensible/total heat ratio (also known as sensible heat . factor SHF or sensible heat ratio SHR) which is the ratio of. the rate . of sensible heat gain Qs (in kW) for the space to the rate of total energy gain for the space Qs Q1 (in kW). As this ratio is proportional to the slope of the supply or condition line, the ASHRAE psychrometric chart includes a protractor which facilitates drawing the condition line. In France the SHR is replaced by the ratio, directly expressed in the psychrometric chart units, between changes in enthalpy and specific humidity. Known as the “slope ratio “, it is equal to the enthalpy-moisture ratio . hs Q htot Q meau hleau

7.8.8 Air conditioning processes in a psychrometric chart Figure 7.8.17 summarizes how the different air conditioning processes can be represented in a psychrometric chart.

1 humidifying 2 heating and dehumidifying

specific humidity

3 sensible heating 4 chemical humidifying 5 dehumidifying

1 8

6 cooling and dehumidifying

2

7 sensible cooling 8 adiabatic humidifying

3

7 6

4 5

Dry bulb temperature

FIGURE 7.8.17 Air conditioning processes in a psychrometric chart

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Summer and Winter Air Conditioning Cycles Air conditioning has progressively developed in recent decades, leading to continued progress in the various disciplines that make up what is known as HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning). The various processes which have been studied in this section are put in practice in Chapter 21 of Part 3, where two examples show how basic treatments can be combined to form a proper air conditioning unit, combining mixture of outdoor air and indoor air, cooling, heating. . .

[CRC_pa_2]

7.9

EXAMPLES OF COMPONENTS REPRESENTED BY EXTERNAL CLASSES

In section 6.4 we introduced the Thermoptim extension mechanism which allows us to add to the software components not existing in the core. In this section we give three examples of such components: nozzles, diffusers and ejectors, limiting ourselves to the presentation of models and interface components. Examples of external class Java code will be given in Chapter 23 of Part 4.

7.9.1

Nozzles

An adiabatic nozzle is a fixed component that allows one to convert in kinetic energy the pressure of a gas. When the flow is subsonic, the section of the nozzle decreases, and when it becomes supersonic, it increases, giving the device the shape of Figure 7.9.1, called Laval (see section 7.3.2.3), the flow in the throat being at sonic speed. In this section, we present a model for representing an adiabatic nozzle. After a brief reminder of the thermodynamics of the nozzle, we will present the screen of the external component defined in class Nozzle.java5. 7.9.1.1 Thermodynamics of an adiabatic nozzle We assume in what follows that the fluid passing through the nozzle at least locally can be considered as a perfect gas, taking a well-chosen value of its specific heat capacity cp. The notations are those of section 7.3.2. The nozzle being adiabatic, we can easily show that the fluid stagnation temperature is equal to the isentropic stagnation temperature, even in the presence of irreversibilities: Tis Ta

C2 2cp

By introducing the Mach number of flow: Ma

5

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256

C rT

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/logiciels/thermoptim/modelotheque/modele-tuyere

(7.3.8)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

throat

Laval nozzle

FIGURE 7.9.1 Sketch of a nozzle

and noticing that: cp =

r 1

It comes: T Tis Ta

C2 1 2 Ma 2cp 2

Equation (5.6.8) gives the isentropic stagnation pressure: PT/ ( 1)

= Const.

⎛ Tis ⎞⎟/ ( 1) Pis Pa ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ T ⎟⎠

or

a

We find: /( 1) ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎟ ⎜ Pis P ⎜⎜1 Ma ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.3.9)

Both relations (7.3.8) and (7.3.9) can be interpreted as follows: in any isentropic flow of a perfect gas in a tube with fixed walls, the stagnation temperature and pressure are conserved. If the flow is adiabatic, but not reversible, its law is no longer an isentropic, but a polytropic. With the usual assumptions, the above relations are transformed as shown below. Firstly, the first law can also be written as before h C2/2 The gas being assumed perfect: h cpT The total enthalpy being conserved, the stagnation polytropic and isentropic temperatures are equal: Tp Ta

C2 = Tis 2cp

(7.3.8)

The polytropic equation gives the stagnation pressure: PT

k/( k−1)

= Const

or

⎛ Tp ⎞⎟k/( k−1) Pp = Pa ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ T ⎟⎠ a

We find: ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎟k/(k1) Pp Pa ⎜⎜⎜1 Ma ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.9.1)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Pa

T

a

Tis

Pr Tr

r

Ts

s

s

FIGURE 7.9.2 Nozzle process in a (T, s) chart

The polytropic stagnation pressure is not equal to the isentropic stagnation pressure, the irreversibilities resulting in losses. In a nozzle, we know the initial and final pressures, and we can consider as a first approximation that the initial velocity is negligible. Reasoning on the conversion of the pressure energy in velocity, the difference in inlet and outlet pressures (Pa Pr) could theoretically provide a difference in enthalpy hs hA hS corresponding to a kinetic energy C20a/2 (Figure 7.9.2). Because of irreversibilities, the exit point is R and not S, determinable if one knows the isentropic efficiency s:

s

h A hR hs

(7.9.2)

We deduce the output velocity, which gives: C 2 s |hs | With the assumption that the gas is perfect, we can also write (7.9.2) as:

s

TA TR TA TS

(7.9.3)

Which leads to

C

⎡ (1)/ ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎛ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜P ⎞ ⎟ r ⎥ ⎢ 2 s cp Ta ⎢1⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜P ⎟ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ a⎟ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣

(7.9.4)

These relationships allow us to fully characterize the process. In the model, we have generalized the above expressions to take into account the gas velocity existing at the inlet.

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

7.9.1.2 Calculation of the nozzle sections A well-known result of fluid mechanics is that a sonic nozzle should be formed by a convergent, whose section reduces until sonic conditions are established at the throat, followed by a diverging cross-section increasing downstream of the throat. We call a Laval nozzle such convergentdivergent configuration. Since the velocity of the gas nozzle exit is supersonic, we must identify the sections at the throat and at the outlet of the nozzle. Section Sc of the throat is given by equation (7.9.5): Ta m Pa

⎡ 2 ⎤ ( 1) /2( 1) ⎥ Sc ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦ r

(7.9.5)

The output section is calculated just knowing the speed and condition of the gas nozzle exit. 7.9.1.3 Design of the external component General Two calculation methods are possible: to determine the output pressure knowing the output velocity, or to determine the output velocity knowing the output pressure. Model parameters are: the gas inlet velocity (m/s); the isentropic efficiency of the process; either the gas output velocity (m/s), or the gas pressure at the exit of the nozzle, depending on the calculation option chosen. ● ● ●

Model input data are as follows (provided by the inlet component): the gas temperature Ta ( C or K) at the nozzle inlet; the gas pressure Pa (bar) at the nozzle inlet; . the gas flow rate m (kg/s).

● ● ●

The outputs are: either the gas pressure at the exit of the nozzle, or the gas outlet velocity (m/s), depending on the calculation option chosen; the gas temperature at the nozzle exit.

●

●

Graphical interface A graphical interface for the component can be deduced (Figure 7.9.3). You have to build the bottom left of the screen, the rest being defined as a Thermoptim standard. The input data are supplied by the inlet process of the system in which the component is inserted: gas flow and inlet point state. Sequence of calculations The sequence of calculations is as follows: update of the component before calculation with the values of the inlet process and point; update with the settings of the external component screen; calculation of the output pressure or velocity and of the outlet point state; update of the external component screen.

● ● ● ●

The problems encountered in practice at each of these steps are quite similar to those presented in the documentation provided in Volume 3 of Thermoptim reference manual. You should refer to it for further explanations.

[CRC_ln_14]

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FIGURE 7.9.3 Nozzle screen

We show in section 12.2 of Part 3 how this component can be used to model a turbojet in Thermoptim. 7.9.2

Diffusers

An adiabatic diffuser is a fixed component that serves to convert into pressure a portion of the kinetic energy available in a gas. When the flow velocity is subsonic, the section of the diffuser increases (see section 7.3.2.3). The initial relative velocity of the outside air can thus achieve a dynamic compression in the inlet diffuser of a jet engine: the kinetic energy of intake air is converted into pressure. In this section, we present a model for representing an adiabatic diffuser. After a brief reminder of the thermodynamics of the diffuser, we present the screen of the external component defined in class Diffuser.java6. 7.9.2.1 Thermodynamics of adiabatic diffuser We assume in what follows that the fluid passing through the diffuser can at least locally be considered as a perfect gas, taking a well-chosen value of its specific heat capacity cp. The notations are those in section 7.3.2. The diffuser being adiabatic the stagnation temperature of the fluid is given by (7.3.8). Ti T

6

[CRC_ln_8]

260

C2 2cp

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/logiciels/thermoptim/modelotheque/modele-diffuseur

(7.3.8)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

T

Ps Pr s

Tis Tr

r Pa

Tb

b

Ta

a s

FIGURE 7.9.4 Diffuser in a (T, s) chart

By introducing the flow Mach number: It comes T = Tis Ta

C2 1 2 Ma 2cp 2

The isentropic stagnation pressure is given by (7.3.9). /( 1) ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎟ Pis P ⎜⎜⎜1 Ma ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.3.9)

Both relations (7.3.8) and (7.3.9) can be interpreted as follows: in any isentropic flow of a perfect gas in a tube with fixed walls, the stagnation temperature and pressure are conserved. If the flow is adiabatic, but not reversible, its law is no longer an isentropic, but a polytropic. With the usual assumptions, the above relations become, as established for the nozzle: ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎟k/(k1) Pp Pa ⎜⎜⎜1 Ma ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.9.1)

The dynamic pressure due to the initial kinetic energy would compress the gas to pressure Ps if there were no irreversibility (Figure 7.9.4), and lead to point S at temperature Ts Tis and entropy sS sA. Because of irreversibilities, the exit point is R, at the same isentropic stagnation temperature, but at pressure Pr lower than Ps. R can be determined if one knows the isentropic efficiency s of the diffuser, B being the corresponding point of the isentropic compression from Pa to Pr:

s =

hB − h A hR − h A

The gas being assumed perfect, hR h A hS h A c p

1 Ma 2 2

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Which gives in fine: /(1) ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎟ Pr Pa ⎜⎜1 s Ma ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.9.6)

These relationships allow to fully characterize the process: (7.9.6) provides the stagnation pressure, and therefore the static pressure if we know the residual velocity (generally low and therefore negligible). The temperature of point B can be deduced, its entropy being known. If the isentropic efficiency is given, you can determine point R. In the model, we have generalized the above expressions to take into account the gas velocity existing at the outlet. 7.9.2.2 Ratio of stagnation pressures Let us call εp the ratio of the real stagnation pressure to the isentropic stagnation pressure. εp ) 1, called the stagnation pressure ratio, is very commonly used to characterize diffusers, for which the assumption of adiabaticity can often be accepted, but not that of a reversible flow. If p is the polytropic efficiency, equations (7.3.9) and (7.9.1) provide: ⎛ Pp ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞( p 1) /(1) ε p ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜1 Ma 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Pis ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2

(7.9.7)

The isentropic efficiency s can also be expressed as a function of εp:

⎜⎛⎜ P ⎜⎜ r ⎜⎜ ⎜⎜ P ⎝ a ⎜⎛⎜ P ⎜⎜ r ⎜⎜ ⎜⎜ P ⎝ a

( 1) / ⎟⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎠

1

( k1) / k ⎟⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎟

1

All calculations done, we find:

s

(1

1 2 Ma ) ε p(1)/ 1 2 1 2 Ma 2

(7.9.8)

Knowing εp, we can find the corresponding isentropic efficiency and thus the stagnation pressure. 7.9.2.3 Design of the external component General Two calculation methods are possible: to determine the output pressure knowing the output velocity, or to determine the output velocity knowing the output pressure. Model parameters are: the gas inlet velocity (m/s); the isentropic efficiency of the process; either the gas output velocity (m/s), or the gas pressure at the exit of the diffuser, depending on the calculation option chosen. ● ● ●

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7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

FIGURE 7.9.5 Diffuser screen

Model input data are as follows (provided by the inlet component): the gas temperature Ta ( C or K) at the diffuser inlet; the gas pressure Pa (bar) at the diffuser inlet; . the gas flow rate m (kg/s). ● ● ●

The outputs are: either the gas pressure at the exit of the diffuser, or the gas outlet velocity (m/s), depending on the calculation option chosen; the gas temperature at the diffuser exit.

●

●

Graphical interface A graphical interface for the component can be deduced (Figure 7.9.5). You have to build the bottom left of the screen, the rest being defined as a Thermoptim standard. The input data are supplied by the inlet process of the system in which the component is inserted: gas flow and inlet point state. Sequence of calculations The sequence of calculations is as follows: update of the component before calculation with the values of the inlet process and point; update with the settings of the external component screen; calculation of the output pressure or velocity and of the outlet point state; update of the external component screen.

● ● ● ●

The problems encountered in practice at each of these steps are quite similar to those presented in the documentation provided in Volume 3 of Thermoptim reference manual. You should refer to it for further explanations.

[CRC_ln_14]

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Determination of the Thrust of a Turbojet A turbojet engine used in aviation is a simple modification of a gas turbine open cycle: the turbine and the compressor form a gas generator whose sole purpose is to generate hot gas at high pressure. The energy available in the gas is converted into kinetic energy in a nozzle. The thrust results from the difference of momentum between intake and exhaust gases. The turbojet also includes an inlet diffuser, which is used to create a static precompression at the compressor inlet when the airplane is in flight, and thus reduce compression work. Both nozzle and diffuser model presented in this section may be used for building models of turbojets as explained in sections 12.2.1.9 to 12.2.11 of Part 3.

7.9.3

Ejectors

An ejector or injector (Figure 7.9.6) receives as input two fluids normally gaseous but which may also be liquid or two-phase (Chunnanond, 2004): the high pressure fluid called primary fluid or motive; the low pressure fluid, called secondary fluid or aspirated. ● ●

The primary fluid is accelerated in a converging-diverging nozzle, creating a pressure drop in the mixing chamber, which has the effect of drawing the secondary fluid. The two fluids are then mixed and a shock wave may take place in the following zone (throat in Figure 7.9.6). This results in an increase in pressure of the mixture and reduction of its velocity which becomes subsonic. The diffuser then converts the residual velocity into increased pressure. The ejector thus achieves a compression of the secondary fluid at the expense of a decrease in enthalpy of the primary fluid. The three most important parameters to characterize the overall efficiency of an ejector are: the entrainment ratio w, ratio of the secondary to primary mass flow-rates; the pressure lift ratio, the ratio of the static pressure at the outlet of the diffuser to the static pressure of the secondary fluid; a section ratio (minimal on maximum or primary flow on entrained flow etc.), which determines its geometry.

● ●

●

Note here that one of the practical problems encountered in the use of an ejector in a cycle is that its efficiency depends on many of its operating conditions: the compression ratio obtained is obviously a function of the entrainment ratio but a variation of the latter induces a change in the optimum geometry of the ejector, which is obviously impossible to achieve. Mixing chamber Primary nozzle

Throat

Primary fluid

Secondary fluid

FIGURE 7.9.6 Cross section of an ejector

264

Diffuser

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

It follows that an ejector is poorly adapted to operation outside of design conditions. 7.9.3.1 Thermodynamics of an ejector Ejector modeling is mostly based on the assumption that primary and secondary fluids can be treated as ideal gases in the mixing chamber, which is roughly justified given the low pressure therein. However, there are also cases where one of these fluids is liquid or two-phase, so that the mixture can be biphasic, and several hypotheses can be selected: either carry out calculations with the properties of a real fluid while using the hypothesis of a single-phase flow, or neglect the liquid phase when computing velocities, or consider an equivalent fluid.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Ejector Refrigeration Cycles The value of introducing an ejector in a refrigeration cycle is mainly to reduce, or even eliminate, the compression work, relatively large as the fluid is compressed in the gaseous state. Several refrigeration cycles using ejectors are currently being investigated. Some of them are presented in section 19.6.3 of Part 3: – cycles without compressor, whose advantage is to replace the compressor work by a much smaller work consumed by the pump and by heat supplied by a generator at medium or high temperature; – cycles with compressor, where the ejector is simply used to reduce the throttling irreversibility of a conventional refrigeration cycle, creating a slight pressurization before compression.

[CRC_pa_3]

The calculation of the ejector (one-dimensional model) is based on the following assumptions: the expansion of the primary and secondary fluids in the inlet nozzle is assumed to be adiabatic, taking into account the irreversibilities by an isentropic efficiency; the pressure remains constant in the mixing chamber (there are constant mixing section ejectors, but they are less efficient than others and we do not consider them here); when the mixed flow is supersonic, a normal shock can take place in the mixing chamber, which slows down the fluid and creates an overpressure; compression in the diffuser is assumed to be adiabatic, taking into account the irreversibilities by an isentropic efficiency; fluid properties are uniform in any section. ●

●

●

●

●

The model we used is that proposed by Li and Groll (2005), which presents the advantage of being formulated in a manner independent of fluid properties. We have slightly reformulated and expanded it to take account of any shock, these authors implicitly limiting themselves to cases where the mixed flow is subsonic. In this model, we simplify the calculations assuming a priori that we know the pressure drop between the secondary flow suction pressure Pe and that at the inlet of the mixing zone Pb. We will consider that it is proportional to Pe. It is clear that in practice, we do not know the value of this factor, which is not directly measurable. If we want to set a value of the output pressure ejector Pd or pressure lift ratio Pd/Pe, we must then iterate on the value of this factor, which is easy to do once the model is set and validated. The model assumes that the ejector is comprised of 4 main areas: the motive flow expansion area; the entrained flow expansion area; ● ●

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 7.9.7 Diagram of the ejector component

● ●

the mixing zone, with possible shock; the diffuser.

7.9.3.2 Setting equations mmi and msi being the mass-flows of motive and secondary streams, the entrainment ratio is: w=

msi mmi

+ msi

(7.9.9)

Motive flow expansion area We will use the index mb to characterize the outlet state of the fluid, which expands adiabatically: smb,is smi hmb,is f(smi, Pb) hmb hmi s(hmi hmb,is)

(7.9.10)

The fluid velocity at the inlet being negligible, its output value is: Cmb = 2(hmi − hmb ) The specific volume vmb allows you to know the flow area per unit of total mass flow rate: amb =

vmb Cmb (1 + w)

(7.9.11)

Entrained flow expansion area We will use index sb to characterize the outlet state of the fluid, which expands adiabatically: ssb,is ssi hsb,is f(ssi, Pb) hsb hsi s (hsi hsb,is)

266

(7.9.12)

7. BASIC COMPONENTS AND PROCESSES

The fluid velocity at the inlet being negligible, its output value is: Csb = 2(hsi − hsb ) The specific volume vsb allows you to know the flow area per unit of total mass flow rate: asb =

vsb w Csb (1 + w)

(7.9.13)

Mixing zone We will use index mix to characterize the mix output state, which can only be determined iteratively by solving simultaneously in pressure the conservation equations of mass flow, momentum and enthalpy. Solving these equations shows that there may be one or two mixing pressure(s). The physical explanation is as follows: if the mixed flow is supersonic, a recompression with “normal” shock wave takes place because the outlet pressure is greater than that of the flow. The two mathematical solutions correspond to pressures before and after the shock. The conservation of momentum reads: Pb (amb asb )

Cmb wCsb Pmix (amb asb ) Cmix (1 w) (1 w)

(7.9.14)

The enthalpy equation writes: ⎛ C2 ⎞ hmi whsi (1 w ) ⎜⎜ hmix mix ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎠

(7.9.15)

The conservation of the mass flow writes: vmix (amb asb)Cmix

(7.9.16)

We will retain as a solution, if there are two, the highest pressure, which is equivalent to taking the lowest, and solve the equations of the shock wave below. This way is more precise, the following equations being strictly speaking valid only for perfect gases. Schock wave If there is a shock wave, the equations are as follows, x being the inlet (supersonic), and y the outlet (subsonic):

My2

Py Px

Mx2

2 1

2 Mx2 1 1

1 Mx2 1 M y2

⎛ Py ⎞⎟2 ⎛ M y ⎞⎟2 ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ Tx ⎜⎝ Px ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Mx ⎟⎟⎠ Ty

(7.9.17)

(7.9.18)

(7.9.19)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 7.9.8 Screen of the ejector component

We show in section 19.6.3 of Part 3 how this component can be used in Thermoptim to model ejector refrigeration cycles.

REFERENCES T. Agami Reddy, Psychrometrics and comfort, Handbook of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning, (Edited by J.F. Kreider), CRC Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8493-9584-4 AICVF Conception des installations de climatisation, et de conditionnement de l’air, Collection des guides de l’AICVF, PYC Edition, Paris, octobre 1999. R. F. Boehm, Pumps and fans, The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, (Edited by F. Kreith), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-9581-X. Chase et al. Janaf thermochemical tables, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol 14 Suppl. 1, 1985 K. Chunnanond, S. Aphornratana, Ejectors: applications in refrigeration technology, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 8 (2004) 129–155. R. Cohen, E. Groll, W. H. Harden, K. E. Hickman, D. K. Mistry, E. Muir, Compressors, The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, (Edited by F. Kreith), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-84939581-X. T. Giampaolo, Compressor handbook, Principles and practice, The Fairmont Press, Lilburn, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010, ISBN 0-88173-615-5 J.P. Holman, Thermodynamics, 4th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 1988. D. Li, A. Groll, Transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle with ejector-expansion device, International Journal of Refrigeration 28 (2005) 766–773 S. K. Wang, Z. Lavan P. Norton, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-0057-6.

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FURTHER READING J.G. Conan, Réfrigération industrielle, Eyrolles, Paris, 1988. B. Crétinon, B. Blanquart, Air humide, Notions de base et mesures, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 025. R. Dehausse, Mécanique des fluides III, Polycopiés de l’Ecole des Mines de Paris. T. Destoop, Compresseurs volumétriques, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Mécanique et chaleur, B 4 220. E. Esposito, Température et composition des gaz brûlés, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Généralités, A 1 610, A 1 611. E. Esposito, Cinétique chimique, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Généralités, A 1 620. E. Esposito, Inflammation spontanée, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Généralités, A 1 625. M. Feidt, Energétique Thermodynamique – Concepts et Applications, Dunod, 2006, ISBN 9782100490660. Gaz de France, Combustibles gazeux et principes de la combustion, BT 104, Paris, 1992. I. Glassman, Combustion, 3rd Edition, Academic Press, Inc, Dec 1996. E. M. Goodger, Combustion calculations, theory, worked examples and problems, The MacMillan Press, London, 1977. J. C. Guibet, Les carburants et la combustion, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Mécanique et chaleur, B 2 520, B 2 521. K.K. Kuo, Principles of combustion, John Wiley & Sons, Oct. 2000. A. Lallemand, Compression et détente des gaz ou des vapeurs, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 013. G. Manfrida, S. Stecco, Le turbomachine, Pitagora Editrice, Bologne, 1990. M. Pluviose, Turbomachines hydrauliques et thermiques – Exercices commentés, Eyrolles, Paris, 1988. M. Pluviose, Ch. Périlhon, Turbomachines: Description. Principes de base, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Génie mécanique, BM 4 280 B. Raynal, Les techniques d’analyse des gaz de combustion et leurs applications dans le domaine des moteurs thermiques, Revue Générale de Thermique, n 162–163 juin–juillet 1975, Paris. P. Reboux, Polycopiés de l’Ecole des Mines de Paris, mécanique des fluides I, II. Polycopiés du Centre de Formation aux Techniques Gazières, principes de fonctionnement des turbocompresseurs centrifuges. G. Riollet, Théorie des turbines à vapeur et à fluide compressible, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Mécanique et chaleur, B 330-2. G. de Soete, A. Feugier, Aspects physiques et chimiques de la combustion, Editions Technip, Paris, 1976. D. Spalding, Combustion and mass transfer, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979. G. Vrinat, Production du froid, Technologie des machines industrielles, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Mécanique et chaleur, B 2 365. L. Vivier, Turbines à vapeur et à gaz, Ed. Albin Michel, Paris, 1965. M. de Vlaminck, P. Wauters, Thermodynamique et turbines, Ed. Ciaco, Paris, 1988. F.A. Williams, Combustion theory, 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Dec. 1985.

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8 Heat Exchangers Abstract: Heat exchangers are devices for transferring heat between two fluids at different temperatures. In most cases, the two fluids are not in contact, and the transfer is through an exchange area. Within the dividing wall, the heat transfer mechanism is conduction, and on each of both surfaces in contact with fluids, convection almost always predominates. In many cases, fluids are single phase, whether gas or liquid. However, there are three main types of heat exchangers in which phase changes occur: the vaporizer or evaporator where it vaporizes a liquid, the condenser where steam is liquefied and evaporative condensers where both fluids change phase. In practice, heat exchangers are of great importance in many energy systems in which heat is transferred, especially when attempting to recover thermal energy. They can play a critical role in the performance of energy systems involving internal heat exchange, such as regeneration or combined cycles, whose optimization requires one to minimize the internal irreversibilities related to internal temperature differences. The concepts you should make sure you understand are the principles (8.1), effectiveness ε, number of transfer units NTU (8.2.1) and pinch (8.2.4). Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, NTU, LMTD, pinch, shell and tube, air coils, plate, thermocoupler.

8.1

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF A HEAT EXCHANGER

The study of heat exchangers in an energy system can be done at very different levels of difficulty depending on the objectives that we pursue: the most basic approach, very simple to implement, is to balance the heat exchanger in terms of enthalpy by determining for example the outlet temperature of a fluid when the inlet temperatures and flow rates of the two fluids are known, as well as an outlet temperature; the problem can be posed in reverse, if the two outlet temperatures are known and only one inlet. The approach remains simple. One can indeed show that a heat exchanger has five degrees of freedom and once five are set among the input and output temperatures and flow-rates, the sixth is directly deduced; it is also customary to characterize a heat exchanger by either an effectiveness or a minimum temperature difference between the two fluids (called pinch). Solving this problem is also fairly simple if four quantities are known. Note that, very often in the study of energy systems, heat ●

●

●

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Thi

Tho . mh . mc Tci

Tco

FIGURE 8.1.1 Heat exchanger sketch

●

exchanger calculations are not explored further. They indeed already provide sufficient information to conduct preliminary analysis of many cycles, especially at the functional level, apart from specific technological considerations. The theory shows, as we see in this chapter, that this approach allows us to characterize an exchanger by what we call the UA, the product of the internal heat exchange coefficient between the two fluids U by its exchange area A; to go further and determine the exchange surface required, calculations are much more complicated, requiring a thorough knowledge of the inner operation of heat exchangers, in order to estimate as precisely as possible the value of U. There is actually a very important qualitative leap between the basic arithmetic of balancing the heat exchanger and what we call its technological design, which will be discussed Chapter 35 of Part 5.

In a heat exchanger, the fluid flows can be performed in multiple arrangements. One can easily show that thermodynamically, the most efficient heat exchanger is the counterflow heat exchanger (Figure 8.1.1), but other concerns than the thermodynamic effectiveness are taken into account when designing a heat exchanger: the maximum permissible temperatures in one fluid, or more often considerations of size, weight or cost. It follows that the configurations of exchangers that are encountered in practice are relatively numerous. However, we can gather these configurations in three main geometries: counter-flow, in which fluids flow in parallel and in opposite directions; parallel-flow, in which fluids flow in parallel and in the same direction; cross-flow, in which fluids flow in perpendicular directions.

● ● ●

We will denote the hot fluid by index h, and the cold fluid by index c. Besides the geometric configuration, exchanger sizing or performance depends on many parameters and variables: . . mass flows m h and m c passing through them; inlet temperatures Thi and Tci and outlet temperatures Tho and Tco of both fluids; heat exchange coefficients Uh and Uc of each fluid; thermal resistance of the wall e/; the surface A of the exchanger; the pressures of both fluids, almost constant; the thermophysical properties of fluids, which are used to determine coefficients Uh and Uc. It is essentially the heat capacity cp, the density , thermal conductivity , and viscosity . ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

In what follows, we will assume that the heat exchange coefficients Uh and Uc and thermophysical properties of fluids maintain a constant value at any time in the entire heat exchanger. If this assumption is not verified, then in order to study the performance of the exchanger, it is necessary divide it into small volume elements, in which these properties can be considered constant. The calculations are then much more cumbersome.

272

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

T Thi Tho

ΔT0

ΔTL

Tco

Tci ΔH

FIGURE 8.1.2 LMTD notations

Finally, we always assume that the heat exchanger is globally adiabatic, that is to say there is no heat exchange with the surroundings.

8.1.1

Heat flux exchanged

It can be shown, where fluid flow is pure (parallel or counter-flow), that the heat flux exchanged between the two fluids is given by the formula: * UATml with Tml

ΔT0 − ΔTL ΔT0 ln ΔTL

(8.1.1) (8.1.2)

A being the exchange surface, U the overall heat exchange coefficient (see next section), Tml the logarithmic mean temperature difference, and T0 and TL the differences in fluid temperatures respectively at one end and at the other end of the exchanger, with the convention: T0 TL. Care must be taken that we speak of temperature differences between the two fluids at the entrance and exit of the exchanger (dimensions 0 and L), and not differences of inlet temperatures (Thi Tci) and output temperatures (Tho Tco) of the fluids. In the example in Figure 8.1.2, we have: T0 Thi Tco (8.1.3) TL Tci Tho When the flow configuration is more complex, we introduce a correction factor F (less than 1), which is given by charts calculated or determined experimentally, most often provided by manufacturers. Equation (8.1.1) becomes: * UAFTml

(8.1.4)

This formula shows that to transfer a given flux *, if we wish to reduce the irreversibilities and therefore Tml, we need the product UA to be the largest possible, which can be done either by increasing the surface, but this directly affects the cost, or by increasing the U value, which is an aim sought by all heat exchanger designers.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

In this chapter, the design of the heat exchanger will be limited to determining the product UA of the exchanger surface A by the overall heat transfer coefficient U, the accurate estimation of the latter depending on the internal constructive details of the exchanger. In general, the design of heat exchangers is a compromise between conflicting objectives, whose two main ones are: a large exchange area is desirable to increase the effectiveness of heat exchangers, but it results in high costs; small fluid flow sections increase the values of the heat exchange coefficients Uh and Uc defined in the next section, and thus reduce the area, but they also increase pressure drops. ●

●

8.1.2

Heat exchange coefficient U

We only deal in Chapter 35 of Part 5 of the precise determination of U and the study of pressure drops in heat exchangers, not that these difficult issues lack interest, quite the contrary, but because, as for other components, we are not currently looking to complete their detailed internal design: we limit ourselves to dealing with their integration into systems that are energy technologies. We will only present here the principles governing the calculation of U. Thermal science teaches us that for a flat plate heat exchanger, the overall heat transfer coefficient U is such that its inverse, called thermal resistance, is the sum of thermal resistances between the two fluids: 1 1 e 1 = + + U hh λ hc

(8.1.5)

hh being the heat transfer coefficient between the hot fluid and the wall, hc the heat transfer coefficient between the cold fluid and the wall, e the wall thickness and he thermal conductivity of this wall. If the wall is composed of several layers of different materials, or if other deposits have covered the wall, this formula becomes: n e 1 1 1 = +∑ k + U hh k=1 λk hc

(8.1.6)

The overall thermal resistance is the sum of (n 2) thermal resistances, the largest of them being the one that slows down the more heat that is exchanged. For example, in the case of a gas/liquid heat exchanger, the convection coefficient can be 10 to 100 times lower on the gaseous side than on the liquid side. The thermal resistance of the wall and the liquid side are generally negligible, and U is approximately equal to h gas side. In this case, we seek to increase the gas side exchange surface by using fins. The previous formulas are complicated, and as the surfaces of cold and hot sides are not the same, we introduce a warm side global exchange coefficient Uh, such that its inverse is: 1 1 1 e = + + A A Uh η0,h hh w λ c η h 0,c c Ah Ah

(8.1.7)

with Ah and Ac total exchange areas warm and cold sides, Aw exchanger wall surface, and 0,h and

0,c overall fin effectiveness on warm and cold sides (see section 8.1.3). There is also a cold side global exchange coefficient Uc, with of course: UcAc UhAh

274

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

h

h e l

d

L

l

FIGURE 8.1.3

FIGURE 8.1.4

Rectangular fin

Needle fin

8.1.3 Fin effectiveness For a thin rectangular fin (e

l, Figure 8.1.3), we can show that the fin effectiveness, defined as the ratio of heat actually exchanged to the heat that would be exchanged if the fin was at the temperature of the base, is: ηa =

tanh(ml) ml

with m =

2h λe

(8.1.8)

For fins of different shapes, the value of m changes. For example, for circular needle fins (Figure 8.1.4): m=

4h λd

(8.1.9)

For other geometries, we refer to the literature (Incropera, Dewitt, 1996). The total flux exchanged is equal to the sum of the fluxes exchanged on the one hand by the fins (area Aa) and on the other hand by the wall between the fins (area A Aa). This defines an overall effectiveness 0 equal to the ratio of the flux actually exchanged to the flux that would be exchanged if the entire surface was at the temperature of the base: η0 =

hA a ηa + h(A − A a ) A = 1 − a (1 − ηa ) hA A

(8.1.10)

8.1.4 Values of convection coefficients h The values of convection coefficients hh and hc depend on fluid thermophysical properties and exchange configurations. Further explanations will be given in Chapter 35 of Part 5 on technological design. These coefficients can be estimated from correlations giving the value of Nusselt number Nu hdh/, as a function of Reynolds Re Vdh/ and Prandtl Pr cp/ numbers. The hydraulic diameter dh is equal to the ratio of four times the flow area S to the wetted perimeter p: dh 4 S/p (if there are isolated walls, the perimeter of heat exchange must be considered). Inside tubes, the formula most used is that of Mac Adams: Nu 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.4

(8.1.11)

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

For flow perpendicular to tubes, several options exist, such as Colburn: Nu 0.33 Re0.6 Pr0.33

(8.1.12)

In general, the exponent of the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 0.8, and that of the Prandtl number between 0.33 and 0.4. Bontemps et al. (1998) give values of correlations for very special finned geometries. For gases, Pr varies little with temperature and remains between 0.7 and 0.75. It can therefore be considered constant without committing an error. For liquids, it is imperative to consider the temperature in the computation of Pr. Knowing the values cp0, 0 and 0 for T0, and development of the first order of the heat capacity: cp cp0 cpb(T T0) We obtain, for most liquids (water excluded), a good approximation of the variation of Pr with temperature by formula: Pr =

8.2

cp0 + cpb (T − T0 ) ⎤ 3.758 ⎡ ⎡ λ0 − 2 ⋅ 10−4 (T − T0 ) ⎤ ⎢ T − T0 + μ 0−0.266 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 233 ⎦⎥ ⎣

(8.1.13)

PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODELS FOR THE CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

To size a heat exchanger, it is possible to use relations (8.1.1) or (8.1.4), but they assume the logarithmic mean temperature difference is known, which is rarely the case.

8.2.1

Number of transfer units method

A method simpler to use, and especially for more general use, is the NTU, or number of transfer units, method developed by Kays and London (1984). This method has the advantage of requiring the knowledge of fluid inlet temperatures, and not those of those at the outlet. By definition, NTU is defined as the ratio of the product UA of the heat exchanger to the minimum heat capacity rate. NTU =

UA ⋅ cp )min (m

(8.2.1)

We call R the ratio (less than 1) of the heat capacity rates: R=

p )min (mc p )max (mc

≤1

(8.2.2)

and ε the effectiveness of the exchanger, defined as the ratio between the heat flux actually transferred and the maximum possible flux: ε=

276

φ φmax

(8.2.3)

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

We can show that *max, that would be obtained for a counter-flow heat exchanger of infinite length, is: . *max (mcp)min Ti Ti is the difference between inlet temperatures of both fluids. Figure 8.2.1 gives the appearance of the temperature profile in a heat exchanger. Note that here the abscissa used is the enthalpy exchanged, not the length of the exchanger, which explains, with the assumption that the heat capacities are constant, that this rate is linear, not exponential. Note also that Tmax and Tmin are the temperature differences within each of the two fluids and not between them as in figure 8.1.2. . . As * (mcp)min Tmax (mcp)max Tmin (8.2.4) ε=

we have:

ΔΤmax ΔΤi

(8.2.5)

. . Since * UATml (mcp)min Tmax (mcp)max Tmin NTU

ΔTmax UA = p min mc ΔTml

NTU measures the ability of the exchanger for changing the temperature of the fluid whose capacity rate is lower. This is indeed an indicator of the quality of the equipment: the more efficient the heat exchanger, the more it allows for heating or cooling a fluid with a low temperature difference compared with the other. When U varies along the surface of the exchanger, NTU

1 p min mc

A

∫ U dA 0

. . For example, in the example of Figure 8.2.1, where (mcp)h (mcp)c we have: . . (mcp)min (mcp)h Ti Thi Tci T Thi ΔTi Tho Tci

Tco

ΔTmax ΔTmin

ΔH

FIGURE 8.2.1 Effectiveness notations

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

Tmax Thi – Tho and ε=

Thi − Tho Thi − Tci

(8.2.6)

With these definitions, it is possible to show that there is a general relation of type: ε f(NTU, R, flow pattern)

(8.2.7)

In practice, it suffices to have a set of relationships corresponding to flow patterns representative of exchangers studied, and the design of a heat exchanger is made on the basis on the one hand of the balance equations (8.2.4) and on the other hand of the internal equation (8.2.7). If we know the flow-rates of both fluids, their inlet temperatures and the heat flux transferred, the procedure is as follows: we start by determining the outlet temperatures of fluids from equation (8.2.4); . we deduce the fluid heat capacity rates mcp and their ratio R; the effectiveness ε is calculated from equation (8.2.5); the value of NTU is determined from the appropriate (NTU, ε) relationship; UA is calculated from equation (8.2.1). ● ● ● ● ●

If you know UA, (8.2.1) gives the value of NTU, and you can determine ε from the appropriate (NTU, ε) relationship. Equation (8.2.5) allows you to calculate the heat transferred. In both cases, the enthalpy balance provides the outlet temperatures. This method therefore connects the UA product to the exchanger performance, and the surface is deduced from an estimate of the value of the exchange coefficient U. As shown in (8.2.6), ε measures the “temperature” effectiveness of the exchanger, i.e. the fraction of the maximum difference in temperature between the fluids which is communicated to that with the lower heat capacity rate. The value of the method proposed by Kays and London is its generality because of the formal . . appearance of (mcp)min and (mcp)max. Phenomenological (ε, NTU) models provide only the exchanger UA product. As we have seen in section 8.1.2, the calculation of U depends on many factors they do not take into account. We will show in Chapter 35 of Part 5 the types of technological design models which can be built to assess U. Given its advantages, this method has been very successful and is now widely used. As we shall see, it is often even generalized to size heat exchangers other than those we have considered here, where it will be recalled we assumed that heat exchange coefficients Uh and Uc and fluid thermophysical properties keep a constant value. Experience shows that, on a thermodynamic level, (ε, NTU) models generally represent well the behavior of many types of exchangers, even more complex than those we have studied so far. It is especially what we have done in Thermoptim for thermocouplers, whose mechanism is complementary to the heat exchangers allowing components other than “exchange” processes to connect to one or more “exchange” processes to represent thermal couplings (see section 8.3.7).

8.2.2

Relationship between NTU and ε

In the pages that follow, we give relations between ε and NTU function of R, and their inverses which can be expressed simply, as well as the corresponding graphs in which curves represent ε function of NTU, for R varying from 0 to 1, top to bottom, by steps of 0.25.

278

ε

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

Counter-flow R0

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

R 0.5 R1

0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.2 Counter-flow heat exchanger chart

8.2.2.1 Counter-flow heat exchangers For a counter-flow heat exchanger, analytical expressions are, for R 1: NTU = ε

1 1 − εR ln 1− R 1− ε

(8.2.8)

1 − exp(−NTU(1 − R)) 1 − R exp(−NTU(1 − R))

For R 1 ε

NTU 1 + NTU

The corresponding chart is given Figure 8.2.2. 8.2.2.2 Parallel-flow heat exchangers For a parallel-flow heat exchanger: NTU ε

1 ln (1 ε(1 + R)) 1 R

(8.2.9)

1 − exp(−NTU(1 + R)) 1+ R

The corresponding chart is given Figure 8.2.3. 8.2.2.3 Cross-flow heat exchangers . For a ((mcp)min) mixed fluid cross-flow heat exchanger: NTU ⎛ ⎞⎟ ε 1 exp ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎟⎠

1 ln[1 Rln(1 ε)] R with

(8.2.10)

1 exp(RNTU)

The corresponding chart is given Figure 8.2.4.

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ε

Parallel flow 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

R0

R 0.5 R1

0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.3 Parallel-flow heat exchanger chart

ε

Crossed flow mixed mCpmin 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

R0 R 0.5 R1

0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.4 Cross-flow heat exchanger chart (mCpmin)

. For a ((mcp)max) mixed fluid cross-flow heat exchanger: ⎡ ⎤ 1 NTU ln ⎢1 ln(1 εR) ⎥ ⎢⎣ R ⎥⎦ ε

1 [1 exp(R)] R

with

(8.2.11)

1 exp(NTU)

The corresponding chart is given Figure 8.2.5. For a non-mixed fluid cross-flow heat exchanger (Holman, 1989), the corresponding chart is given Figure 8.2.6. ⎡ ⎛ NTU0.22 ⎞⎟⎤ (8.2.12) ⎟⎟⎥ with 1 exp(RNTU0.78 ) ε ⎢⎢1 exp ⎜⎜ ⎟⎠⎥ ⎜⎝ R ⎣ ⎦ 8.2.2.4 Shell and tube heat exchangers For a tube and shell heat exchanger (see 8.4.1.1), the following relationships are valid for one pass, regardless of the number of passes of tubes in the shell: NTU

280

⎡ 2 − ε(1 + R + 1 + R 2 ) ⎤ ⎥ ln ⎢⎢ ⎥ 2 2 1+ R ⎢⎣ 2 − ε(1 + R − 1 + R ) ⎥⎦ 1

(8.2.13)

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

ε

Crossed flow mixed mCpmax 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

R0 R 0.5 R1

0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.5 Cross-flow heat exchanger chart (mCpmax) Crossed flow not mixed R0

1 0.8

R 0.5 R1

ε

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.6 Cross-flow heat exchanger chart (not mixed)

Posing Γ 1 + R 2 ε=

2 1 + exp(−NTUΓ) 1+ R + Γ 1 − exp(−NTUΓ)

The corresponding chart is given Figure 8.2.7. For a multiple pass exchanger, with the assumption that the fluid is stirred between passes and the NTU is distributed evenly between the channels of identical configurations placed in global counter-flow arrangement, we will establish relationship (8.2.26) (section 8.2.4.1) which is simplified here to give, p being the number of passes and εp the effectiveness of each pass, depending on NTUp: ⎡ 1 − Rε ⎤ p p⎥ 1 − ⎢⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 − ε p ⎥⎦ NTU pNTU p ε = (8.2.14) ⎡ 1 − Rε ⎤ p p⎥ ⎢ R−⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 − ε p ⎥⎦

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ε

Shell and tube (1 n) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

R0 R 0.5 R1

0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.7 Shell and tube heat exchanger chart (1n)

ε

Shell and tube (3-2) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

R0

R 0.5 R1

0

2

4

6

NTU

FIGURE 8.2.8 Shell and tube heat exchanger chart (3-2)

For example, for a shell and tube heat exchanger with three double passes, we get the chart given in Figure 8.2.8. If we seek an overall effectiveness ε, calling A (1 Rεp ) /(1 εp), then: ⎡ 1 − Rε ⎤1 / p A=⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 − ε ⎥⎦

⎡ 1 − Rε ⎤1 / p ⎥ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 1 − ε ⎥⎦ εp = ⎣ ⎡ 1 − Rε ⎤1 / p ⎥ −R ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 − ε ⎥⎦

(8.2.15)

NTUp is deduced, then NTU. If we seek a NTU value, we deduce NTUp, then εp, and finally ε. 8.2.3 Matrix formulation . . In the case where (mcp)h (mcp)c, (8.2.6) can be rewritten as: Tho (1 ε)Thi ε Tci . . Moreover, (8.2.4) gives: * (mcp)min(Thi Tho) (mcp)max(Tco Tci)

282

(8.2.16)

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

Given (8.2.2): Tco Tci R(Thi Tho) R(Thi (1 ε)Thi εTci) Tco RεThi (1 Rε)Tci

(8.2.17)

(8.2.16) and (8.2.17) can also be expressed in matrix form: ⎛ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎛1 ε ε ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ Thi ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎠ ⎜⎝ Rε 1 Rε ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎟⎠

(8.2.18)

. . If we had considered a system where (mcp)h (mcp)c, the matrix system would have been: ⎛ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎛1 Rε Rε ⎞⎟ ⎛ Thi ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ε 1 R ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠

(8.2.19)

. . With R (mcp)c/(mcp)h If so we note: ⎛ (mc ⎜ p )c ε h = inf ⎜⎜ ε, ⎜⎝ (mc p )h

⎞⎟ ε ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠

and

⎛ (mc ⎜ p )h ε c = inf ⎜⎜ ε, ⎜⎝ (m c p )c

⎞⎟ ε ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠

we obtain a generalized matrix formulation which remains always valid: ⎛ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎛1 ε h ε h ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ Thi ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ε c 1 ε c ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠ ⎛ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟ A ⎜⎜ Thi ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠

(8.2.20)

This relationship can be altered to express not the outlet temperatures as a function of inlet temperatures, but temperatures from one end of the exchanger in relation to those from the other. We can readily obtain: ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⎛ Thi ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ 1 − ε h ⎜⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ ε c ⎜⎜ ⎝ 1 − εh

ε h ⎞⎟ ⎟ ⎛ Tho ⎞⎟ 1 − ε h ⎟⎟⎟ ⎛⎜ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ B = ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎟⎠ ε c ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠ 1− ⎟⎟ 1 − εh ⎠ −

(8.2.21)

A third formulation is used to express the temperatures of the hot fluid in terms of those of the cold fluid: ⎛ 1 − εh ⎜ ⎛ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ ε c ⎜⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎜⎝ Thi ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 1 ⎜⎜ ⎜⎝ ε c

1 − ε h ⎞⎟ ⎟ ⎛ Tco ⎞⎟ ε c ⎟⎟⎟ ⎛⎜ Tco ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ = C ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠ ⎟⎟ 1− ε c ⎠⎟

1−

(8.2.22)

8.2.4 Heat exchanger assemblies When we cannot achieve in a single exchanger the desired heat transfer, it is possible to combine various heat exchangers, either in series or in series-parallel.

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Thi

j

T

T hi j

T ho

Tco j

Tho

T co

j T ci

Tci

j 1

j

ΔH

FIGURE 8.2.9 Assembly in series

8.2.4.1 Assembly in series Given their poor performance, parallel-flow type heat exchangers are not put in series. Consider an assembly of heat exchangers in series. j j j Let us call Thi and Tho the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot fluid in exchanger j, Tci and j Tco those of the cold fluid. Given the serial arrangement, we have: j

j

j1

and Thi Tho Tco Tj1 ci Let as before: ⎛ (mc p )ci j ⎞⎟ ⎜ εjh = inf ⎜⎜ εj ; ε ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ (mc p )hi ⎟⎟⎠ ⎛ (mc p )hi j ⎞⎟ εjc = inf ⎜⎜⎜ εj ; ε ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ (mc p )ci ⎟⎟⎠ We have, using formulation (8.2.21): ⎛ 1 ⎜⎜ j ⎛ T ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − εj ⎜⎜ hi ⎟ = ⎜ h ⎜⎜⎝ Tj ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ εj ⎜⎜ c co ⎜⎜ 1 − εj ⎝ h ⎛ Tj1 ⎞⎟ ⎛ j ⎞ ⎜⎜ h0 ⎟ = B ⎜⎜ Th0 ⎟⎟ ⎟ j ⎜⎜ Tj1 ⎟ ⎜⎜ Tj ⎟⎟ ⎝ ci ⎠ ⎝ ci ⎠

εjh

1 − εjh εj 1− c j 1 − εh

⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ j ⎛ j ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎛⎜ Tho ⎞⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎟ = Bj ⎜⎜ Tho ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ Tj ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎝ Tj ⎟⎠ ⎝ ci ⎠ ⎟⎟ ci ⎟⎠

(8.2.23)

if i n

⎛ Tn ⎞ ⎛ Thi ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ = Bn ⎜⎜ h0j ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎝ T ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ci

if j n

⎛ n1 ⎞ ⎛ n⎞ ⎛ Thi ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ = Bn ⎜⎜ Tho ⎟⎟ = Bn Bn−1 ⎜⎜ Tho ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Tcin ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Tcin1 ⎟⎟⎠ ⎛ Thi ⎞⎟ i=1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟ = ∏ Bj ⎜⎜ Tho ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ i=n ⎜⎝ Tci ⎟⎠

284

(8.2.24)

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

Knowing the hot and cold inlet temperatures in the system, this formula gives directly the corresponding outlet temperatures. The inverse of the matrix Bj is equal to: j ⎛ ε ih ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜1 − ε h ⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − εj 1 − ε i ⎟⎟ − 1 c c ⎟⎟ Bj = ⎜⎜ ⎜⎜ ε ic 1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜− ⎝ 1 − ε ic 1 − ε ic ⎟⎟⎠

det(Bj ) =

1 − ε ic 1 − ε ih

Product Bj Bk Bjk, which represents the heat exchanger obtained by serializing exchangers j and k, in that order, is such that: εjk h = 1− εjk c = 1−

(1 − εjh )(1 − ε kh ) 1 − εjh ε kc (1 − εjc )(1 − ε kc ) 1 − εjh ε kc

It is clear that Bj Bk Bk Bj Moreover, if we subtract the second line of (8.2.23) from the first, we get: j1 Tho Tcij+1

1 εjc 1 εjh

n+1 Tho − Tcin+1 = ∏

j Tcij ) (Tho

1 − εjc 1 − εjh

(8.2.25)

1 − T0 ) (Tho c

This relationship can also be written in terms of minimum pinch (see 8.2.6), giving a constraint to meet for off-design operation, considering as separated heat exchangers the endothermic and exthermic areas (see section 22.2 of Part 3). For a counter-flow arrangement of n exchangers containing fluids with identical and constant thermophysical characteristics, whose intermediate effectiveness is εi, we deduce that the overall effectiveness ε can be expressed as: in 1 − R+

1 ∏

i

i1 1 − +i ε in 1 − Rε i R∏ i1 1 − ε i

(8.2.26)

If R 1, this expression becomes: in

ε=

ε

∑ 1 −i ε i1 in

i

ε 1− ∑ i i1 1 − ε i

(8.2.27)

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These relationships lead to the following addition rule: the global NTU corresponding to overall effectiveness ε is equal to the sum of NTUi of each module corresponding to its partial efficacy εi. 8.2.4.2 Assembly in series-parallel With the same assumptions as above regarding the constancy of the fluid thermophysical characteristics, two cases may arise, whether the fluid that passes through heat exchangers in series is the hot or cold fluid. Let us suppose here that the cold fluid passes horizontally in series in all exchangers while the hot fluid is divided into n parallel branches. Relation (8.2.20) gives here: ⎛ j⎞ ⎛ Tj ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ho ⎟ = A ⎜⎜ Thi ⎟⎟ j⎜ j ⎟ ⎜⎜⎝ Tj ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ T ⎟⎠ co

with Tcij = Tcoj−11

ci

We can get a recurring matrix relation as follows: ⎛ Tj ⎞⎟ ⎛ 0 1 − εj εj ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ho ⎟ ⎜⎜ h h ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ Thi ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 0 1 0 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ j ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ j j ⎜⎝ Tco ⎠ ⎜⎝ 0 ε c 1 − ε c ⎟⎠

⎛ T j−1 ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ho ⎟ ⎜⎜ Thi ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ j−1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ T co ⎠

⎛ Tj ⎞⎟ ⎛ Tj1 ⎟⎞ ⎜⎜ ho ⎟ ⎜ ho ⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ Thi ⎟ = Dj ⎜⎜⎜ Thi ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎜⎜ j ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ j1 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Tco ⎟⎠ ⎛0 ⎜⎜ DjDk = Djk = ⎜⎜ 0 ⎜⎜ ⎝⎜ 0

1 − εjh + ε kc εjh 1 j k ε c + ε c (1 − εjc )

⎞⎟ εjh (1 − ε kc ) ⎟⎟ 0 ⎟⎟ ⎟ k j (1 − ε c )(11 − ε c ) ⎟⎠

j k 1 − εjk c = (1 − ε c )(1 − ε c )

j k εjk h = ε h (1 − ε c ) =

εjh εjh j ) (1 − ε k ) = ε ( 1 − (1 − εjk c c c ) (1 − εjc ) (1 − εjc )

The hot fluid outlet temperature Tho is obviously the barycentric average of the Tjho, weighted by the heat capacity rates in each branch. The relationship providing the overall effectiveness is here: i=n

1 − ε ∏ (1 − ε i )

(8.2.28)

i=1

knowing that ε should always be calculated for the fluid passing through heat exchangers in series. This relationship can be transformed by noting that NTU ln(1 ε) for R 0, and leads to the following addition rule: the overall NTU of a set of exchangers in series-parallel is obtained by summing the NTUi related to the fluid flowing through them in series, calculated for a heat capacity rate ratio R 0. i=n

NTU(ε, R 0) ∑ NTU i (ε, R 0) i=n

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8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

T hi

T ic Tco

Tci T iho Tho

FIGURE 8.2.10 Assembly in series-parallel T

4

5 P 3

2 1

ΔH

FIGURE 8.2.11 Pinch point

8.2.5 Relationship with the LMTD method The log-mean temperature difference method (LMTD) starts from equation (8.1.4): * UAFTml It is possible to switch from a calculation method to another using relationship: ΔTml

εΔΤi NTU

8.2.6 Heat exchanger pinch A heat exchanger pinch is defined as the minimum temperature difference between both fluids. For a simple exchanger without phase change, it is: (Tho − Tci ) (Thi − Tco )

p )h ≤ (mc p )c if (mc p )h ≥ (mc p )c if (mc

Consider the graphical representation of a double exchanger consisting of an economizer followed by an evaporator, in the (T, H) graph where the temperature is the ordinate and enthalpies involved the abscissa (Figure 8.2.11). The fluid which evaporates is represented by the lower curve (1-2-3), which presents an angular point 2 corresponding to the beginning of the boiling. The hot fluid cools from 4 to 5, by decreasing its sensible heat.

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Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

. . On segments (1–2) and (4–5) we have H mcp T, and thus T 1/ mcp H. The slopes of segments (1–2) and (4–5) are equal to the inverse of the heat capacity rates of the corresponding fluids. For segment (2–3), we obviously have T 0, vaporization taking place at constant temperature for a pure component or azeotrope. At point 2 on the diagram P is the minimum temperature difference between the two fluids, called pinch. This point plays a fundamental role in the design of heat exchangers, as it represents the smallest difference in temperature in the device, and thus corresponds to the most constrained area of the system. The importance of the pinch is most evident in problems of complex heat exchanger network design, to the point that powerful optimization methods based on this concept have been developed. We present in Chapter 22 of Part 3 the Thermoptim method derived from the pinch method, which aims to find the best integration of the whole network. The exchanger, sized according to the pinch, operates outside this point with temperature differences greater than the minimum pinch between the two fluids. The irreversibilities depend directly on the gap T between the hot and cold fluids. They are even lower than the slopes of hot and cold fluids are close to one another, that is to say that the R ratio of their heat capacity rates is close to unity. The heat exchanger which has the least irreversibility is the one whose heat capacity rates are equal and whose temperature difference is equal to the minimum allowable pinch.

8.3 CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS IN THERMOPTIM In Thermoptim, a heat exchanger is not represented by a particular component, but by a connection established between two “exchange” processes representing the hot and the cold fluids. This way of working has many advantages. In particular, it is possible to design fluid networks at the hydraulic level, to calculate their thermodynamic state, and to thermally connect them only at a later time. For example, when attempting to optimize the design of a network of heat exchangers, it is not necessary to define a priori fluid pairings. In addition, it is clear that a heat exchanger aims precisely at linking changes in two fluids, which is consistent with the mode of representation adopted in the package. We begin by presenting the “exchange” processes, then we show how they can be connected to form a heat exchanger. 8.3.1 “Exchange”

processes

An “exchange” process is used to calculate the heating or cooling of a fluid between two states represented by upstream and downstream points. Its screen (Figure 8.3.1) is similar to that of the compression process, with fewer options. You should refer to the beginning of section 7.1.5 for an overview of the process screens. The middle-right part displays the following: a field that sets the minimum accepted pinch for this fluid. This parameter can be used in sizing heat exchangers; an option “pinch fluid method” used to indicate that the process must be taken into account in optimization calculations by thermal integration (see Volume 2 of the reference manual of the software).

●

●

[CRC_In_15]

Two complementary calculation methods can be chosen according to the option chosen in the bottom right of the screen:

288

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

FIGURE 8.3.1 Exchange process

FIGURE 8.3.2 Exchanger link

●

●

. “Calculate mH, the outlet point being known” assesses the enthalpy m h involved in the process; “Calculate mH and modify the outlet point” recalculates downstream point temperature . to ensure that the enthalpy m h involved in the process is equal to the value entered in the field mH.

8.3.2

Creation of a heat exchanger in the diagram editor

To represent the heat exchanger in the diagram editor, we use non-oriented links connecting two components of type “exchange”. An “exchange” component has in its center a small maskable exchanger connection port (Figure 8.3.2), which appears (as a small blue or red circle) only when the mouse is located above it, or when it is connected with another such component to represent a heat exchanger.

289

Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components

FIGURE 8.3.3 Heat exchanger screen

To make the connection, click on this port of one component and drag the mouse to the same port of another component and then release the button. During the connection the name of the exchanger is asked for. Once the heat exchanger settings are entered, the port is blue for the cold fluid, and red for the hot one. A heat exchanger is created in the simulator when an exchanger link exists in the diagram and the two “exchange” components that it connects correspond to two “exchange” processes in the simulator which are sufficiently well defined (it is particularly necessary that their inlet and outlet temperatures are different, that they have been calculated so that the value of Delta H is not zero, and that one is warming while the other cools). By default, the exchanger is initialized with a “counter-flow” type. 8.3.3

Heat exchanger screen

The connection is done in two stages, one for the hot part, and one for the cold part. The screen (Figure 8.3.3) contains information about the hot fluid in the middle left part, while that for the cold fluid is in the right part. To connect a fluid, if not done in the diagram editor, you must double-click the name field, then choose the process from the list. Besides the values of temperatures, flow rates, heat capacities and enthalpies involved, constraints exist on the temperatures and flow rates used to manage the heat exchanger calculations, allowing one to distinguish between the variables of the problem, those set and those to be calculated. Possible types of exchangers are: counter-flow, parallel, cross-flow, mixed or not, and multi-pass shell and tube (p-n) (see 8.4.1.1). In the bottom left, there are three buttons to optionally specify the absence or presence of implicit constraints on temperatures (see below). In the lower right are placed options for defining the calculation method (“design” or “off-design”). 8.3.4

Simple heat exchanger design

A heat exchanger connects two «exchange» processes. One of them is a hot fluid which corresponds to a substance that gets colder, while the other is a cold fluid that gets hotter. Once the

290

8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

coupling of the processes is made, the design problem is the following: it is necessary on the one hand to conserve enthalpy in the heat exchanger, and on the other hand to respect some temperatures constraints. Given that there are four temperatures (two for each fluid) and two flow rates, the problem has five degrees of freedom once the enthalpy is conserved. One can furthermore show that at least one of the two flow rates has to be set, otherwise the problem is indeterminable. For temperatures, one can either set explicit constraints (for example the fluid inlet temperatures), or implicit constraints (the value of the heat exchanger effectiveness, or the pinch minimal value). To set an effectiveness value, enter it in the ε field, and click on button «set effectiveness». To set a «minimal pinch», click on the corresponding button. The minimal pinch value is initialized, when the heat exchanger is created, or when one double-clicks in this field, with a value equal to the half sum of the minimum pinches defined in both hot and cold processes (see section 8.3.1). For the problem to have a solution, it is necessary to set a total of five constraints, among which there is a flow rate. If one of them is implicit (effectiveness or minimal pinch), four have to be explicit (3 temperatures and 1 flow rate, or 2 temperatures and 2 flow rates), or otherwise all five have to be explicit (a single flow rate or a single temperature is free). These conditions are necessary, but not sufficient. This is why the software analyzes all the constraints proposed. If there is a solution, it is found. Otherwise, a message tells the user that the calculation is impossible.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Practical design of a heat exchanger Several examples of practical design of heat exchangers are given in the book or in the portal, showing how this section can be put in practice: – The condenser of the steam power plant Thermoptim modeling example is designed in two alternative ways, by setting either a minimum pinch or a given effectiveness (section 9.1.7 of this Part); – The internal exchanger of a regenerative gas turbine is sized in Diapason session S23En; – The design of the three part heat exchanger coupling a gas turbine to a steam cycle to form a single pressure combined cycle is explained in Diapason session S41En; – The detailed technological design of a tube and fin heat exchanger used to cool compressed air before storing it is presented in section 38.2.1 of Part 5.

[CRC_pa_4]

One can note that the design of heat exchangers is always made with the implicit hypothesis that thermophysical properties of the fluids remain constant in the heat exchanger, but this hypothesis is not made during the calculation of the processes. Therefore, when one recalculates a temperature on the basis of heat exchanger equations, slight differences may exist between the values displayed on the heat exchanger screen and that of the corresponding processes, or between the values of the enthalpies involved in both hot and cold fluids. If a high accuracy is required, one may have to make first a heat exchanger design calculation, then iterate. Convergence is obtained quickly. Also note that if one of the two flow rates is not set in the exchanger, it is recalculated, even if the corresponding process is “set flow”. When a heat exchanger is designed, one of the flow rates being calculated, that of the exchange process is recalculated, as well as those of the processes located upstream as long as they are directly connected. The propagation stops when a node or a combustion process is encountered.

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8.3.5

Generic liquid

Let us recall that a particular substance called «generic liquid» exists in the database. It is a liquid at atmospheric pressure, whose specific heat is equal to 1 kJ/kg/K. It can be used to simulate any liquid not included in Thermoptim that one wants to use in a heat exchanger. . Indeed, in the energy equations used for calculating heat exchangers, the flow rate m and the spe. cific heat cp always appear by their product mcp, called the heat capacity rate. Therefore, if cp is set equal to 1, the value which is displayed in the flow rate field of the heat exchanger screen is that of . the product mcp. Instead of entering in the database a large number of different liquids, it is thus possible to make use of a single one: the generic liquid. Suppose that you want to study a liquid whose specific heat is cpliq. If the liquid flow rate is set to . . mliq, enter in the exchange process flow rate field the value (mliq. cpliq). Set the other constraints and calculate the heat exchanger. If the liquid flow rate is to be calculated, set the other constraints and calculate the heat exchanger. The value of the liquid flow rate will be equal to the value returned by Thermoptim in the flow rate field, divided by cpliq. The introduction of external substances limits, however, the interest in using the generic liquid. Indeed, it is relatively easy to model the thermodynamic behavior of a liquid (see Chapter 23 of Part 4), so that adding a new liquid can be done relatively simply, and allows one then to study with more precision and increased ease of interpretation the cycles which it is put in.

8.3.6

Off-design calculation of heat exchangers

A behavioral model of a heat exchanger must answer the following question: how does the exchanger adapt when its input variables are changed? These are its inlet temperatures Thi and Tci . . and mass flows mh and mc passing through. A behavior model should determine outlet temperatures Tho and Tco of both fluids based on these four input variables. There are two more unknowns than for the sizing problem, but the heat exchanger being selected, we know its area A. Chapter 35 of Part 5 specifically addresses this issue. In this section we content ourselves with some elementary remarks. . . To have a behavior model, we must give a law U U(Thi, Tci, mh, mc). With equation (8.1.5) and analysis of section 8.1.4 we can write: 1 1 e 1 = + + U hh λ hc . Nu k Rea Prb with Nu h dh/, Re , m/, Pr Cp- To take into account changes in exchange coefficients h in off-design operation, we can make a number of assumptions: neglect the resistance by conduction through the wall; when the fluids are of the same type (gas, liquid or biphasic), either equally distribute the resistances between the hot and cold sides, or ask the user to provide a method for allocating them; neglect the liquid or two-phase side resistance in the presence of a gas; neglect the two-phase side resistance in the presence of liquid. ● ●

● ●

In relating the current values to design values, marked by index d, each h value is expressed in the general case, in the form:

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8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

a b-a b ⎛ λ ⎞⎟1−b ⎛ m ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ μ ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ Cp ⎞⎟ h ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ μ d ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ Cpd ⎟⎟⎠ hd ⎜⎜⎝ λd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ m

(8.3.1)

For gases, Pr is approximately constant, and this expression simplifies: −a a ⎛ λ ⎞⎟ ⎛ m ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ μ ⎞⎟ h ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ d ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ μ d ⎟⎟⎠ hd ⎜⎜⎝ λd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ m

(8.3.2)

Recall that, typically, we have: 0.5 a 0.8 and 0.33 b 0.4 and also that polynomial expressions of , and Cp as a function of temperature can be found in the literature. It is generally verified and assumed that the thermal resistance of the wall of the exchanger e/ can be neglected. Then equations (8.1.5) and (8.3.1) or (8.3.2) combine to form, exponent’ corresponding to the correlation for the cold fluid: −a ab −b −a ab ⎛ Cpc ⎞⎟−b ⎛ λh ⎞⎟b-1 ⎛ m ⎛ λc ⎞⎟b1 ⎛⎜ m c ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ μ c ⎞⎟ h ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ μ h ⎟⎞ ⎛⎜ Cph ⎞⎟ 1 ⎜⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + hcd ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ hhd ⎜⎜ ⎜⎜⎝ Cp ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ λcd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎜⎝ m ⎜⎝ λhd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ m hd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ μ hd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ Cphd ⎟⎟⎠ cd ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ μ cd ⎟⎟⎠ U cd

(8.3.3) As can be seen, U depends in a fairly complex way on the exchanger input variables, including flow rates. If, for simplicity, we neglect the influence of temperature, it becomes: −a ′ -a ⎛m ⎛m h ⎞⎟ c ⎞⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ + hcd ⎜ ⎟ = hhd ⎜⎜ ⎜⎝ m hd ⎟⎟⎠ cd ⎟⎟⎠ U ⎝m −a ′ ⎛m ⎞⎟-a c ⎞⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎟ hcd ⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎝ m ⎟ cd ⎟⎟⎠ hd ⎠ U= −a ′ -a ⎛m ⎛m h ⎞⎟ c ⎞⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ + hcd ⎜ hhd ⎜⎜ ⎜⎝ m ⎟⎟⎠ ⎟⎟⎠ ⎝m

⎛m hhd ⎜⎜⎜ h ⎝m

hd

(8.3.4)

cd

However, in the literature, laws generally used are much simpler, probably because the identification of the parameters of equation (8.3.4) cannot be made by linear regression. These laws ignore the influence of temperature and consider only that of the flow: h ]n [m c ]m U ≈ C[m

(8.3.5)

Given the differences in form between these two equations, we recommend great caution when using the second. (ε, NTU) models can thus be used as global models: for a given heat exchanger, if one knows the NTU (or UA) evolution law based on flow rates of the two fluids passing through the exchanger, a (ε, NTU) model determines the evolution of ε when the operating conditions of the heat exchanger vary. In Thermoptim the “off-design” calculation mode allows one to calculate in a simplified manner off-design operation of the heat exchanger by the NTU method. In this case, the software considers that the four input variables of the exchanger are set. No correction is made on the exchange

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coefficients, but it is possible to modify by hand the UA value in the exchanger screen, if we assume a law of evolution such as equation (8.3.4) or (8.3.5). All off-design operation procedures apply to the study of a pre-designed heat exchanger. Let us also recall that, to use the NTU method, we implicitly make the hypothesis that the thermophysical properties of the fluids remain constant in the heat exchanger. The procedure updates the component inlet links, starting from the exchange processes, then calculates the outlet temperatures, and balances the heat exchanger at the enthalpy level. Points and processes associated with the component are updated as a function of the results.

8.3.7 Thermocouplers Thermocouplers complete heat exchangers by allowing components other than exchange processes to connect to one or more exchange processes to represent a thermal coupling. This mechanism does not encompass the exchanger mechanism: two exchange processes cannot be connected by a thermocoupler. This mechanism has a number of benefits, because it can be used to represent many thermal couplings that do not constitute a heat exchange in the traditional sense, like for example cooling the walls of the combustion chamber of a reciprocating engine, cooled compression, and above all supply or removal of heat from multi-functional external components. Figure 8.3.4 is an illustration of this: an absorption refrigeration cycle, whose absorptiondesorption system is defined and integrated in an external process, is fed with steam that exits the evaporator then enters the condenser. This cycle involves the mixture LiBr-H2O, whose properties are modeled either directly in the external process, or in an external substance, and requires high temperature heat supply to the desorber and medium temperature heat removal from the absorber. The representation of these heat exchanges is possible thanks to the thermocoupler mechanism: the external process calculates the thermal energies that must be exchanged, and the thermocoupler recalculates the corresponding “exchange” process, which updates its downstream point.

FIGURE 8.3.4 Absorber-generator screen

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8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

The types of thermocouplers used by an external component appear in the lower right hand corner of the screen. Double click on one of the types to open the screen of the corresponding thermocoupler. Given that thermocouplers are a type of heat exchanger, it is valuable as stated in section 8.3.1 to define them by values such as effectiveness ε, UA, NTU or LMTD, that can be calculated using similar equations. The component sends to each of its thermocouplers the equivalent values for flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and thermal energy transferred, which they must take into account in their calculations. Specific methods are provided in the external class code and are not user-modifiable. However, there are limits to the similarities with exchangers: for example, temperature crossovers unacceptable in an exchanger may occur in a thermocoupler, leading to absurd values. So it is best to transmit values that are unlikely to lead to this type of situation. One possible solution is to assume that the thermocoupler is isothermal for calculations of characteristics that are similar to exchanger characteristics. For example, a combustion chamber may be assumed to be at mean temperature between its upstream and downstream points when calculating the cooling. This assumption is not absurd and may prevent a temperature crossover between the cooling fluid and the gases that cross the component. In the case of the absorption machine presented above, we assumed that the absorber and desorber were isothermal. The absorber thermocoupler screen is given Figure 8.3.5. If we had not taken the temperature of the absorber as a reference for the exchange calculations, keeping the temperatures of the steam entering and exiting the external process, we would have ended up with a temperature crossover. For external processes that accept several thermocouplers and for external nodes, the potential complexity of the calculations prevents the exchange process from driving the thermocoupler. Its thermal load is always set by the external component. This is why there are fewer options for calculating a thermocoupler than for a heat exchanger: the user can only choose between calculating the outlet temperature of the exchange process (at a given flow rate) and the flow rate, when the temperature is known.

FIGURE 8.3.5 Thermocoupler screen

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Note that on the thermocoupler screen, the external component fluid can be selected as a pinch fluid and a minimum pinch value can be entered (see optimization method, Chapter 22 of Part 3). Finally, note that the off-design calculation method is not available for thermocouplers, as their behavior can deviate significantly from that of a conventional heat exchanger.

8.4 TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS There are a wide variety of heat exchangers developed to solve different problems. Capacities range from a few watts (electronics) to several hundred megawatts (condensing power plants). Uses relate as well to industry as to the residential and tertiary sectors, agriculture and transport. The temperature range varies from a few Kelvin for cryogenic applications to over 1000 C for some applications. The materials are usually metal, but also plastic or ceramic. Among the common configurations the following can be distinguished.

8.4.1 Tube exchangers These are cheaper and thus more widespread. Among them, two categories are particularly used for energy applications: the shell and tube exchangers, and air coils. 8.4.1.1 Shell and tube exchangers Very robust and economical, they are particularly used for liquid-liquid or liquid-vapor exchange (Figure 8.4.1). In the energy field, applications of this type of exchanger are numerous (hot gas heat recovery, evaporator and condenser of refrigeration machines etc.) A bundle of parallel tubes is welded or bolted at both ends to thick perforated plates and traversed by one of the two fluids, while the other flows outside the tubes, in different modes depending on the type of exchanger. At both ends, boxes distribute or collect the fluid that passes inside the tubes while a shell, usually cylindrical, ensures the confinement of the other fluid. The tubes may be arranged in a triangular or square pitch, the second being more compact and better in terms of heat exchange, but more

FIGURE 8.4.1

Shell and tube heat exchanger (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique)

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8. HEAT EXCHANGERS

difficult to clean. These exchangers are called (p, n), figure p representing the number of passes of the fluid outside the tubes, and figure n the number of passes of the fluid inside the tubes. Technologically, the disadvantages of these exchangers are first that they represent a nonevolutive geometry, second that they can be difficult to clean, and finally that they are unsuitable if the temperature difference between the two fluids exceeds 50 K, due to differential expansion induced. 8.4.1.2 Air coils Finned heat exchangers, called air coils, or just coils, are used when a fluid is a gas and the other a liquid or a fluid being vaporized or condensed. An example of a cooling coil is given in Figure 7.8.6. In these exchangers, the gas side convective coefficients are much smaller than others, and the addition of fins increases the exchange surface and thus thermally balances the heat exchanger (Figure 8.4.2). 8.4.2 Plate heat exchangers They are composed of embossed plates of various profiles, in which the two fluids exchanging heat pass alternately. They have a variable but highly developed exchange surface, which enables a very compact design (Figure 8.4.3). More expensive than tubular heat exchangers, they offer better exchange coefficients and can (for those which are not welded but gasketed) be modified by changing the number of plates, making them scalable. Plate-fin heat exchangers (Figure 8.4.4) are a variant with extended surfaces primarily used for gas-gas heat transfer. Corrugated fins are placed between plates in order to enhance heat transfer and give stiffness.

FIGURE 8.4.2

Examples of fins (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique)

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Flat Plate Sealing Bar Corrugated Plate (Fin)

FIGURE 8.4.3

FIGURE 8.4.4

Plate heat exchanger (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique)

Plate-fin heat exchanger, Extract from (Kakac & Liu, 2002), with permission

FIGURE 8.4.5

Heat pipe (courtesy Techniques de l’Ingénieur Génie énergétique)

8.4.3

Other types of heat exchangers

There are many other types of heat exchangers, but they are little used for energy conversion, so we will not detail them. Let us include as a reminder heat pipe exchangers (Swanson, 2000), (Figure 8.4.5), often used between two gas flows but also very expensive, or regenerator rotary or static exchangers (Figure 7.8.9), where the two fluids exchange heat through a solid matrix.

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8.5

SUMMARY

A heat exchanger can be modeled by the number of transfer units NTU method. While it is perfectly appropriate for studying the insertion of a heat exchanger in a thermodynamic cycle, such a phenomenological model, however, only gives access to the heat exchanger UA product, while the assessment of U can be particularly complex, as explained Chapter 35 of Part 5. The success of this model is such that it is often used as a behavior model for a particular heat exchanger by adding a UA evolution law, function for example of fluid flows through the exchanger.

REFERENCES Bontemps et al, Technologie des échangeurs thermiques, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, GRETh, ISBN 2-85059-003-07, Paris, 1998. F. P. Incropera, D. P. Dewitt, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons,1996. S. Kakac, H. Liu, Heat exchangers, Selection, rating, and thermal design, 2nd edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002, ISBN 0-8493-0902-6. W. M. Kays, A. L. London, Compact Heat Exchangers, Mac Graw Hill, 1984. R. K. Shah, K. J. Bell, Heat exchangers, The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, (Edited by F. Kreith), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-9581-X. L. W. Swanson, Heat pipes, The CRC handbook of thermal engineering, (Edited by F. KREITH), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000, ISBN 0-8493-9581-X.

FURTHER READING B. Pierre, Dimensionnement des échangeurs de chaleur, Revue Générale de Thermique, Paris, n 260–261 Août-septembre 1983. E. M. Smith, Thermal design of heat exchangers, a numerical approach, Wiley, Chichester, 1997.

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9 Examples of Applications Abstract: In previous chapters, we explained how operate the various components involved in energy technologies, we established key relationships that allow one to calculate their performance and we presented the corresponding Thermoptim screens. We now have all the elements to start studying complete systems, considered as assemblies of these components. Without wishing to spoil the contents of Part 3 that will be devoted to a detailed study of thermal plants and machinery (engines, refrigeration machines, air conditioning), we will show in this chapter how to implement the results we obtained. Therefore, in this section, we present some simple examples of how energy technologies can be described and calculated in Thermoptim. We will consider: a steam power plant cycle, simple at first, then with some improvements; a single-stage refrigeration cycle; the cycle of a gas turbine similar to that presented in the introduction; an air conditioning installation. ● ● ● ●

The three former have been qualitatively analyzed in Chapters 2 and 3 of Part 1, to which you may refer. Plots of theses cycles in the (h, ln(P)) and (T, s) entropy charts are discussed in particular. Before you start entering models in Thermoptim, we recommend you to study Diapason initiation session S07En_init1 which introduces all the software concepts needed. Keywords: steam power plant, refrigeration, gas turbine, air conditioning, HVAC.

9.1

STEAM POWER PLANT CYCLE

9.1.1 Principle of the machine and problem data Let us recall (section 2.1.1 of Part 1) that the basic cycle of a steam power plant is essentially a boiler where the fuel (solid, liquid or gas) is burned for generating steam (usually superheated) which is then expanded in a steam turbine whose shaft provides the motor work (Figures 9.1.1 and 9.1.2).

[CRC_In_9]

1

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/enseignement/cours-en-ligne/seances-diapason/session-s07en_init-first

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(T[°C], s) entropy diagram (water) 600 550

Boiler

500 Turbine 3

450 400 350

4

2

300 250

Condenser

Pump

200 150

1

100 50 River water

0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9

FIGURE 9.1.1

FIGURE 9.1.2

Sketch of a steam power plant

Steam power plant cycle in an entropy chart

The steam leaving the turbine is completely liquefied to water in a condenser before a pump restores the boiler pressure. Since water is compressed in the liquid state, the compression work is almost negligible compared to the work recovered on the turbine shaft. This is an external combustion cycle, allowing use of a variety of fuels (including uranium). In most countries, over 90% of the stock of thermal power plants was until recently composed of this type. In this example the flow rate of liquid water is 1kg/s. Point 1 state is: temperature of approximately 20 C and low pressure (0.023 bar). A pump, whose isentropic efficiency is assumed equal to 1, pressurizes water at 195 bar (point 2). The pressurized water is then heated (at constant pressure) in a flame boiler (fuel-oil, coal, natural gas). The heating is comprised of three steps: heating of the liquid water in the economizer from 20 C to approximately 355 C, boiling point temperature at 195 bar: process (2-3a) on the entropy chart; vaporization at constant temperature 355 C in the vaporizer: process (3a-3b); superheating from 355°C to 590°C in the superheater: process (3b-3). ●

● ●

The vapor is then expanded in a turbine whose isentropic efficiency is equal to 0.85 until the pressure of 0.023 bar is reached: process (3-4). The liquid-vapor mix is finally condensed in liquid water in a condenser. The cycle is thus closed.

9.1.2

Creation of the diagram

Run Thermoptim. The Diagram Editor screen is displayed (Figure 9.1.3). It has a palette with the various components available (heat exchanges, compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, mixers, dividers, external components etc.), and a working panel where these components are placed and interconnected by links. The diagram of the steam plant unambiguously indicates which components should be selected: the pump, which is a type of compressor , the boiler, which is actually represented here by three processes of the exchange type , to distinguish the different heating phases of water (in the economizer, the vaporizer and the superheater), the turbine, which is an expansion device and the condenser, which is of exchange type . To represent the feedwater pump, select a compressor component on the palette and place it on the editor by clicking the crosshair cursor at the appropriate location. A property editor is opened (Figure 9.1.4). Name the compressor “pump”.

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FIGURE 9.1.3 Diagram editor

FIGURE 9.1.4 Property editor

FIGURE 9.1.5

FIGURE 9.1.6

Outlet port settings

Pump

Then click on the “outlet port” tab (Figure 9.1.5). Name the point “2” and enter the substance name “water”. By default, the flow rate is set to 1 which is appropriate here. Then click the button “Apply” to validate the two tabs. The component appears on the screen (Figure 9.1.6). Similarly create three exchange components corresponding to the economizer (outlet point 3a), the evaporator (outlet point 3b), and the superheater (outlet point 3), one expansion component corresponding to the turbine (outlet point 4), and one exchange component corresponding to the condenser (outlet point 1). In all cases, the substance is water. You get for example the result in Figure 9.1.7.

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FIGURE 9.1.7 Diagram without links

FIGURE 9.1.8

FIGURE 9.1.10 Component oriented to the left

Connected components

FIGURE 9.1.9 Diagram with links

To connect the components, click on the green outlet port of one of them (e.g. the pump). The cursor becomes a crosshair and a line extends from the port if you drag the mouse. Drag th e cursor to the blue inlet port of the destination component (e.g. the economizer) while keeping the mouse clicked, and release the mouse. A link is established (Figure 9.1.8). Proceed similarly for all components. You obtain the result of Figure 9.1.9. By default, all components are oriented from the left to the right. When a loop appears in a diagram, it is convenient to orient some components from the right to the left. Here, you can change the condenser orientation by selecting it and clicking the item “flip vertical” on the Edit menu or by typing F1. You obtain the diagram of Figure 9.1.10.

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FIGURE 9.1.11 Final layout of the cycle

FIGURE 9.1.12 Diagram description frame

In order to improve the diagram appearance, you can add a text, two “external source” type components , one for the boiler, and the other one for the cold source, as well as a “Balance” type component which allows you to display the balance values. Thus, the enthalpies exchanged with the external sources can be shown. The result is given in Figure 9.1.11 (a title has been added to the diagram). At this stage, the qualitative description of the cycle is complete. To facilitate archiving of your diagrams, you can associate a name and description, by selecting the line “Description” of menu File (Figure 9.1.12).

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Then save your diagram by giving it a name with the extension .dia: “steam1.dia” for example. By connecting the components, you spread some information from upstream to downstream, so that all names and substances of the input ports are automatically initialized as you can verify by selecting a component and displaying its properties (F4 or Edit menu). The spread of substance names and flow rates is automatic when connecting components representing simple processes. It is thus not necessary to enter them during the initial definition of components that are subsequently connected downstream of another process. Note that, to enter the substance name, you may either type it if you know it, or get it from the list of substances available in the database which can be displayed by double-clicking in the substance name field and expanding the list, in which case you choose the one you want.

9.1.3

Creation of simulator elements

To create the elements of the simulator, the easiest and most secure way is to use the diagram/simulator interface that can be opened from the Special menu. Then click the button “Update the element table.” The screen is shown in Figure 9.1.13. The list of transferable elements is displayed in a table, and the user can select those he wishes to create or update. In front of each, an “X” marks the box “Diagram”, while the box “simulator” is empty. The right column shows which components are selected, that is to say which should be taken into account during operations conducted from the interface. By default, all components are selected, but a button allows you to deselect them all if you wish. Otherwise, by double-clicking a row in the table, you select it or not. To transfer all the simulator components, click the button “Update the simulator from the diagram”. You are requested to name the project. Enter e.g. “steam cycle”. Once the transfer is complete, the project screen (Figure 9.1.14) appears. Six processes and six points have been created with a default setting (1 bar and 300 K). To finish creating the model, you must now open each screen of points and processes created, and set them. You can do that either from the simulator project screen, or from the diagram editor by double-clicking on components to access the processes, and on links to access points (you can also open them from the process screens).

FIGURE 9.1.13 Diagram – simulator interface

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9.1.4 Setting points Enter the point 1 substance state (Figure 9.1.15). Its pressure is known (0.023 bar), and it is in the liquid state at the saturation temperature. To find its temperature, click on “set the saturation temperature”. The other intensive variables can then be calculated by clicking the button “Calculate” (by default, the quality is set to 0, which corresponds to the liquid state). Point 1 is now set. For point 2, indicate the only information known about it, its pressure P 195 bar. Currently both its temperature and its enthalpy are not known.

FIGURE 9.1.14 Simulator screen

FIGURE 9.1.15 Point screen

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FIGURE 9.1.16 Pump screen

For point 3a enter 195 bar corresponding to the beginning of vaporization. To do that, enter the pressure, and set the saturation temperature and the quality equal to 0. As the point 3a state is totally defined, the other variables can be calculated. Similarly, point 3b can be defined as being at pressure 195 bar, at the saturation temperature and its quality is equal to 1. Point 3 is at 833.15 K (590°C) and 195 bar. It can also be calculated. The last point to define is point 4. Only its pressure is known: 0.023 bar. 9.1.5

Setting of processes

Start for example with liquid compression between points 1 and 2 (Figure 9.1.16). You have the choice between four modes of compression: adiabatic or polytropic, for open systems or for closed systems. For the first ones, the compression ratio is that of pressures, for second ones, that of volumes. It can be either calculated, as it is the case here, where the outlet pressure is known, or set, in which case the latter is calculated from the inlet pressure. You can select two calculation modes. In the first case (“Set the efficiency and calculate the process”), the outlet point state is calculated from that of the inlet point and the efficiency value. For the second one (“Calculate the efficiency, the outlet point being known”), the efficiency value is calculated on the basis of both inlet and outlet points considered as set. Choose here the first case, which is selected by default. Make your selection by clicking on the appropriate options, and enter the efficiency value (isentropic or polytropic) for compression. In the present case, the inlet point is liquid, and only ideal compressions are modeled for liquids, except for water. Choose here: isentropic, isentropic efficiency equal to 1, and open systems. Point 2 state is calculated with the corresponding enthalpy change. The value of the compression ratio is shown (about 7174). For the economizer (3-3a), the vaporizer (3a-3b), and the superheater (3b-3), the upstream and downstream point states are known and the calculation is very simple. Just make sure that the method of calculation (bottom right corner) is “Calculate m H, the outlet point being known” and click “Calculate”. Moreover, since the boiler is the energy injected into the cycle, choose “purchased” for the type of energy at the top left of the screen (the default value is “other”).

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FIGURE 9.1.17 Turbine screen

FIGURE 9.1.18 Balance

You can now set the expansion (3-4). The screen that is presented (Figure 9.1.17) is like the one for compression. Choose the type of expansion (here adiabatic of isentropic efficiency 0.85), and calculate the process. The exact state of point 4 and the enthalpy of expansion are then determined. Calculate the condenser, as you did for the other “exchange” processes. At this stage, the cycle is totally defined, and you can calculate the balance by clicking the “Recalculate” button in the simulator screen (Figure 9.1.18). The energy purchased, useful energy, and the cycle efficiency are then determined. Save it in a file with extension .prj, e.g. “steam1.prj”. Save also the diagram file as “steam1.dia” by selecting item “Save As” of menu File of the diagram editor. You can directly view the point state values on the diagram, by selecting item “Show values” in the Special menu or by typing F3 (Figure 9.1.19).

9.1.6 Plotting the cycle on thermodynamic chart Plotting the cycle on thermodynamic charts can be carried out as follows: the charts are accessible through the line “Interactive charts” on the “Special” simulator menu, which opens an interface similar to that which connects the simulator and the diagram editor. Double-click in the upper left field and select “Vapors” from among the proposed list and choose water as substance (“Substance” menu).

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FIGURE 9.1.19 Diagram with values displayed

FIGURE 9.1.20 Simulator-chart interface

The “Chart” menu allows you to select the type of chart on which the cycle will be plotted. Select here line (h, p). Then go back to the “Interactive Chart” frame, and click on “Update the point table” which gives Figure 9.1.20. The interface between the simulator and the interactive charts includes several fields and buttons, and a table showing the various points which exist in the project or were defined as cycle points in the chart (there are none here). The two first columns show the names and the substances of the points. When a point is part of the simulator project, an “X” appears in the third column, and when it is part of the chart cycle points, an “X” appears in the fourth one. Here, there are only simulator points.

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(h, P) chart for water 256

2

3a

3b

3

128 64 32

Pressure P (bar)

16 8 4 2

0

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1,500

2,000

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screen background hsatl hsatv T 427°C T 377°C T 327°C T 277°C T 227°C T 177°C T 127°C T 77°C T 27°C s 8.5 s 7.75 s7 s 6.25 s 5.5 s 4.75 s4 s 3.25 s 2.5 v 4.5 v 1.8 v 0.75 v 0.3 v 0.12 v 0.05 v 0.02 v 0.0075 v 0.00317 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

3,500

Enthalpy h (kJ/kg)

FIGURE 9.1.21 Plot in the (h, ln(P)) chart

The last table column titled “selected” shows the point status: only the selected points are being taken into account in the transfers between the simulator and the charts. To change a point status, double-click on the corresponding line. Here we want to plot all points, so we keep them all selected. Now, click on “Update the chart from the simulator” to have the points transferred to the chart, and select “Connected Points” in menu Cycle. If necessary, change the axis layout in the “Chart” menu. You get the result shown Figure 9.1.21. As indicated at the beginning of this chapter, more explanations on the plot of cycles in thermodynamic charts are given in Chapters 2 and 3 of Part 1.

[CRC_In_10]

9.1.7 Design of the condenser For designing the condenser, it is necessary to introduce a cooling fluid, e.g. a river water, with a fluid inlet (“river inlet” at 10°C and 1 bar) and a fluid outlet (“river outlet” at 1 bar and a provisional value T 15°C), which can be represented by new process-points on the working panel. Also enter a new exchange process (“river”) to be placed between them. For the time being, its flow rate is set to 120 kg/s. Place these components on the working panel as before, after removing the external heat sink, and then create the corresponding simulator types by entering for pinch minimum, a value of 8 K for the river process (heat exchange between liquids), and 9 K for the condenser. The diagram becomes as shown Figure 9.1.22. Now calculate the “river” process as the heat exchanger construction can only be done if the enthalpy in this process is not equal to zero. To create the heat exchanger, place the mouse on either the condenser or the “river” process. In the middle of the component appears a small blue circle which is a heat exchanger connection

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FIGURE 9.1.22 Initial presentation of the condenser

FIGURE 9.1.23 Condenser in the diagram editor

port. Click on it and drag the mouse above the corresponding port of the other component (the “river” process or the condenser). The name of the heat exchanger (“condenser”) is asked for. Once you have entered it, the exchanger is symbolized by a link between the two processes (Figure 9.1.23). Note that the heat exchanger cannot be created if the two processes it matches have not been previously calculated in the simulator. Based on the enthalpy changes of the fluids in these processes, the software indeed determines firstly which warms up and which cools, and secondly the value of heat capacity rates brought into play. To create the heat exchanger in the simulator environment, double-click twice on the link. The screen of Figure 9.1.24 appears. By default, it is of the counter-flow type. Temperatures and flow rate values are updated from the processes, and average specific heats in the heat exchanger are evaluated. When, as for this condenser, the outlet temperature of one of the fluids is equal to its inlet temperature, a difference of 0.1 K is set.

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FIGURE 9.1.24 Condenser screen before settings

In order to design the heat exchanger, it is now necessary on the one hand to enter its type, and on the other hand to specify which temperatures and flow rates have to be calculated, the others ones being set. We have shown (see section 8.3.4) that the problem has five degrees of freedom and that at least one of the two flow rates has to be set. For temperatures, one can define explicit constraints (set values) or implicit constraints: one sets a value for the heat exchanger effectiveness, or the pinch is set equal to a minimal value. To set an effectiveness value, it is necessary to enter it in the “epsilon” field and to select the “set effectiveness” option. To set a “minimal pinch”, select the corresponding option; in this case, the software calculates the minimal pinch as being equal to the half-sum of the minimal pinches set in each of the processes that the heat exchanger matches, but it can be subsequently modified. For example, suppose we set the minimum pinch (here 7 K), as well as steam temperatures and flow, and inlet temperature of the river water. To size the heat exchanger, select calculation mode “design” and click “Calculate”. Let us recall that the design of heat exchangers is always made with the implicit assumption that the thermophysical properties of the fluid remain constant throughout the exchanger, while this assumption is not made in the calculation of processes. It follows that when the temperature is recalculated based on the equations of heat exchangers, slight differences may exist between the value of the heat exchanger and that of the corresponding process. For a very good accuracy, one must iterate several times. After two or three calculations, you get the result in Figure 9.1.25. The effectiveness is ε 0.28, the number of transfer units is NTU 0.33, the heat capacity ratio is R 0.0394, and the product of the exchange surface by the exchange coefficient is UA 248.5 kW/K. The river flow rate is equal to 178.25 kg/s. The log-mean temperature difference LMTD is 8.25 K. The enthalpy exchanged is equal to 2 051 kW, and the outlet river temperature, that was initialized at 15°C, is equal to 12.7°C, the minimal pinch being equal to 9 K for the water that condenses, and 8 K for the river, which leads to a value of (9 8)/2 7 K for the heat exchanger. If we set the effectiveness to 0.5 instead of the minimum pinch, the result is given in Figure 9.1.26.

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FIGURE 9.1.25 Condenser screen

FIGURE 9.1.26 Condenser screen 0.5 effectiveness

The effectiveness is ε 0.5, the number of transfer units is NTU 0.997, the heat capacity ratio is R 0.0205, and the product of the exchange surface by the exchange coefficient is UA 293.4 kW/K. The river flow rate is equal to 100 kg/s. The log-mean temperature difference LMTD is 7 K. The outlet water temperature of the river is now equal to 14.87°C. Note that the pinch (Thi - Tco) is less than the minimum specified in the processes. Thermoptim accepts this result: it is up to the user to ensure that the data entered is consistent. By requesting a higher effectiveness than that obtained for the minimum pinch conditions, the user decides not to respect this constraint. By varying the different parameters, it is possible to test various sizings of the condenser. Save the diagram and project files, for instance respectively as steam_cond.dia and steam_cond.prj.

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Reheat

4a Boiler 3

B

HP turbine

Pump

LP turbine

A Mixer

4

2 Feedwater pump

Condenser

1

River water

FIGURE 9.1.27 Reheat and extraction steam cycle

9.1.8 Cycle improvements In this section, we just present shortly the reheat and extraction cycle which is detailed in section 16.1.5 of Part 3. 9.1.8.1 Cycle with reheat To improve the Rankine cycle, one can approximate the Carnot cycle with reheat cycles. In this case, one begins by partially expanding the steam, which is then redirected to the boiler, where it is reheated at the new pressure, until it reaches the maximal temperature of the cycle. If need be, this operation can be repeated several times, which allows one to approach a para-isothermal process, and therefore increases the average level of the cycle temperature heat source side. This leads to efficiency gains of a few percent, and especially an increase of the quality of the vapor at the turbine outlet. It is always favorable to extend the life duration of the turbine blades, because liquid droplets are quite abrasive. The price to pay is however a higher complexity, but this improvement has no major technological impact on the plant, as in any case the expansion has to be fractioned. 9.1.8.2 Cycle with extraction Another way to improve the cycle is to undertake partial regeneration by using part of the heat rejected during the expansion for preheating the pressurized liquid water before it enters the boiler. With the enthalpy of the steam being largely greater than that of the liquid, it is possible to preheat the liquid by a small extraction of steam during expansion. It should be noted that due to extraction, the mass flow rate of the fluid that evolves is not the same in the different parts of the machine. If ε is the steam extracted, and fluid flow between points 4a, 3c, 4, 1 and A is (1 ε) kg/s, then the flow rate that evolves between points A, 3a, 3b, 3 and 4a is equal to 1. Of course, for the operation to be possible, it is necessary that the steam extracted at point P is at higher temperature than that of the liquid. In practice, reheat is thus limited. Furthermore, one can combine reheat and extraction by extracting the vapor just before the reheat (Figure 9.1.27).

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FIGURE 9.1.28 Reheat and extraction steam cycle in the diagram editor

Let us now introduce in the cycle studied previously a reheat at 30 bar and a 15% extraction, in order to see the impact that these modifications have on the cycle efficiency. 9.1.9

Modification of the model

To introduce the reheat, you have to create two new points, 4a at the outlet of the first expansion at 30 bar, and 3c, at 30 bar and 833.15 K. Create as well two new processes, to represent the reheat (4a-3c) (purchased energy) and the second expansion (3c-4) (useful energy). In addition, you must modify the first expansion, that takes place between points 3 and 4a (no more 3 and 4). To avoid all confusion between the two expansions, you will also rename the first one, which becomes HP turbine, and name the second LP turbine. To introduce the extraction, it is necessary that you create a divider, representing the split of the main vein at the outlet of the first expansion, and a mixer. To make things simple, we will suppose that the extracted steam and the water at the outlet of the condenser are mixed (usually they are connected by a heat exchanger). Furthermore, it is necessary to introduce a second pump for fractioning the pressurization of the liquid water with an intermediate step at 30 bar (“compression 1” between point 1 at 0.023 bar and point 2 at 30 bar, and “compression 2” between point A at 30 bar and point B at 195 bar). You will for instance take an extraction of 15%. When you have added these new components and made the appropriate connections (disconnecting the links which are no more valid such as that between the HP turbine and the condenser, you obtain a new diagram similar to the one presented in Figure 9.1.28. Watch out: make sure that the inlet point (“A”) of the process downstream of the mixer (here “compression 2”) is entered in its inlet port tab as this is not done automatically when you connect

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FIGURE 9.1.29 Balance

FIGURE 9.1.30 Synoptic view of the reheat and extraction steam cycle

the mixer to it. Also, both inlet points of the divider branches (process-point “extraction” and process “reheat”) should be the same (“4a”) as the outlet one of its main vein, as their state is the same. To create the corresponding simulator elements, use the Diagram/Simulator interface, and set their parameters. The LP isentropic efficiency is the same as that of the HP turbine (0.85). Once the components are transferred to the calculator, you can enter these settings. The mixer is calculated automatically, but not the divider. In the divider, the setting of the flow factors determines how the main vein is split between the two branches. As you want a 15% extraction, enter 0.85 for the “reheat” branch flow factor, and 0.15 for the “extraction” one, as Thermoptim will compute the flow distribution proportionally to these values. Calculate the divider, and save it. You can also set the flow-rate in the “extraction” process to 0.15 kg/s. The divider will automatically calculate the other flow-rate. All types thus being defined, you obtain the balance of the cycle by clicking the “Recalculate” button, which gives Figure 9.1.29. The useful power is now 1,430 kJ/kg (it has declined given that 15% of the flow rate does not pass through the second turbine), but the efficiency of the cycle has increased to 42.3% (Figure 9.1.30).

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(T, s) entropy chart for water screen background ssatl ssatv p 250 p 150 p 40 p 10 p 2.5 p1 p 0.2 p 0.05 p 0.01 h 3,600 h 3,450 h 3,300 h 3,150 h 3,000 h 2,850 h 2,700 h 2,550 h 2,400 v 4.5 v 1.8 v 0.75 v 0.3 v 0.12 v 0.05 v 0.02 v 0.0075 v 0.00317 x 0.9 x 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.1

900 3

3c

Temperature T (K)

800

700 3a

3b 4a

600

500

R

400

300 0

2

4

6

8

10

Entropy s (kJ/kg/K)

FIGURE 9.1.31 Plot of the reheat and extraction steam cycle

Save the diagram and project files, for instance respectively as steam3.prj for the project and steam3.dia for the diagram. To plot the cycle on the entropy diagram, choose (T, s) in the “Chart” menu. With some modifications to display the extraction, it is shown in Figure 9.1.31. All explanations on how to improve the cycle plot are given in the Thermoptim Interactive vapor chart manual2, available in the software documentation.

9.2 SINGLE STAGE COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE 9.2.1

Principle of the machine and problem data

Let us recall (section 2.1.2 of Part 1) that, in a refrigeration system, one seeks to maintain a cold chamber at a temperature below ambient. The idea is to evaporate a refrigerant at low pressure (and therefore low temperature) in a heat exchanger in contact with the cold chamber. For this, we need the refrigerant temperature Tevap to be lower than that of the cold chamber Tef. The fluid is then compressed at a pressure such that its condensation temperature Tcond is greater than the ambient temperature Ta. It is then possible to cool the fluid by heat exchange with ambient air until it becomes liquid. The liquid is then expanded by isenthalpic throttling at low pressure and directed into the evaporator. The cycle is thus closed.

2

[CRC_In_10]

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9. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

Tcond (condensation temperature) Ta (ambient temperature)

Tcc (cold chamber) Tevap (evaporation temperature)

FIGURE 9.2.1 Heat fluxes in a refrigeration cycle

Condenser 2

3

Compressor

Throttling valve 4

1 Evaporator

FIGURE 9.2.2

FIGURE 9.2.3

Compression refrigeration cycle

Property editor

Figure 9.2.1 illustrates the enthalpy transfers that take place in the cycle. Small arrows pointing downwards represent the heat transfers, which, as seen, comply with the second law of thermodynamics, heat flowing from warm to cold temperatures. The long upwards arrow represents the enthalpy contribution of the compressor, which allows the fluid temperature to be raised (the heat quantities are not proportional to the length of arrows). In our example, the problem data are: a R134a compression refrigeration cycle operates between a suction pressure of 1 bar and a condenser pressure of 12 bar (Figure 9.2.2). Before entering the compressor, the gas is superheated by 5 K above the saturation temperature, and before entering the expansion valve, the liquid is sub-cooled by 5 K. The compressor isentropic efficiency is 0.75. Model the refrigeration cycle and calculate its performance.

9.2.2 Creation of the diagram Run Thermoptim. The diagram editor screen is displayed (Figure 9.1.3). It has a palette with the various components available (heat exchanges, compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, mixers, dividers, external components etc.), and a working panel where these components are placed and interconnected by links. The sketch of the refrigeration cycle unambiguously indicates which components should be selected: the compressor , the condenser, which is actually represented here by two processes of

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FIGURE 9.2.4 Outlet port settings

FIGURE 9.2.5 Compressor

FIGURE 9.2.6 Diagram without links

the exchange type , to distinguish the different cooling phases of R134a (gaseous in the desuperheater, condensing in the condenser), the expansion valve, which is a throttling and the evaporator providing the refrigeration effect, which is of exchange type . To represent the compressor, select a compressor component on the palette and place it on the editor by clicking the crosshair cursor at the appropriate location. A property editor is opened. Name the component “compressor” (Figure 9.2.3), then click on the “outlet port” tab (Figure 9.2.4). Name the point 2, enter the substance name “R134a”. By default, the flow rate is set to 1 which is appropriate here. Then click the button “Apply” to validate the two tabs. The component appears on the screen (Figure 9.2.5). Similarly create two exchange components corresponding to the desuperheater (outlet point 3a), the condenser (outlet point 3), a throttling component for the expansion valve (outlet point 4), and one exchange component corresponding to the evaporator (outlet point 1). In all cases, the substance is R134a. You get for example the result in Figure 9.2.6.

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FIGURE 9.2.7 Connected components

FIGURE 9.2.8 Diagram with links

To connect the components, click on the green outlet port of one of them (e.g. the refrigeration effect). The cursor becomes a crosshair and a line extends from the port if you drag the mouse. Drag the cursor to the blue inlet port of the destination component (e.g. the compressor) while keeping the mouse clicked, and release the mouse. A link is established (Figure 9.2.7). Proceed similarly for all components. You obtain the result of Figure 9.2.8. By default, all components are oriented from the left to the right. When a loop appears in a diagram, it is convenient to orient some components from the right to the left. Here, you can change the desuperheater, condenser and expansion valve orientation by selecting them and clicking item “flip vertical” of menu Edition or typing F1. The diagram is given Figure 9.2.9. In order to improve the diagram appearance, you can add a text, two “external source” type components , one for the condenser, and the other one for the cold source, as well as a “Balance” type component which allows you to display the balance values. Thus, the enthalpies exchanged with the external sources can be shown. The result is given in Figure 9.2.10 (a title has been added to the diagram). At this stage, the qualitative description of the cycle is complete. To facilitate archiving of your diagrams, you can associate a name and description, by selecting the line “Description” on the File menu (Figure 9.2.11).

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FIGURE 9.2.9 Components oriented to the left

FIGURE 9.2.10 Final layout of the cycle

FIGURE 9.2.11 Diagram description frame

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Then save your diagram by giving it a name with the extension .dia: “refrig1.dia” for example. By connecting the components, you spread some information from upstream to downstream, so that all names and substances of the input ports are automatically initialized, as you can verify by selecting a component and displaying its properties (F4 or Edit menu). The spread of substance names and flow rates is automatic when connecting components representing simple processes. It is thus not necessary to enter them during the initial definition of components that are subsequently connected downstream of another process. Note that, to enter the substance name, you may either type it if you know it, or get it from the list of substances available in the database which can be displayed by double-clicking in the substance name field and expanding the list, in which case you choose the one you want.

9.2.3 Creation of simulator elements To create the elements of the simulator, the easiest and most secure way is to use the diagram/ simulator interface that can be opened from the Special menu. Then click the button “Update the element table.” The screen is shown in Figure 9.2.12. The list of transferable elements is displayed in a table, and the user can select those he wishes to create or update. In front of each, an “X” marks the box “Diagram”, while the box “simulator” is empty. The right column shows which components are selected, that is to say which should be taken into account during operations conducted from the interface. By default, all components are selected, but a button allows you to deselect them all if you wish. Otherwise, by double-clicking a row in the table, you select it or not. To transfer all the simulator components, click the button “Update the simulator from the diagram”. You are requested to name the project. Enter e.g. “simple refrigeration cycle”. Once the transfer is complete, the project screen (Figure 9.2.13) appears. Five points and five processes have been created with a default setting (1 bar and 300 K). To finish creating the model, you must now open each screen of points and processes created, and set them. You can do that either from the simulator project screen, or from the diagram editor by doubleclicking on components to access the processes, and on links to access points (you can also open them from the process screens).

FIGURE 9.2.12 Diagram – simulator interface

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FIGURE 9.2.13 Simulator screen

FIGURE 9.2.14 Point screen

9.2.4

Setting points

Begin by setting point 1 representing the compressor inlet gas (Figure 9.2.14). The point is calculated in open system, the pressure is 1 bar, and the saturation temperature set, with a Tsat approach equal to 5 K. For compressor outlet point 2, indicate the only information known about it, the pressure (12 bar). Currently both its temperature and its enthalpy are not known. Point 3a at the desuperheater outlet is at 12 bar and on the saturation curve, its quality being set to 1.

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FIGURE 9.2.15 Compressor screen

Point 3 at the condenser outlet is at 12 bar, subcooled by 5 K (Tsat approach 5K). It can also be calculated. The last point to define is point 4. Its pressure is 1 bar, and it is set to saturation temperature, its quality being not known.

9.2.5 Setting of processes You have the choice between different modes of compression: adiabatic or not, with an isentropic or polytropic reference. For open systems, the compression ratio is that of pressures, for closed systems, that of volumes. It can be either calculated, as is the case here, where the outlet pressure is known, or set, in which case the latter is calculated from the inlet pressure. To calculate point 2, open the “compressor” process and select “adiabatic”, “isentropic reference”, efficiency equal to 0.75, choose “Set the efficiency and calculate the process” as calculation mode then click “Calculate”. Finally, choose energy type “purchased” because the compression work is to be supplied to the cycle, while the default compression type processes are created with the “useful” energy type. You get the result given Figure 9.2.15. For the desuperheater (2-3a), and condenser (3a-3), the inlet and outlet points are known and the calculation is very simple. Just make sure that the calculation method (bottom right corner) is “Calculate m H, the outlet point being known” and click “Calculate”. The calculation of the expansion valve is also very simple as it is an isenthalpic throttling, there is no particular setting: the quality of point 4 is set so that its enthalpy is equal to that of point 3. The calculation of the cooling effect (4-1) is not a problem once point 4 determined. Simply because it is this effect which is the cycle useful energy, specify that type double-clicking in the “energy type” at the top left of the screen (Figure 9.2.16). The refrigeration cycle is thus fully described and its balance can be calculated (Figure 9.2.17). The mechanical compression work is equal to 71 kW, the cooling effect being 128 kW, which corresponds to a coefficient of performance COP equal to 1.8. You can view the results by clicking “Show values” in the Special menu of the diagram editor or by typing F3 (Figure 9.2.18). Finally, save the project file, for instance as refrig1.prj.

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FIGURE 9.2.16 Evaporator screen

FIGURE 9.2.17 Balance

FIGURE 9.2.18 Diagram with values displayed

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Like that which has been presented in the steam cycle example, it would be very easy to represent this cycle on one of the thermodynamic charts for R134a. We leave the reader to do so, or to refer to the Part 1 as indicated before. Note that, in order not to burden this diagram, we have not included all the elements of a real refrigeration system: it lacks the coolant and the cooled chamber.

9.3

GAS TURBINE CYCLE

9.3.1 Principle of the machine and problem data The operating principle of the gas turbine has already been presented in section 2.1.1 of Part 1. This machine is composed of three elements (Figure 9.3.1), a compressor, a combustion chamber and a turbine. In this example, a gas turbine burning natural gas without dissociation sucks 1 t/s of air at 15°C and 1 bar and compresses it at 19 bar in a 0.85 polytropic efficiency compressor, and expands the burnt gases in a 0.85 polytropic efficiency turbine. The temperature of the gases at the turbine inlet is 1150°C. The objective is to model the gas turbine and calculate its efficiency.

9.3.2 Creation of the diagram Run Thermoptim. The diagram editor screen is displayed (Figure 9.1.3). It has a palette with the various components available (heat exchanges, compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, mixers, dividers, external components etc.), and a working panel where these components are placed and interconnected by links. The sketch of the gas turbine unambiguously indicates which components should be selected: the compressor , the combustion chamber , and the turbine, which is an expanding device . In addition, we will add a fuel inlet, an air inlet and a gas outlet, all three represented by processes-points . The last two are not absolutely necessary, but they allow better cycle display, as we shall see later. A process-point mainly allows one to associate a flow-rate to a point. Begin by selecting a compression component on the palette and place it on the editor by clicking the crosshair cursor at the appropriate location. The property editor is opened (Figure 9.3.2).

fuel Combustion chamber 3 1

exaust gases

2

4

air

Compressor

Turbine

FIGURE 9.3.1 Sketch of a gas turbine

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FIGURE 9.3.2 Property editor

FIGURE 9.3.3 Outlet port settings

FIGURE 9.3.4 Compressor

Click on the outlet port tab (Figure 9.3.3), and enter the name of the point (2), the name of the substance (air) and flow (1 t/s). Then click the “Apply” button to validate the two tabs. The component appears on the screen (Figure 9.3.4). For process-points, it is particularly simple (Figure 9.3.5), as the component name is the same as those of the inlet and outlet points (if you wish you may however choose different names for the point and for the component). Enter its name (air inlet), then that of the substance (air), and the flow rate (1 t/s). You can now create the other elements of the cycle, namely two process-points corresponding to the fuel and the gas outlet, one combustion chamber (outlet point 3, substance burnt gases), and one expansion component corresponding to the turbine (outlet point 4). It is not necessary to select the turbine substance, as that of the combustion chamber outlet will be automatically propagated when the components are connected. Note that, to enter the substance name, you may either type it if you know it, or get it from the list of substances available in the database which can be displayed by double-clicking in the substance name field and expanding the list, in which case you choose the one you want. In our case, the fuel is natural gas, which is defined in the Thermoptim database, called “Montoir natural gas” (Figure 9.3.6). The burnt gas substance can be either chosen from among the non-protected gases or created as a new gas (you just indicate the name you wish and Thermoptim automatically creates it). You end up with a diagram such as Figure 9.3.7. To connect the components, click on the green outlet port of one of them (e.g. the air inlet). The cursor becomes a crosshair and a line extends from the port if you drag the mouse. Drag the cursor to the blue inlet port of the destination component (e.g. the compressor) while keeping the mouse clicked, and release the mouse. A link is built (Figure 9.3.8). Proceed similarly for all components. You obtain the result of Figure 9.3.9. At this stage, the qualitative description of the cycle is complete. To facilitate archiving of your diagrams, you can associate a name and description, by selecting the line “Description” of menu File (Figure 9.2.11).

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FIGURE 9.3.5 Process-point

FIGURE 9.3.6 Substance list

FIGURE 9.3.7 Diagram without links

FIGURE 9.3.8 Connected components

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FIGURE 9.3.9 Diagram with links

FIGURE 9.3.10 Diagram description frame

FIGURE 9.3.11 Diagram – simulator interface

Then save your diagram by giving it a name with the extension .dia: “GT.dia” for example. By connecting the components, you spread some information from upstream to downstream, so that all names and substances of the input ports are automatically initialized, as you can verify by selecting a component and displaying its properties (F4 or Edit menu).

9.3.3

Creation of simulator elements

To create the elements of the simulator, the easiest and most secure way is to use the diagram/ simulator interface that can be opened from the Special menu. Then click the button “Update the element table.” The screen is shown in Figure 9.3.11.

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9. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

FIGURE 9.3.12 Simulator screen

The list of transferable elements is displayed in a table, and the user can select those he wishes to create or update. In front of each, an “X” marks the box “Diagram”, while the box “simulator” is empty. The right column shows which components are selected, that is to say which should be taken into account during operations conducted from the interface. By default, all components are selected, but a button allows you to deselect them all if you wish. Otherwise, by double-clicking a row in the table, you select it or not. To transfer all the simulator components, click the button “Update the simulator from the diagram”. You are requested to name the project. Enter e.g. “gas turbine”. Once the transfer is complete, the project screen (Figure 9.3.12) appears. Six processes and five points have been created with a default setting (1 bar and 300 K). To finish creating the model, you must now open each screen of points and processes created, and set them. You can do that either from the simulator project screen, or from the diagram editor by doubleclicking on components to access the processes, and on links to access points (you can of course also open them from the process screens). 9.3.4 Setting points Enter the state of point “air inlet” substance. We know its pressure (1 bar) and temperature (15°C). It can be calculated (Figure 9.3.13). For point 2, the only information known about it is its pressure P 19 bar. For the time being we ignore its temperature or enthalpy. Point 3 is at 19 bar and 1150°C, combustion end temperature. These values can be entered. However, the composition of the burnt gases is not known. It must be calculated by the “combustion chamber” process. The fuel can be defined as being at pressure 20 bar and temperature 15°C. It can be calculated. The last point to define is point 4. Only its pressure is known: 1 bar. 9.3.5 Setting of processes Start with the compression between points “air inlet” and 2 (Figure 9.3.14). You have the choice between different modes of compression: adiabatic or not, with an isentropic or polytropic

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FIGURE 9.3.13 Point screen

FIGURE 9.3.14 Compressor screen

reference. For open systems, the compression ratio is that of pressures, for closed systems, that of volumes. It can be either calculated, as is the case here, where the outlet pressure is known, or set, in which case the latter is calculated from the inlet pressure. Choose here: adiabatic, polytropic efficiency equal to 0.85, and open system.

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FIGURE 9.3.15 Combustion chamber screen

Select calculation method “Set the efficiency and calculate the process”, then click “Calculate”. Point state 2 is calculated as well as the corresponding enthalpy change. The value of the compression ratio is shown (here 16). The combustion calculation is more complex: the combustion temperature is set to 1150°C. Enter this value in the lower right field and select “Calculate lambda” (Figure 9.3.15). As the dissociation is not taken into account, there is no need to define its rate or to enter the quenching temperature. In addition, as we neglect the thermal losses of the chamber, its efficiency is set to 1. The process can be calculated by clicking “Calculate”. The air factor lambda is calculated, as well as the fuel flow rate, automatically updated in its process-point, and the chamber flow rate is displayed. The burnt gas composition is determined. It can be displayed by clicking the red button “display” located to the right of the substance name in point 3 screen (Figure 9.3.16). The expansion process can now be calculated (Figure 9.3.17). Its polytropic efficiency is 0.85. The exact state of point 4 and the enthalpy of expansion are then determined. At this stage, the cycle is totally defined, and you can calculate the balance by clicking “Recalculate” in the simulator screen. The energy purchased, useful energy, and the efficiency of the cycle are then determined (Figure 9.3.18). The state of the various cycle points can also be directly displayed on the diagram as in Figure 9.3.19 (item Show values of menu Special or F3). This is why we introduced the two process-points “air inlet” and “gas outlet”: they allow us to show the state of the corresponding points. Finally, save the project file, for instance as GT.prj. The representation of this cycle on a thermodynamic chart poses problem indeed, owing to the fact that it is not the same fluid which flows through the whole machine: the change of composition in the combustion chamber prohibits in theory plotting the cycle in only one chart. Strictly speaking, such a plot makes no sense. You may refer to section 3.7.2 of Part 1 for further discussion on this issue.

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FIGURE 9.3.16 Flue gas composition

FIGURE 9.3.17 Turbine screen

FIGURE 9.3.18 Balance

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FIGURE 9.3.19 Diagram with values displayed

9.4 AIR CONDITIONING INSTALLATION 9.4.1

Principle of installation and problem data

The facility that we are going to study corresponds to a large building like an airport located in a hot and humid climate, which is to be cooled. For this, we have a ventilation system that allows air to blow in different parts of the building. For reasons of hygiene it is necessary to renew the air, but some can be recycled, however, which reduces air conditioning needs. So some of the indoor air is recycled and mixed with outside air. This mixture must be treated before being injected into the ventilation system so that its state corresponds to the supply conditions. These are calculated so that the internal and external heat and moisture loads corresponding to internal gains are removed. In addition, for reasons of hygiene and comfort, air generally should not be blown below a certain temperature value. A possible treatment of the mixed air is to cool it, condensing excess water to obtain a specific humidity corresponding to the supply conditions, then warming it at the supply temperature. There are others, but we will present this one here. The problem data are as follows: we seek to maintain the internal ambience of the building at a temperature of 24°C (297.15 K) and a relative humidity equal to 50%. External climatic conditions are the following: temperature to equal 30°C (303.15 K), and relative humidity of 80%. It is necessary to remove external and internal thermal loads of 192.9 kW, as well as a quantity of water equal to 90 kg/h, that is 0.01997 kg/s. Knowing that, for sanitary and comfort reasons, the supply temperature must not be less than 14°C (287.15 K), and that the recycled air proportion must not exceed 70%, the purpose of the exercise is to determine: the supply conditions; a way of processing of the outdoor air/recycled air mix.

● ●

In this example, we cannot we use the diagram editor, since moist processes are not yet represented there. The modeling must thus be done directly in the simulator environment. When you start Thermoptim, the screen in Figure 9.4.1 is displayed. Begin by creating a new project, named “air conditioning”. To do this, type Ctrl N or select line “New Project” of File menu, then enter the name. In this exercise, all points will be of the same dry gas, air, and constant pressure, 1 atm (1.01325 bar).

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FIGURE 9.4.1 Simulator screen

FIGURE 9.4.2 Water vapor/gas mixture point

9.4.2

Supply conditions

Begin by creating two points named “indoor air” and “outdoor air”, and setting their respective temperatures and relative humidities, as well as a third point, named “supply”, with a temperature of 14°C. To do this, double-click in the header of the points table, enter the names of the point and the substance. For the latter, you can either select from the list of the substances of the data base, which appears if you double-click in the name field, or enter it directly. In the latter case, you need to type a line feed after entering the name, so that Thermoptim know that the typing is over. Enter the values of temperature and pressure, and calculate the point, then select the “Water vapor/gas mixtures” tab, and enter either the specific humidity w if known, or more simply the relative humidity since ε is given. As appropriate, then click on “set w” or “set epsi”, so that the moist properties of the point are determined. For the indoor air point, for example, you obtain the result of Figure 9.4.2. Then, create a supply water vapor/gas mixture process, connecting the points “indoor air” and “supply” (Figure 9.4.3). To do this, double-click in the header of the process table, select “water

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FIGURE 9.4.3 Supply process

FIGURE 9.4.4 Moist gas setting results

vapor/gas mixtures” and “supply”. To connect points, double-click in the fields below “inlet point” and “outlet point”, and select each time the name of the desired point in the list. Enter the values of the thermal and water loads in the appropriate field with a negative sign because they are to be removed, and choose option “Calculate the supply conditions, the supply temperature being known”, then click “Calculate”. The flow rate is determined, as well as the “supply” point moisture (Figure 9.4.4).

9.4.3 Properties of the mix (outdoor air/recycled air) The first step of the air treatment is to calculate the properties of the mix (outdoor air/recycled air), which is then cooled. Mix calculation is done in a particular node, called the moist gas mixer. Like all nodes, its definition has two parts: the main vein and branches. Start by creating the cooling type moist process main vein. To do this create two new points, called “mixed air” and “cooled air”, and connect them by a moist gas process of the cooling type

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FIGURE 9.4.5 Moist mixer

FIGURE 9.4.6 Moist mixer outlet poin

named “cooling” (“mixed air” at the inlet and “cooled air” at the outlet). Then build two processespoints associated with points “outside air” (flow rate 0.3) and “indoor air” (flow 0.7), and connect them as branches of the mixer. To create the mixer, double-click in the header of the node table and choose “moist gas mixer”. To select the main vein, double-click in the corresponding field and choose “cooling” in the list. To declare each of the two branches, click on “add a branch” and then choose the correct process in the proposed list. Once the mixer is built, you can calculate it (Figure 9.4.5). The state of the mixer output point you get is given in Figure 9.4.6.

9.4.4 Air treatment The problem now is how to treat the mixed air (25.8 C, w 0.013) to get the supply conditions (14°C, w 0.00792). One solution is to cool it at specific humidity equal to that of the supply air, then reheat to the desired temperature. To calculate the cooling process, choose a realistic cooling coil surface temperature (for example 7 C), check the “Calculate the process, the outlet point’s humidity being known” option, and set the outlet point (“cooled air”) humidity to that of the supply point (w 0.0079 kg/kg). Then click “Calculate”, so that Thermoptim researches the required coil effectiveness. You obtain the following results: the temperature of the cooled air is equal to 11.78 C, and the cooling coil effectiveness is 75%.

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FIGURE 9.4.7 Moist cooling process

FIGURE 9.4.8 Moist heating process

To determine the required Delta Q, you must connect points “cooled air” and “supply” by a heating moist process of the same flow-rate as the “supply” process (Figure 9.4.8). 9.4.5 Plot on the psychrometric chart Return to the simulator screen and open the psychrometric chart through the Chart/Simulator interface (Figure 9.4.9). Double-click in the box at the top left to select the desired chart type (here “Psychrometric”). Then come back to the interface and click “Update the point table”, which gives you the result displayed in Figure 9.4.9. The interface between the simulator and interactive charts

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FIGURE 9.4.9 Simulator-chart interface Psychrometric Chart: air, pressure : 1.01325 bar 0.035

screen background saturation saturation epsi 90 epsi 80 epsi 70 epsi 60 epsi 50 epsi 40 epsi 30 epsi 20 epsi 10 q 159.61 q 139.66 q 119.7 q 99.75 q 79.8 q 59.85 q 39.9 q 19.95 q 0 t 100.05 t 87.55 t 75.04 t 62.53 t 50.03 t 37.52 t 25.01 t 12.51 t 0 v 0.95349 v 0.93105 v 0.90861 v 0.88618 v 0.86374 v 0.8413 v 0.81886 v 0.79642 v 0.77398

Specific humidity (kg/kg)

0.03

0.025 outdoor air 0.02

0.015 mixed air 0.01

indoor air cooled supply

0.005

0 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Dry bulb temperature (°C)

FIGURE 9.4.10 Cycle on the psychrometric chart

includes several fields and buttons, and a table showing the various points which exist in the project or which have been defined as points in the chart cycle editor (there are none here). The first two columns show the name and substance of points. If a point is defined in the simulator, an “X” appears in the third column, if it belongs to a chart cycle, an “X” is displayed in the fourth. Click “Update the chart from the simulator” to transfer the values of selected points from the simulator to the chart. Points are transferred by trying to put them as far as possible in the right order, but it may be necessary to reorder them correctly to get a nice plot. The cycle point editor is used to do this if necessary (refer to the chart reference manual if you need guidance). Finally, select “Connected points” in the “Cycle” menu. You get the result in Figure 9.4.10. The air treatment cycle is shown in the chart, the air mixture being as it should be on the mix line that connects the indoor and outdoor air points.

[CRC_In_19]

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10 General Issues on Cycles, Energy and Exergy Balances Abstract: This chapter is composed of three main sections. The first discusses issues related to cycle analyses, and in particular what is meant by the notion of efficiency or effectiveness. The second one explains how to establish enthalpy and exergy balances. We will show in the third section that it is possible to automate the preparation of exergy balances, even for complex systems, by introducing a new type of diagram called by A. Valero (2000) a productive structure. This is a graph allowing us to represent the product or consumption of exergy of the various components in an energy system. Note that all of section 10.3, devoted to productive structures, is intended for readers experienced in thermodynamics, and that therefore some of the examples that are presented correspond to cycles that will be dealt with in Part 3. We advise the reader not familiar with these cycles to refer to this third Part or to read section 10.3 only in a second reading of the text. Keywords: Efficiency, effectiveness, enthalpy and exergy balances, productive structures.

10.1

GENERAL ISSUES ON CYCLES, NOTATIONS

As shown by the examples of Chapter 9, in many practical applications, such as in steam power plants, the fluid undergoes a series of processes that lead it to return in its original condition. This is called a cycle. In some cases (internal combustion engines) exhaust gases are released into the atmosphere, so it is inappropriate to speak of a cycle. However, in a simplified approach to these processes, we can assume that the thermodynamic properties of the discharging fluid are the same as those of the incoming fluid, so that we can consider that the fluid flows through a partial cycle, the said opencycle, which could be closed by a complementary dummy process, which then allows one to compare it to other closed cycles. By extension, we are used to talking of a cycle to describe the representation of the succession of changes undergone by thermodynamic fluids being involved in energy technologies.

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10.1.1 Motor cycles On Earth, the mechanical energy comes in two main forms: potential energy, mainly from the attraction of gravity, is that of a substance at rest in altitude: e.g. energy contained in water from a dam; kinetic energy is possessed by a moving substance: energy from wind, rivers etc. ●

●

Under these two forms available mechanical energy is far below the numerous needs of today’s human societies, which correspond to transport (23% of the French energy balance), generation of electricity or farm machinery and industrial drives etc. Only since the mid-eighteenth century did man become capable, thanks to the discoveries of Watt and Papin, of transforming heat into mechanical energy. Since then, considerable progress has been made in the development of engines, and technological developments continue apace, because of scientific advances and environmental constraints that continue to become stricter. To convert heat into mechanical energy, in almost all cycles used, the working fluid is successively compressed and heated, and finally expanded. If the cycle is open, the fluid is then discharged in the surroundings, if it is closed, it is cooled and then compressed again. The various engines that are used differ by: the type of thermodynamic cycle used; the nature of the working fluid flowing through them; the types of hot source and compression and expansion devices used. ● ● ●

Different typologies can thus be established. Generally, there are: compressible fluid engines, where the fluid remains in the state of gas or steam throughout the cycle. In this case, a compressor is of course necessary. Depending on circumstances, the heat source used is the boiler or combustion chamber of an open cycle if the technical fluid contains oxygen (usually air); condensable fluid engines, in which the fluid changes state: at the condenser outlet, it is a liquid which is compressed by a pump, then heated and converted into steam in a boiler, steam which is then expanded in a turbine or piston engine. The compression work, proportional to the fluid specific volume, is much lower in these engines than in previous ones.

●

●

A distinction is also commonly made between: internal combustion engines, operating in an open cycle, where the heat source is a combustion chamber; external combustion engines, operating in a closed cycle, where the heat source is a boiler. ●

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It is clear that these different categories overlap. For our part, we chose to present in Part 3 first the internal combustion engines: gas turbines and derivative engines (Chapter 12), gasoline engines and diesel engines (Chapter 13), then the external combustion engines: the Stirling engine (Chapter 14) and steam power plants (Chapters 16 and 17). 10.1.2

Refrigeration cycles

In a motor cycle, heat is provided to produce mechanical energy. A refrigeration cycle operates in reverse: it receives mechanical energy which is used to raise the temperature level of the heat. Three types of refrigeration cycles are commonly used: refrigeration cycles (Chapter 19 of Part 3); heat pump cycles (Chapter 19 of Part 3); mechanical vapor compression cycles (Chapter 25 of Part 4).

● ● ●

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T T T1

A

B

A

T1

B

Q

T2

D S1

T2

C S2

S

D S1

FIGURE 10.1.1

FIGURE 10.1.2

Carnot cycle

Regenerative cycle

C

S2

S

The first two differ only by the levels of operating temperature and the desired effect. In refrigeration cycles, we try to cool a cold chamber, while a heat pump is used for heating.

10.1.3

Carnot cycle

Readers interested in a more detailed presentation of the Carnot cycle can refer to section 5.4.3 of this Part. It is known that the effectiveness of such a cycle is equal to 1 T2/T1, if T1 and T2 are the temperatures of hot and cold sources (Figure 10.1.1). This value corresponds to the maximum efficiency for a two-source machine, but the realization of a Carnot cycle presents many difficulties: firstly because in practice there must be some difference in temperature between the machine and the hot and cold sources during processes AB and CD; secondly because the realization of isothermal compression CD or isothermal expansion AB poses many technological problems. ●

●

We have indeed seen (section 5.3.6 of this Part) that for various reasons one is generally led to use stationary devices to exchange heat, and adiabatic machines to achieve compression or expansion. The actual motor cycles thus significantly differ from the Carnot cycle, isotherms AB and CD being most often replaced by isobars or isovolumes. However, attempts of course are made for expansion BC and compression AD to approach isentropic.

10.1.4

Regeneration cycles

We can imagine cycles where the isentropic compression AD and expansion BC are replaced by other processes, each of them being deduced from the other by a translation in the entropy diagram (Figure 10.1.2). This is called regeneration. In these circumstances, it is theoretically possible to make all the internal and external heat exchanges at constant temperature, and the ideal cycle with regeneration reaches the same efficiency as that of the Carnot. In practice, the internal heat exchange is of course not at constant temperature, and we introduce the notion of regenerator effectiveness to characterize performance.

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PRACTICAL APPLICATION Improvement of a gas turbine performance thanks to regeneration If its compression ratio is moderate, it is possible to increase the performance of a gas turbine by using a regenerator. An example is given in section 12.1.5.1 of Part 3. In this example, the main improvement is in efficiency (increase of about 70% with a regenerator of effectiveness equal to 0.83). A variant using a staged compression with intercooler would allow the capacity to be also improved. Other examples of regenerative motor cycles are given in Part 3 (Stirling cycle Chapter 14, extraction and reheat steam cycle section 16.1.2).

10.1.5 Theoretical and real cycles What essentially distinguishes cycles, are firstly the states (gaseous or liquid) in which the working fluid is likely to be, and secondly the nature of the changes it undergoes. The study of heat engines allows, from the theoretical thermodynamic cycle analysis, to include all the constraints that one faces when trying to convert heat into mechanical or electric power, or vice versa mechanical energy in heating or cooling. In practice, as we shall see, many technological difficulties arise, and real cycles often deviate significantly from the theoretical cycles we can calculate. The study of a particular machine thus depends heavily on the technical devices, especially mechanical and thermal, which are involved, and we will try in what follows to take into account these peculiarities as far as possible. The presentation of theoretical cycles still is of great interest because they represent the thermodynamic reference, and determine the limits it is possible to achieve in terms of efficiency, for example. The study of cycles can thus effectively guide the engineer in his approach to improving engines.

10.1.6

Notions of efficiency and effectiveness

It may be helpful at this stage to specify what is meant by the notion of efficiency or effectiveness, although we have already used it several times. In the general case, it is quite intuitive: for a heat engine aiming at converting heat into mechanical power, it is the ratio of the power output to the heat supplied to the machine: /Q1. Difficulties arise because the terms “power output” or “heat supplied to the machine” may not have a single meaning. Heat supplied The hot source provides some heat energy Q0, determined by fuel flow rate and combustion conditions. We have seen that, even assuming complete combustion, the heat received depends on the enthalpy of condensation of water recovered. Generally, Q0 is calculated relative to the lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel, which amounts to slightly underestimating its potential. When combustion is incomplete, things can get considerably complicated, as we showed in section 7.6. Now suppose Q0 is determined. In general, some of that heat escapes from the hot source, and is not transferred to the working fluid. These are losses by convection, conduction and radiation from the boiler or the combustion chamber, potential losses from flue gases etc. These losses can be characterized by a boiler efficiency bo equal to the ratio of heat supplied Q1 to Q0.

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Power output The net power produced by the machine is by definition equal to the difference between the power delivered d, and the internal power consumption c, with agreement to positively express their values. If they are calculated algebraically it is equal to their sum. d is equal to the sum of the powers provided by the different shafts of the expansion devices, and c to the total power consumed in the shafts of compression devices. We call thermodynamic efficiency, or internal efficiency i, the ratio of powe r produced to Q1. Power does not correspond entirely to that which is delivered by the engine because auxiliary equipment is necessary so that the whole system can work. Their role is to supply fuel to the engine, to provide lubrication and cooling etc. In addition, a number of internal frictions must be overcome. One generally groups together as mechanical losses of all these levies on the available power, which drops accordingly. They may be represented by a mechanical efficiency m, the total efficiency being equal to the product of the latter by the internal efficiency defined above: i m. In more general terms, when dealing with relatively complex cycles, one is led to adopt a broader definition of efficiency or effectiveness: it is the ratio of the useful energy effect to the purchased energy put in. η

useful energy effect purchased energy

This way of working is similar to that used in Thermoptim (section 6.3.1). It has the advantage of remaining valid in all cases for both motor cycles and refrigeration cycles. In the latter case, we no longer talk of efficiency but rather of COP coefficient of performance (see sections 19.3 and 20.1 of Part 3). Note that some purists prefer to reserve the term efficiency for the Carnot efficiency, and recommend the use of effectiveness in other cases. We have not, however, given the wide use of the efficiency word in industry.

10.2

ENERGY AND EXERGY BALANCE

The performance analysis of various technologies discussed in this book leads in a conventional way to calculate their energy balances. We will also show the additional interest that building exergy balances may have, which poses no particular problem but needs to be done very carefully as otherwise errors can be committed. In the sections dealing with the various applications, we will see how in practice the energy and exergy balances can be established, and how they differ. We limit ourselves here to present the principles, suggesting the reader wishing to deeper explore the question to refer to the literature, relatively abundant today, including the books of L. Borel and M. Moran cited in reference (Borel & Favrat, 1987, Moran, 1989). This section being of general application for all cycles, we place it at the end of Part 2, before the various case studies to be presented in Parts 3, 4 and 5. Some cycles used to illustrate particular exergy balances will therefore be explained in other sections, to which the reader unfamiliar with them may refer. Note also that the introduction of exergy balance is a relatively difficult exercise which is available only to experienced energy engineers and scientists. 10.2.1

Energy balances

The general method described in section 5.3.5 of this Part shows how to establish an enthalpy balance. For a system in steady state (in which case we will restrict ourselves), it is simply to

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recognize rates of heat flux, useful work and enthalpy at boundaries, and possibly in special cases like a combustion reaction (although this is in contradiction with the first law) to reintroduce a term of power generation in the volume. Thus, the general equation of balance for a control volume becomes: ⎧ inward ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ transport by ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ the surface

⎫⎪ ⎧⎪ outward ⎫⎪ ⎧⎪ transfer ⎫⎪ ⎧⎪ generation ⎫⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎬ 0 ⎬ ⎨ transport by⎪⎬ ⎪⎨ through ⎪⎬ ⎪⎨ in the ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ the surface volume the surface ⎪⎭ ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩

(10.2.1)

Building an energy balance does not generally pose a particular difficulty. These balances are very useful and widely used, particularly in engineering and design departments. However, they have an important limitation: derived from the first law, they do not take into account the quality of energy, so that one kWh of electricity has the same value as one kWh of heat, and this irrespective of temperature level. To reflect this quality, we must add the state function introduced by the second law, entropy. The theory of exergy, succinctly presented in section 5.5, provides a quite rigorous framework to quantify the thermodynamic quality of any system, open or closed, in steady-state or not. It is increasingly accepted as the preferred tool to compare and optimize thermodynamic cycles, thanks to exergy balances.

10.2.2

Exergy balances

Exergy depends on both the system state and the chemical composition of its elements. It differs from energy in that the latter is preserved while exergy is destroyed whenever irreversibilities exist. Since it is not a conservative quantity, equation (10.2.1) cannot be applied and a specific approach should be used. Let us recall some results established in section 5.5. For an open multitherm system in steadystate traversed by a constant flow of fluid, which exchanges work and heat with n external sources at constant temperatures Tk, and the environment at temperature T0, the exergy equation (5.5.3) can be rewritten as: n

Δx hi Δx h ∑ x qk k1

(10.2.2)

xhi represents the exergy dissipation resulting from irreversibilities, the work received by the system, xh the exergy variation of the fluid passing through it, xqk kQk the heat-exergy or useful heat received from source at temperature Tk, k 1 T0/Tk being called the Carnot factor. Equation (10.2.2) shows that the maximum work that an open system can provide is equal to the sum of heat-exergies of sources with which it exchanges heat, minus the change in exergy of the fluid passing through it and the exergy destroyed due to irreversibilities. When the heat sources are no longer at constant temperature, when several shaft systems must be considered and the system is crossed by several fluids, equation (10.2.2) must be replaced by a more complicated one. To calculate irreversibilities of each component j, it becomes (10.2.3): n

x hij ∑ x qjk mjx hj j k1

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(10.2.3)

10. GENERAL ISSUES ON CYCLES, ENERGY AND EXERGY BALANCES

If the heat exchange takes place at variable temperature: Tb ⎛ T ⎞ x qk ∫ ⎜⎜⎜1 − 0 ⎟⎟⎟ Qk Tk ⎟⎠ Ta ⎝

(10.2.4)

Assuming a linear variation of heat exchange function of T: ⎛ ⎛ T ⎞⎞⎟ T0 x qk ⎜⎜⎜1 ln ⎜⎜⎜ b ⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟ Qk ⎜⎝ Tb Ta ⎜⎝ Ta ⎟⎠⎟⎠ To calculate irreversibilities in a heat exchanger, simply add member by member (10.2.3) equations related to each fluid flowing through it. If it is adiabatic (no heat losses with the surroundings) heatexergies are zero. As the useful work is zero, the irreversibility is equal to the sum of exergy variations of both fluids. In section 5.5.5 we introduced the exergy efficiency of a system, always between 0 and 1, and higher than the irreversibilities are low. It is defined as the ratio of exergy uses to exergy resources. Exergy resources are the sum of all exergies that we had to provide to the cycle from outside. Exergy uses represents the net balance of the cycle, i.e. the algebraic sum of exergies produced and consumed within it. If the system consists of components satisfying equation (10.2.3), this general definition is mathematically translated by equation (10.2.5):

x 1

(x hij ) (x qj ) ( j )

(10.2.5)

The denominator represents the exergy provided, i.e. the sum of positive heat-exergies and useful work provided to the cycle. The numerator is the sum of the cycle irreversibilities. 10.2.3

Practical implementation in a spreadsheet

PRACTICAL APPLICATION Exergy balance spreadsheet For simple cycles, establishing an exergy balance poses no particular difficulty but needs to be done very carefully otherwise errors can be committed. To facilitate this task, a spreadsheet, named ExerBalanceThopt.xls has been prepared for you. Downloadable from the Thermoptim-UNIT portal, it gathers a number of worksheets related to the examples illustrating Thermoptim use. It is complemented by a detailed methodological note which explains how to reuse Thermoptim result files. In addition, the Diapason e-learning module S06En, which deals specifically with exergy balances, will guide you through your first steps, and modules S23En, S28En and S32En will help you build the exergy balance of a gas turbine, a steam plant or a vapor compression refrigeration machine.

[CRC_pa_5

In practical terms, and although the procedure is not yet automated within the package, the exergy balance of a cycle can be established in the following manner when it is modeled in Thermoptim: once the model is properly set and calculated the results file can be exported (line “Export exergy calculations” menu “Result files”). This is a text file that can easily be read in a spreadsheet, and in which different values are calculated for a number of point state functions (intensive variables) and the energy and exergy involved in processes; ●

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●

●

the first lines of this file can be copied into a spreadsheet prepared before. You should take care that the spreadsheet does not always recognize the thousands separator, and it may be necessary to make a global suppression of that separator (for this, copy the separator, select “Delete” from the menu “Edit” of the spreadsheet, paste the separator in the search field without putting anything in the replacement field, and then click” Replace All”); you must then carefully correct by hand the part of the worksheet that makes the exergy balance, as the lines for the different processes should be constructed differently (see below equations 10.2.6 and 10.2.7) depending on whether they relate to adiabatic expansion or compression or heat exchanges with the outside. For the latter, you must also specify the value of the source temperature. Finally, you should take into account in ( j ) the powers supplied to the system from outside; if you only have the demo version of Thermoptim you must slightly modify the spreadsheet to recalculate the exergies brought into play in the processes from the values calculated in the points screens and from the flow-rates involved, which must be copied one by one.

For simple processes, through which flows a fluid flow-rate m, equation (10.2.2) is rewritten as appropriate: for adiabatic processes (Q 0, mh)

●

xhi mh mxh ●

(10.2.6)

for processes without work and with heat exchange with a source at temperature T ( 0, Q mh) ⎛ T ⎞ x hi mx h ⎜⎜1 0 ⎟⎟⎟mh ⎜⎝ T⎠

(10.2.7)

On the worksheet in Figure 10.2.1, the Thermoptim result file appears in the upper part, and in the bottom the lines that need to be corrected. The connection between the lower and upper is made by the cell formulas, those in red should not be modified, except in special cases discussed below, while those in blue correspond to the mechanical power put into play, and those in black to heat exchange with outside sources. The important thing to check is first that each line applies to a suitable component (the order of processes in Thermoptim file is unpredictable because it depends on that of their creation), and second the temperatures Tk are entered correctly. You should correct line by line the balance calculation by copying and pasting. Note in the example of Figure 10.2.1 that appears a process-point (“extraction”) that obviously does not participate in the exergy balance. We can remove it if desired, first from the lower and then from the upper part to avoid losing references and formulas. In addition to this formatting of the bottom of the spreadsheet, it may be necessary to perform a number of changes, depending on the case treated. They are listed below. First, mixers not being processes in Thermoptim, they are not automatically included in the exergy balance of this worksheet. It is therefore necessary to add them by hand, equation (10.2.3) including only the variation of exergy within the component, since the mixer is adiabatic and without work. For the combustion chambers, heat-exergy is replaced by the fuel exergy input. According to the authors, the literature indicates that the exergy of a fuel is close to its LHV or its HHV. These two values differing little, and given the fact that we seek to establish an approximate balance, we will follow those who equate it with its LHV available in Thermoptim. Another special case is non-closed cycles, in which the exergy entering the cycle and leaving it must be taken into account. The calculation of xh must then be amended. The example of the simple gas turbine given Figure 10.2.2 illustrates these two points. Here, the exergy entering and leaving the cycle is taken into account thanks to an extra line called “intake/

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FIGURE 10.2.1 Exergy balance of a reheat and extraction steam cycle

FIGURE 10.2.2 Exergy balance of a simple gas turbine

exhaust”. It represents a very significant part of losses. When there is internal heat exchange, as is the case in combined cycles, the calculation of the exergy loss also needs to be amended as discussed above: it is equal in absolute value to the algebraic sum of the changes of exergy of the two fluids which exchange heat. Since there is internal exchange, it is obviously useless to calculate the related heat-exergy. If you want to know the details of losses in the different internal exchangers, it is necessary to change the xhi formula for fluids brought into play, by coupling the corresponding lines. If we simply make an overall balance, just sum up the overall exergy variation of all fluids. For example, for the single pressure combined cycle of Figure 10.2.3, the following lines must be matched: lines HRSG 3 and below corresponding to the economizer, HRSG 2 and below to the vaporizer and HRSG 1 and below to the superheater. For clarity, it is of course possible to change the order of lines in the lower and higher parts of the worksheet so that the fluids matched are displayed together as shown in this figure.

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FIGURE 10.2.3 Exergy balance of a single pressure combined cycle

10.2.4

Exergy balances of complex cycles

Even using the spreadsheet above, building the exergy balance of a somewhat complicated system can be difficult in practice, and this for two main reasons: first, as many changes must be made to the spreadsheet, even though each is relatively simple, their number increases the risk of error; second, exergy balances being not conservative, there is no simple way to check the consistency of the result. ●

●

It turns out that it is possible to automate the preparation of exergy balances, even for complex systems, by introducing a new type of diagram called by Valero a productive structure. This is a graph allowing us to represent the product or consumption of exergy of the various components in an energy system. To avoid any misunderstanding, let us specify that it is of course quite possible to do without productive structures when building up exergy balances. However, as soon as the system studied becomes a bit complex, this is, as we have seen, a path strewn with obstacles, difficult to verify because these balances are non-conservative. The method we present, based on productive structures, proves a useful guide, which secures and simplifies the work to a very large extent. Indeed, productive structures: enable a very eloquent graphical representation of exergy flows in energy systems; can be largely automatically generated when one has a Thermoptim diagram and its thermodynamic settings; facilitate and secure building up exergy balances; in addition lead to thermo-economic analyses for those who wish to perform.

● ●

● ●

10.3 10.3.1

PRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES Establishment of a productive structure

For Valero, a productive structure is comprised of productive and dissipative units (PDU), junctions and branches. Each flow of different nature or cost is represented by a link at the location where it is distributed.

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1 Combustor 1 3

2 5 Compressor

6 Turbine 3

2

0

4 HRSG Air Gases Natural gas Work Water/Steam

7 4

8

FIGURE 10.3.1 Physical sketch

Each PDU is characterized by its own product flow, but can also have other outlet flows or subproducts. To produce them, it consumes external resources or products provided by other units. At each junction, a product flow is obtained by summing up inlets of the same nature but from different origins. 10.3.2

Relationship between the diagram and the productive structure

The following example, presented in (Valero et al., 2000), shows how a productive structure is related to the physical sketch. It deals with a gas turbine used in a cogeneration plant (production of superheated steam at 20 bar), the cogeneration heat exchanger (HRSG) being modeled in a simplified way (Figure 10.3.1). The Bi are the exergy flows of the various streams (except for B5, which represents the mechanical power consumed by the compressor), the Fi are the exergy resources (fuels), and the Pi are the exergy products. In this example, the heat exchanger is modeled globally. If it is represented as the coupling between two processes exchanging heat, we can consider that F corresponds to the exergy variation of the hot fluid, and P the exergy variation of the cold fluid. The heat exchanger balance stems from that. The derivation of the productive structure from the physical diagram can be explained as follows: each PDU allows one to calculate the exergy balance of a component, following usual rules for exergy calculations: each unit gets “fuels” Fi which can be of three types (heat-exergy or chemical exergy, work, or exergy transfer from fluids which flow through it). One or several “products” Pi come out of it. These Pi are of two types (exergy variation of fluids which flow through it or work). In a productive structure (Figure 10.3.2), the PDU are represented by rectangles, whereas lines which connect them correspond to the exergy flows which are exchanged: “fuels” at the inlet and “products” at the outlet. As an exergy flow can be distributed between several PDUs, it is necessary to introduce what we shall name pseudo-nodes to represent the exergy mixers and dividers. In the productive structure, the mixers (or junctions) are depicted as rhombs, and the dividers (branches) as circles.

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F2 B5

Comp

F3 B3 B4

Wnet b2

Pj1 B3

P2 B2 B0

j1

b1

P1 B3 B2 F1 B1

P3

Turb

P4 B7 Bheat HRSG

F4 B4 Comp

FIGURE 10.3.2 Productive structure

No.

Subsystem

Fuel

Product

Technical production coefficients

1

Combustor

F1 B1

P1 B3 B2

kcp F1/P1

2

Compressor

F2 B5 Wcp

P2 B2 B0

kcp F2/P2

3

Turbine

F3 B3 B4

P3 B5 B6 Wcp Wnet

kgt F3/P3

4

HRSG

F4 B4

P4 B7 BHEAT

kHRSG F5/P5

5

Junction

P1 B3 B2

Pj1 B3

r1 P1/Pj1 r2 P2/Pj1

P2 B2 B0 6

Branching 1

Pj1 B3

F3 B3 B4 F4 B4

7

Branching 2

P3 B5 B6 Wcp Wnet

F2 B5 Wcp B6 Wnet

FIGURE 10.3.3 Fuels and products

TABLE 10.3.1 F xq Compressor Combustion

P

x h

B5 B1

Turbine

B3-B4

HRSG

B4

xh

exer

xhi

B2-B0

(B2-B0)/B5

B5-(B2-B0)

B3-B2

(B3-B2)/B1

B1-(B3-B2)

(B5 net)/(B3-B4)

B3-B4-(B5 net)

B7/B4

B4-B7

B5 net B7

At this stage, we should highlight that there is some subjectivity in the definition of the resources and products. This issue is debated in the exergy community, and we shall rely on Valero et al. (2000) and Kotas (1995), who explicitly say that every component is designed with a precise objective, which allows us to dismiss uncertainties (Valero speaks of “productive purpose” and Kotas of “desired output”). Once this objective is made explicit, we shall consider with Kotas that the exergy resources are the “necessary inputs” to provide the desired output. The exergy efficiency of the components is then what he calls the rational efficiency %, defined as the ratio of the exergies coming out of the system to the exergies entering it Fi, or as 1 minus the ratio between the irreversibilities and the Fi. With these conventions, the expressions of the Fi and the Pi are given in Figure 10.3.3, and the exergy balances of the various PDUs in Table 10.3.1.

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FIGURE 10.3.4 Productive structure editor

One should also note that purely dissipative units provide no product, so that their exergy efficiency is equal to 0. According to Valero, the main limitation of the initial exergy cost theory was to define the productive structure from the same flows and components as those of the physical structure. This creates difficulties for the treatment of dissipative units and plant residues. Another challenge is to identify useful products as co-products or by-products. Once the productive structure is known, the Fi can be expressed as a function of the Pi, as shown in Table 10.3.1: Fi kiPi, ki being the reciprocal of the component exergy efficiency. The thermoeconomic model is derived from that.

10.3.3

Implementation in Thermoptim

A new editor with the various components used in the production structures has been developed1 (Figure 10.3.4). It is available from the Special menu screen of the simulator (Ctrl B). You find on the palette icons for processes-points to represent the input and output flows, for productive or dissipative . and branches units , and for junctions You construct a productive structure either manually by selecting the icons on the palette, placing them on the work plan, and connecting them with links, analogous to the way a diagram is built, or by automatically generating the productive structure from the simulator and the physical diagram.

1

This version, still being developed, is available only on request.

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FIGURE 10.3.5

FIGURE 10.3.6

Productive unit

Provider component

FIGURE 10.3.7 Receiver component

The exergy resources being of three possible types, and the products of two, a productive unit is represented by a rectangle with three inlet ports and two outlet ones (Figure 10.3.5), whose colors are differentiated in order to distinguish the various types of exergy flows and to allow to graphically separate resources and products. The inlet port colors are the following: red for fuel, blue for mechanical power, and green for fluid exergy variation; the outlet port colors: blue for mechanical power, and green for fluid exergy variation. The exergy flow values can be displayed on the links, which are colored similarly. The exergy of a fluid going through a component can increase or decrease. If it increases, we say that the component is an exergy provider, if it decreases that it is an exergy receiver. A provider is represented by a productive unit with an output junction, with two incoming links: the one going out of the green port of the productive unit (outlet exergy flow), and the one corresponding to the inlet exergy flow (Figure 10.3.6). In this figure, the total exergy available at the outlet of pseudo-node “j_compressor” is the sum of two values: first the exergy flow at the inlet of the component, represented by process-point “air inlet”, and second the exergy variation of the fluid in the compressor, which receives it under a mechanical form. The pseudo-mixer or junction “j_compressor” is used to model this addition. An exergy receiver is represented by a productive unit with a branch at the inlet, with two outgoing links: the one arriving at the green port of the PDU (inlet exergy flow), and the one corresponding to the outlet exergy flow (Figure 10.3.7).

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10. GENERAL ISSUES ON CYCLES, ENERGY AND EXERGY BALANCES

On this figure, the total exergy available upstream of the turbine separates in two parts: first the one which is the turbine “fuel” and is converted under a mechanical form, and second the one which remains available at the turbine outlet. The pseudo-divider or branch “b_turbine” is used to model this division. It should be noted that, for provider components (those for which xh 0), Pi xh. For turbines (for which xh 0) Pi . Throttlings being purely dissipative, Pi 0. 10.3.4 AUTOMATION OF THE CREATION OF THE PRODUCTIVE STRUCTURE It is possible to construct by hand with Thermoptim the productive structure of an energy system, but this is not the best way to operate if one knows the physical sketch, as is usually the case. The productive structure can very well be inferred from the physical sketch (Thermoptim diagram) and thermodynamic parameters (Thermoptim project). Provided that the environment temperature T0 is properly initialized, it serves to distinguish exergy provider and receiver components, and calculate the exergy balances of UPDs. 10.3.4.1 Creating the diagram In a first step, we create all productive or dissipative units within the rules of correspondence mentioned above. Since it usually takes two icons for each component (the productive unit and the node), the diagram is expanded by multiplying the point coordinates by a certain factor, then the two icons are slightly offset so that they do not overlap, and finally all input and output exergy flows are connected. The names of pseudo-nodes are obtained by preceding those of the PDU by “j_” for joints, and “b_” for branches. It should be noted that this way of working may result in the introduction of junctions in series and/or of branches in series, which may be grouped in order to simplify the productive structure. This happens when several providers or several receivers appear sequentially in the physical diagram. This is for instance the case when a phase change heat exchanger such as a steam generator is represented by three exchangers in series. Examples below illustrate this point. Therefore, in a second step, pseudo-nodes in series are identified and can be grouped. In order to avoid errors, real nodes appearing in the physical structure are not automatically suppressed. This can be done by hand if it is deemed preferable. Do not forget to connect to another node links from a divider removed or leading to a deleted mixer. It is also possible that the surplus PDUs may be removed from the productive structure. This is particularly the case of process-points connecting two nodes in the physical diagram, which are present only because nodes cannot be directly connected in Thermoptim, and have no reason to appear in the productive structure. If they have the same name as one of the two nodes, they are not linked. Otherwise, they must be removed by hand. In a third step, we end up entering productive structure data, setting exergy balance screens presented below. For example, the blue exergy inputs (mechanical power) are not connected at this stage, as temperatures of outside sources with which heat-exergy is exchanged are not defined. In Thermoptim the logical connection between the productive structure and the simulator is the component name. You should therefore give the PDU the same name as the corresponding simulator element. 10.3.4.2 Setting PDUs Each productive unit allows one to open a component exergy balance screen, in which can be entered the settings which are required for calculating the exergy resources and products, as well as the component irreversibility and exergy efficiency (Figures 10.3.8 and 10.3.9).

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FIGURE 10.3.8 Exergy balance of a turbine

FIGURE 10.3.9 Exergy balance of a exchange process with internal exchange

Once these settings are entered the component exergy balance can be calculated. Double clicking the productive unit opens a screen which allows some settings in order to calculate component exergy resources and products, as well as irreversibilities and exergy efficiency, which, by shortcut, we denote by establishing the exergy balance of the component. Figure 10.3.8 shows the screen of a turbine PDU whose exergy balance can be determined without specific settings: the exergy resource is provided by the fluid exergy variation (Xh), the product is the mechanical power (), and the exergy efficiency and irreversibilities are also determined. When the component is of the exchange type (Figure 10.3.9), different possibilities exist. If it is a fluid inlet or outlet, which corresponds to a process-point connected only upstream or downstream, its total exergy (physical and chemical) must be taken into account. Note that this may influence the overall balance because the methods of calculating various exergy properties are not the same; ●

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●

●

●

If it is a fluid outlet rejected in the environment, the exergy is lost, which corresponds to an irreversibility. If on the contrary this exergy has an external value, it is an exergy product without irreversibility. The exergy calculation screen is provided with an option to specify this (Valuable exergy); When internal heat exchanges occur, as for instance in combined cycles, the exergy loss calculation must also be modified: it is equal, in absolute terms, to the algebraic sum of the exergy variations of both fluids exchanging heat. The component exergy balance screen has an option (Internal exchange) for this setting (Figure 10.3.8). We shall see later that, in the overall exergy balance, the exergy variations of both fluids are displayed between brackets, the two exchange processes being grouped next to one another for clarity (Figure 10.3.26); Lastly, when heat exchange takes place with an external energy source, the heat-exergy involved must be assessed, which requires knowledge of the source temperature. This information may be entered in the exergy balance screen. The exergy calculation screen is provided with an option to specify this situation (External Source), and a field for entering the source temperature.

For throttlings, the input exergy is the inlet relative exergy, and the output exergy the outlet relative exergy. The irreversibility is equal to their difference. As exergy providers are represented by PDUs coupled to mixers, it is necessary to clearly distinguish these pseudo-mixers from the real ones which appear in the physical system, as the irreversibility in a real mixer may stem from different sources: reduction of a fluid pressure (pressure drop); mixing with composition change.

● ●

A table showing how the different Thermoptim core components should be represented as PDUs can be found on the Thermoptim UNIT portal. External components can also be represented in a productive structure. You should refer to Volume 3 of the software reference manual for details on that. Once a productive structure is built, the exergy balances of the various components may be calculated either one by one in their respective screens, or by opening, from the editor Special menu, a screen allowing to do it globally for the entire project, building a table whose rows correspond to each component, plus one for the whole system. The latter gives as resource the sum of positive heat-exergies and useful work provided (x qj ) (j ), as product the sum of the exergies leaving the system, the system exergy efficiency, and the sum of irreversibilities. Examples are given next section. If the rules for building the exergy-balance adopted in Thermoptim do not give satisfaction, the user can export it in order to modify it in a spreadsheet.

10.3.5

[CRC_In_14]

Examples

10.3.5.1 Steam cycle example The diagram of the facility has been presented section 9.1, and the value of key parameters are given in Figure 9.1.19. To create the productive structure, open the editor screen (Special menu of the simulator), then select the line “Diagram transfer” of the Special menu of the editor. The productive structure you get is given Figure 10.3.10. Two dividers and three mixers are in series. Select the line “Suppress nodes in excess” and select, for dividers and mixers, the option “OK (except the physical model)”. The productive structure becomes that of Figure 10.3.11.

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FIGURE 10.3.10 Automatically generated productive structure of a steam cycle

FIGURE 10.3.11 Productive structure of the steam cycle, excess nodes removed

Rework the structure for better readability, by shifting components from left to right or right to left. Result you get is close to that of Figure 10.3.12. This diagram is not yet completely set. If we try to build the full project exergy balance, we obtain the result in Figure 10.3.13. The last column, titled “settings”, gives some summary information on the settings considered: the pump is an external exergy input, because it is not connected to the turbine and the condenser and the boiler are considered to be exchanging heat-exergy with a source at 0 C, which is obviously absurd.

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FIGURE 10.3.12 Productive structure of steam cycle, slightly reworked

FIGURE 10.3.13 Exergy balance before setting

FIGURE 10.3.14 Productive structure of steam cycle with mechanical coupling

In the productive structure, the mechanical coupling between the turbine and the pump is missing. We represent it by a divider at the turbine outlet, with two branches, one representative of this coupling, and the other of the net power available (Figure 10.3.14). This productive structure is interpreted as follows: the steam power plant is a machine which receives an external exergy input in the boiler, and by internal recycling, exergy is provided to the pump, which are the two production units in the left of the screen.

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FIGURE 10.3.15 Exergy balance of the full project

FIGURE 10.3.16 Exergy balance of the steam cycle calculated with the spreadsheet

This exergy is partly converted into mechanical form in the turbine and partly dissipated in the condenser. The net work is the fraction of mechanical power not recycled. To end up building the productive structure, we still have to set the temperature of outside sources with which heat-exergy is exchanged, i.e. the boiler and condenser. We will respectively choose 1600 K (1326.85 C) and 288.15 K (15 C). To enter these values, double-click the PDU concerned or their line in the overall exergy balance screen, and enter them into the field “Source T ( C)”. Then save the productive structure. The exergy balance of the full project is given in Figure 10.3.15, the environment temperature T0 being recalled in the top right (it is editable in the Global Settings screen of the simulator). With some minor differences related to how the exergy of the fluids are calculated, it leads to the same values as calculated by the spreadsheet (Figure 10.3.16). 10.3.5.2 Example of a refrigeration cycle The diagram of the facility has been presented section 9.2, and the value of key parameters are given in Figure 10.3.17. To create the productive structure, open the editor screen (Special menu of the simulator), then select the line “Diagram transfer” of the Special menu of the editor. The productive structure you get is given Figure 10.3.18. Four dividers are in series. Select the line “Suppress nodes in excess” and select option “OK (except the physical model)”. The production structure becomes that of Figure 10.3.19. Rework the structure for better readability, by shifting components from left to right or right to left. The result you get is close to that of Figure 10.3.20. This productive structure is interpreted very simply: the refrigerating machine receives an external exergy input in the compressor. This exergy is partly converted into the evaporator (refrigeration effect), the rest being dissipated in the condenser and the expansion valve (throttling).

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FIGURE 10.3.17 Physical diagram of refrigeration cycle

FIGURE 10.3.18 Automatically generated productive structure of a refrigeration cycle

This diagram is not yet completely set. If one tries to build the full project exergy balance, we obtain the result in Figure 10.3.21. The last column, titled “settings”, gives some summary information on the settings considered: the compressor is an external exergy input, and the condenser and evaporator are considered to be exchanging heat-exergy with a source at 0 C, which is obviously absurd.

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FIGURE 10.3.19 Productive structure of the refrigeration cycle, excess nodes removed

FIGURE 10.3.20 Productive structure of refrigeration cycle, slightly reworked

To end up building the productive structure, we still have to set the temperature of outside sources with which heat-exergy is exchanged, i.e. the evaporator and condenser. We will respectively choose 270.15 K (3 C) and 288.15 K (15 C). To enter these values, double-click the PDUs concerned or their line in the overall exergy balance screen, and enter them into field “Source T ( C)”. Then save the productive structure.

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FIGURE 10.3.21 Exergy balance before settings

FIGURE 10.3.22 Exergy balance of the full project

FIGURE 10.3.23 Exergy balance of the refrigeration cycle calculated with the spreadsheet

The exergy balance of the full project is given in Figure 10.3.22, the environment temperature T0 being recalled in the top right (it is editable in the Global Settings screen of the simulator). It leads to the same values as calculated by the spreadsheet (Figure 10.3.23). These two examples are relatively simple: their main interest is to illustrate the procedure for establishing productive structures and exergy balances associated. 10.3.5.3 Example of the cogeneration gas turbine We have modeled in Thermoptim the example proposed by Valero, and we set it the best possible given the values that we could estimate. The diagram and parameter values are given in Figure 10.3.24. The production structure that we built is given in Figure 10.3.25. It corresponds to the diagram provided by Valero, with the proviso that we represented the air inlet and detail of the cogeneration exchanger. This production structure is interpreted as follows: the gas turbine receives a chemical exergy supply from the fuel, and by internal recycling, exergy is provided to the compressor. This exergy is converted partly into mechanical form in the turbine and partly into heat in the recovery steam generator HRSG, the remainder being dissipated by discharge into the atmosphere. The net work is the fraction of mechanical power not recycled. The exergy balance of the full project is given Figure 10.3.26.

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FIGURE 10.3.24 Physical diagram of the cogeneration gas turbine

FIGURE 10.3.25 Productive structure in Thermoptim

FIGURE 10.3.26 Exergy balance of the full project

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10.3.6

CONCLUSION

The great advantage of this approach is that the exergy balances are automatically built, while the spreadsheet calculations are asking us each time to take great care if we are to avoid mistakes. Indications in the last column of the full exergy balance allow one to easily verify the setting of the productive structure, and thus reduce the risk of error. Note that once the exergy balances of the various components are evaluated, it is possible to display the values of exergy flows on the productive structure.

REFERENCES A. Bejan, G. Tsatsaronis, M. Moran. Thermal design and optimization, Wiley publishers, 1996. L. Borel. Introduction aux nouveaux bilans énergétiques, Entropie n 153, 154, Paris, 1990. L. Borel, D. Favrat. Thermodynamique et énergétique, Presses Polytechniques Romandes, Lausanne, Vol. 1 (De l’énergie à l’exergie), 2005, Vol. 2 (Exercices corrigés), 1987. T.J. Kotas. The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis, 2nd edition, Krieger Publishing Company, USA, 1995. A. Lallemand. Thermodynamique appliquée: Bilans entropiques et exergétiques, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Traité Génie énergétique, BE 8 008. M. Moran. Availability analysis: a guide to efficient energy use, Prentice Hall, New York, 1989. A. Valero, L. Serra, J. Uche. Fundamentals of thermoeconomics, Lectures 1–3, Euro summer course on sustainable assessment of clean air technologies, 3–8 April 2000. Lisbon. Centro Superior Tecnico, available from CIRCE, Research Center for Energy Resources and Consumption: http://teide.cps. unizar.es:8080/pub/publicir.nsf/codigos/0153/$FILE/cp0153.

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3 Main Conventional Cycles

LP section

Feedwater pumps

IP section

HP section

Reheat

IP

HP

Steam turbine Gas turbine

Condenser Extraction pumps

Part 3 discusses how the foundations laid in the first two Parts can be applied to main conventional cycles

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11 Introduction: Changing Technologies Abstract: The energy sector is generally considered technologically mature and not prone to experience severe and rapid technological developments, because on the one hand the rigidity of its sectors and secondly the long lifetime of the equipment used. One might therefore conclude that technological innovation can play only a secondary role in the global energy problem. The analysis of changes over last 30 years shows that this is not true and on the contrary that technological innovation could be the key to our energy future. During this period, many limits thought impassable were exceeded, and many records established. Advances in exploration and oil production have led to exploitation of new deposits in countries outside OPEC. The new oil supplies and reductions in consumption due to various substitutions and savings made have played a decisive role in turning the oil market as experienced in 1986. The development of combined cycles allows countries to produce electricity with an efficiency approaching 60% today, while 40% seemed economically unattainable before, and through energy efficiency, energy intensity, which represents the energy needed to produce one unit of GDP, fell by 30% in 20 years in France and in many OECD countries. Meanwhile, the unit quantities of pollutants from energy processing and use equipment fell sharply, and this trend should continue in the future. Even when international energy prices were relatively low, the development of new energies such as controlled fusion, fuel cells, solar technologies etc. continued around the world. Keywords: technological innovation, reserves, resources, exploration, production, environment, ozone layer, greenhouse effect.

From the control of fire to that of the atom, the development of human societies has been largely based on the conquest of power. In all countries, energy has gradually become one of the essential factors of economic and social development, as well as capital, labor and natural resources, and which no one can now do without. After decades during which cheap energy was flowing smoothly, forty years ago we entered a period where crises have become the rule. This change in the energy landscape is particularly worrying because the impact of energy crises on human societies is now considerable: economic recession, rising unemployment due to oil price shocks, shortages of traditional fuels due to fuelwood crisis, rupture of the ozone layer, increasing greenhouse effect and acid rain due to energy releases.

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While one might have thought that the energy sector would know only limited and slow technological developments, dramatic changes have occurred in recent decades, the movement being far from over. In this chapter we will try to highlight the reasons behind this apparent paradox by considering briefly the overall context in which energy technologies are inserted, which is marked by a number of characteristics: Many technology solutions are in strong competition for engines, used in particular for propulsion and power generation. The choice depends on several criteria, as of course the specific type of use, energy sources available and their cost, emission regulations etc. The main problems concern the availability of fuel, ECT efficiencies and control of combustion conditions, which determine the emission of pollutants. The growth of electricity remaining very important in the world (often much higher than that of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)), the needs are considerable, both for centralized and decentralized units; for refrigeration cycles, two technologies compete: mechanical vapor compression and liquid absorption. The second remaining still quite marginal, it will be reviewed here only briefly. The main problem encountered for vapor compression cycles is that the vast majority of them used until recently refrigerants that destroy the ozone layer, now banned by international agreements; Energy being ubiquitous in modern societies, the financial stakes are considerable. The competition is very open as many technological solutions exist to satisfy a given final energy need. ●

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Even if it is sometimes eclipsed for the general public by other topics, energy plays such an important role in today’s society that it will remain a key concern in terms of strategy, economy and environmental protection, in both industrialized and developing countries. First, the geopolitical context of energy and especially oil is such that chronic tension risks will persist much longer in terms of supply, as shown by the Gulf crisis in 1990 and the recent oil shock. Furthermore, in terms of overall energy use, the various scenarios all agree to predict a sharp increase in energy demand, except in case of very rapid diffusion of best technologies (this hypothesis remains somewhat unlikely due to existing fleets and barriers to technology transfer). Finally, and even in the absence of any threat to supplies, the deepening and especially the globalization of environmental damage caused by fossil fuels (greenhouse effect, acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer), could undermine the foundations of the global energy system (90% of global energy contributes to CO2 emissions). So energy supplies remain in a constant vulnerable situation, which justifies further action to increase the supply (fossil fuels, nuclear, renewable energies). But it is equally essential to intensify efforts to control demand and to enter now the transition to a redeployment of the energy mix that will prevail during this century. The real solution can only come from the development of first technologies allowing to reduce the ECT consumption and hence the level of pollution by source, and secondly, at least in the medium term, of clean renewable energies competitive with fossil fuels. If you look at what were the main drivers of technological changes in recent decades, three points should be developed specifically.

11.1

LIMITATION OF FOSSIL RESOURCES AND GEOPOLITICAL CONSTRAINTS

The first driver (at least chronologically) was the limited fossil fuel resources and their uneven distribution in the world, that make their availability random and thus justify the search for alternatives.

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North America South East Asia/Pacific Africa

Oil reserves in 2009

Europe-Eurasia Russian Federation Latin America Middle East Total 0

50

100 Gt

150

200

FIGURE 11.1.1 Proved oil reserves

The analysis of energy reserves and resources allows us to estimate how long fossil fuels will be used globally or by region. It is however important to bear in mind that the concept of reserves is essentially dynamic: they vary over time depending on the one hand on economic conditions, and secondly on exploration and production activity. The notion of resource is more blurred, as it may include not only future production, but also past production (ultimate resources). The proven oil reserves were estimated late 2009 (Figure 11.1.1) at about 180 billion tons, nearly 42 years of production (R/P). It is important to note that today the recovery rates hardly exceed 34% on average and it is believed that technical progress leading to an improvement of 1 point of this factor would result in extra reserves of 5.5 Gt, i.e. nearly two years of current world consumption. Given the strategic importance for the medium and long term of synthetic hydrocarbons production, it is important to estimate the reserves corresponding to non-conventional oil. We include in the latter heavy and extra heavy oils (API density below 20 and 10 ), tar sands and oil shale. According to some experts, the reserves for these energy sources are the same as those of conventional oil. Proven reserves of natural gas were estimated 185,000 billion m3 at the end of 2009, or about 170 billion toe (tons oil equivalent), that is to say slightly less than oil reserves, with a R/P ratio of about 60 years. The proven coal reserves are estimated at slightly less than 850 Gt, or about 530 Gtoe, with a R/P ratio of 133 years. Perhaps more than any other form of fossil energy, recoverable reserves of coal will depend on technological progress. The long-term issues of coal liquefaction and gasification are such that we can expect significant breakthroughs in the years to come. Uranium reserves are very difficult to estimate both given the differences in conversion efficiency by technology, and lack of reliable data in some areas. We can consider that, with the current nuclear reactors, they correspond to about 35 Gtoe, or just under a quarter of proven reserves of oil or natural gas, or almost 60 years of electricity production. Figure 11.1.2 summarizes the current non-renewable energy reserves. On the basis of these figures, it is possible to show that for several decades or even over a century we have enough fossil fuel to meet worldwide demand. There is no problem in the immediate global availability, but the uneven geographical distribution of reserves is likely to lead any time to pressure on supplies. In addition, of course, qualities and costs of these energies are highly variable depending on the case.

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Coal Uranium Oil shale/tar sands

Energy reserves in 2009

Natural gas Oil 0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Gt

FIGURE 11.1.2 World energy resources

Exploration and production in the oil sector After the first oil shock, oil companies have invested heavily (increased budgets for R&D by factors of up to 4) in programs to diversify oil supplies in a timely manner, which enabled them to discover new fields outside OPEC and develop quite remarkable new technologies, as for example in offshore fields. In 1986, as prices have fallen, oil companies have had to face another challenge: the additional costs acceptable before were no longer. However, as the effectiveness of technological innovation had been demonstrated, the R&D programs have generally not been questioned: they have been redirected to the new goal that was the reduction of costs to maintain and renew oil production outside OPEC. The new oil shock of course puts in question the agenda of all the technological advances in the oil and gas sectors. In exploration-production, this resulted in the development of the most promising technologies among those which had previously been developed, such as: 3D seismic enabling: First in exploration, with a much better representation of the ground, to reveal new structures and to drill with success rates well above the standards before; secondly in development, a better appreciation of the flow physical properties and the nature of the fluids contained in reservoirs; finally in production, to better follow the evolution of the field and guide the drilling of complex track and large deflection wells, leading to a sharp increase in the recovery rate. drilling tools and techniques, that have evolved in recent years, with: Reduced costs (small diameter drilling slim hole, coiled tubing technology); deviated drilling allowing to develop well architectures increasingly complex and better drainage of reserves. Offsets greater than 8,000 m drilled for a total length of 8,700 m have already been made, and this limit will soon exceed 10,000 m. multiphase pumping should be a great progress in the deep offshore production (especially beyond 1000 m of water). ●

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All these technological advances have yielded very significant results: a very strong reduction of technical cost in the oil industry, which is expected to continue in the future; a very large increase in the rate of oil recovery, which can reach 60% in some fields, while it was limited to 40% 25 years ago. The global average recovery rate has increased from 25–30% in 1985 to 30–35% today;

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a reassessment of world oil reserves (between 1982 and 1992, additional oil reserves corresponded to 4.4 Gt for new fields, and 4 times more or 19 Gt for revisions and extensions of fields already known); the discovery and introduction of new oil basins in different regions (South America, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, CIS).

11.2 LOCAL AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ENERGY The second driver of technological change in chronological order, but today the first in importance is the environmental impact of energy technologies. Indeed, even if non-renewable energy were available without restriction, the total volume of energy technology pollutant emissions has become so important that current consumption patterns should be questioned. Since the early 1970s, environmental problems have seriously begun to educate the public. Neglected for a moment, especially at the height of the oil shocks, they have since returned to the agenda. The relationship of energy to the environment is complex and takes many forms, from extraction of primary energy to final use. Its aspects can be local, international or even global. Pollution is a major problem in industrialized countries, but also in developing countries where, in addition, the extensive use of firewood can lead to uncontrollable acceleration of deforestation, and thus desertification. Recently, energy has been found to be directly involved in major issues such as the accumulation of CO2, the breakdown of the ozone layer, acid rain and urban pollution, as well as risks of nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima). Given the objective of this book, we only deal with issues related to gaseous emissions, which have a direct impact on regulations concerning energy technologies.

11.2.1

Increase in global greenhouse effect

Similar to the mechanism used in a greenhouse or in a thermal solar collector we call greenhouse warming the influence of the atmosphere on the radiative balance of the earth through the absorption of infrared radiation emitted from earth to space. The greenhouse effect is due to gases in the atmosphere, which absorb a portion of the incident radiation. The gases have absorption rays corresponding to different wavelengths. The diagram in Figure 11.1.3 gives a schematic indication of the effect of absorption by CO2 of the radiative flux of long wavelength emitted by the earth, and shows absorption by two rays, centered on wavelengths 1 4.5 m and 2 14.5 m. The incident solar radiation of short wavelength (visible from 0.4 to 0.8 m) is almost fully transmitted by the atmosphere and absorbed at the surface of the earth, which heats and re-emits into space at 4 K radiation of long wavelength (infrared from 0.8 to 100 m), a more and more important part of which is absorbed by greenhouse gas emissions. Their concentration having increased in recent decades, a gradual warming of the planet has been observed and could lead to significant changes in climate. Greenhouse gases are emitted by many human activities (transport, heating, cooling, industry, livestock, waste etc.), including the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) that produces CO2, remaining on average more than a century in the atmosphere before being recycled into “carbon sinks” such as vegetation. The main absorbing gases in the infrared are water vapor H2O, carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, nitrous oxide N2O, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs R11 and R12 in particular) and some noble gases. Their contributions to the increase of greenhouse gases are highly variable (50% for CO2, 15% for CH4, 9% for N2O), and depend on their concentration, a saturation

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Flux emitted by the earth Flux transmitted by CO2

2

4

6

8

10 12 14 16 18 λ (μm)

FIGURE 11.1.3 Greenhouse effect

phenomenon occurring beyond a certain threshold, which explains why the variations of concentration of water vapor has no significant impact on the greenhouse effect, although this is the most absorbing gas vis-à-vis the radiation. All models predict that emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to rise strongly in the near future, as they did in recent decades, and their atmospheric concentrations will increase. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has indeed increased from 280 ppm to 360 ppm in a century, while it remained within a range of 170 ppm to 280 ppm during the 200,000 previous years. The international community has responded by creating in 1988 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The IPCC is charged with evaluating the scientific evidence on climate change, to assess the ecological and socio-economic impact, and propose strategies for prevention and adaptation. IPCC reports confirm the climatic influence of greenhouse gas emissions, already demonstrated by many recent statistical anomalies, like the phenomenon of El Niño, which caused unusual droughts and floods in Latin America. Scientists have found that greenhouse gases are responsible for a 0.6 to 0.9 C increase of average temperature at the surface of the earth since the preindustrial era, which was partially obscured by the thermal inertia of the oceans and the increasing presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. It is estimated that the average temperature at the surface of the earth could rise another 1.8 to 4 C by 2100, resulting in a rise of 18 to 60 cm of sea level. Although we do not know very well what will be the local climatic consequences of the increase in the greenhouse effect, IPCC experts believe that major disruptions are inevitable, with increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters (droughts, floods, storms, cyclones). The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified in 1992 following the Rio de Janeiro Summit. Under this agreement, effective March 21, 1994, the OECD countries, Ukraine and Russia have pledged to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases by the year 2000 at the same level as in 1990. In December 1997, at the Kyoto Summit, which led to the Kyoto Protocol entered into force in February 2005, these commitments have been extended for the period 2008–2012: the industrialized countries pledged to reduce by an average of 5.2% their emissions of greenhouse gases over the period 2008–2012 as compared to 1990, the European Union for its part

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undertaking to reduce its emissions by 8%. As part of an agreement within the European Union, France must stabilize its emissions (target 0%). Despite all the work done over the past twenty years to better understand the mechanisms of the greenhouse effect, many unknowns still exist, because of: interactions between clouds, oceans, and polar ice caps; size and nature of sources and sinks of CO2. ● ●

In contrast, the share in the global warming of the various gases caused by humans, sometimes called the “radiative forcing” is better known. To evaluate the toxicity of a gas in terms of greenhouse effect, an index is used known as Global Warming Potential (GWP). It represents the relative ability of a greenhouse gas to participate in radiative forcing, and is 1 for CO2. The contribution of a gas to the greenhouse effect depends on the one hand on the amount of emissions, and on the other hand on two factors taken into account in the calculation of GWP: its absorption properties in the infrared and its residence time in the atmosphere. This last factor being very variable from one gas to another (several hundred years for CO2, between 10 and 15 years for CH4), it is necessary to agree on an appropriate integration time horizon (ITH). The GWP can then be determined by calculating the cumulative radiative forcing on the ITH chosen. The IPCC has conducted assessments of GWP on ITH of 20, 100 and 500 years. As the figures presented in the literature generally represent an ITH of a century, we will retain that value in this book. Improved efficiencies Stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will require considerable effort, because of the inertia of the phenomena involved and the residence time of gases in the atmosphere. While following the 1986 oil counter-shock there had been a noticeable reduction in the search of better efficiencies for energy technologies, improved performance of all engines once again became a primary goal of manufacturers, the aim being this time to reduce the mass of CO2 emitted per kWh. We will return to this question in almost all chapters of this Part. CO2 capture and sequestration Nearly 90% of global energy supplies being provided by fossil fuels, the emission of carbon dioxide appears as a secondary product for which there is currently no alternative, nor to increase CO2 earth capture capacity, large scale reforestation projects colliding many technical and socio-cultural constraints. Sequestering CO2 is therefore increasingly seriously considered, at least in high capacity and stationary plants, and then storing it in caverns or in deep oceans. This point is precisely the subject of Chapter 28 of Part 4. 11.2.2

Reduction of the ozone layer

Since the undoubtedly experimental demonstration by English and Japanese researchers in 1985, of a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica during the austral spring (decrease by half to two thirds of the normal thickness), the international community was particularly active. The breaking of the ozone layer is due to many gases, including those containing chlorine, and whose use was then about 60% directly related to energy applications: production of thermal insulating foam and use as refrigerants in air conditioning and refrigeration. Aware of the negative environmental impact of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), industrial producers have conducted major research programs to develop substitutes. Two broad classes of products have mainly been studied: hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs are similar to CFC molecules some chlorine bonds being replaced by hydrogen bonds, while HFCs

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have no more chlorine atoms. The stability of HCFC molecules being much less than that of CFCs, they are largely destroyed in the lower atmospheric layers, and only a small fraction of the chlorine atoms they contain can be found in the stratosphere, making these molecules much less harmful to the ozone layer. However, reducing their potential for ozone destruction is accompanied by a modification of their technical characteristics, which leads to the questioning of many previous technological solutions, and presents many challenges to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The first international agreement concluded in this respect is the Montreal Protocol, which took effect in early 1989, and decided to freeze CFC consumption at 1986 levels, followed by a reduction of 20% in 1993, and a second reduction of 30% in 1999. The movement then continued, and in 1990 in London, there was agreement on an amendment resulting in an acceleration of the process, with the goal of banning outright from 2000, all CFCs and halons, and a questioning of HCFCs, because they still contain chlorine. Regulation of the European Commission in March 1991 provided for the cessation of production and consumption of CFCs by 1 June 1997. In November 1992, in Copenhagen, a new amendment was still moving this date to 1 January 1996. As is done for greenhouse gas emissions, assessing the harmfulness of a gas in terms of destruction of the ozone layer is performed using an index known as Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). This index is 1 for CFC 11. This issue mainly concerning the refrigeration industry, it is developed in Chapter 19.

11.2.3

Urban pollution and acid rain

Acid rain is a phenomenon that leads to the degeneration of forests, especially in Central and Northern Europe. The share attributable to energy is far from being clearly established, but it seems obvious that it plays an important role, because of emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides that occur during combustion of coal or oil. Uses under investigation are first electricity generation and transport, and to a lesser extent space heating. The fight against acid rain in Europe has thus resulted in the decision to equip motor vehicles with catalytic converters. In large cities, exceeding the threshold concentrations of certain pollutants during peak pollution has alerted the public. It therefore appears increasingly necessary to reduce pollutant emissions in vehicles and energy production facilities. Regarding transport, electronic control injection systems helped to make significant gains in reducing pollutants (decreased 50-fold in 30 years and 10 over the last twenty years) but they are insufficient to meet the new requirements imposed by international regulations (see Chapter 19). After consultation with manufacturers, the European Union has enacted two directives laying down a number of objectives. Combustion optimization Aware of the growing challenges associated with reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxides, energy technology manufacturers invest more in search of a better control of combustion conditions, particularly for engines and electricity power generation etc. We will make numerous references to this in Chapters 12, 13 and 16, where we examine the technological solutions proposed. Let us simply indicate at this stage that the problems are very different in conventional thermal power plants, where the combustion chambers are large, the pressure being close to atmospheric, and in internal combustion engines, where combustion takes place in much more compact volumes, with increasingly brief residence times and under high pressure.

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CH011.indd 377

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Gas turbine 250 MW 43 m Axis Tr.

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FIGURE 11.1.4 Comparison of a coal plant and a gas turbine, Documentation Alstom Power 377

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FIGURE 11.1.5 Documentation Alstom Power

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11. INTRODUCTION: CHANGING TECHNOLOGIES

By way of illustration, Figures 11.1.4 and 11.1.5 are used to compare the size of two typical 250 MWe power plants, one using a steam cycle with conventional pulverized coal boiler, the other a modern gas turbine: the burner of the coal boiler typically has a single ground base of 11 m 11 m and a height of 27 m, a volume of 3200 m3, its net efficiency is around 39%, which corresponds to a thermal power of 250/0.39 641 MW; the gas turbine (GT 26 ALSTOM, Figure 12.1.4) has a capacity of 260 MWe and an efficiency of 36% for a combustion chamber volume of only 4 m3, which corresponds to a thermal power of 260/0.36 722 MW. ●

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The thermal power released per m3 of combustion chamber is about 200 kW/m3 for the coal plant, while the gas turbine is 180 MW/m3, i.e. is 900 times larger. This very important difference comes from the fact that in the case of boilers, there is a barrier (mechanical and thermal) between the fumes and the working fluid, which limits the heat transfer, whereas in the gas turbine, energy is released directly into the working fluid. We shall see in Chapter 12 that this induces severe constraints especially at the combustion chamber and the first expansion stages of the turbine.

11.3 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM OTHER SECTORS The third driver of technological change is consistent with progress in other fields which have a direct impact on the energy sector. Three of them are worth mentioning here, the first two being related to Information and Communication Technology: Theoretical and numerical modeling and computerized codes have played and will continue to play a fundamental role in technological change. Progress in software and increased computing power of today’s computers make possible once unthinkable modeling and optimizations that improve the performance of many energy technologies; in a related field, progress in electronics and real time control allows us to pilot facilities according to protocols much more accurate than some years ago and to improve their reliability; progress on materials also have a direct impact on energy technologies, whether the protection of gas turbine blades, catalysts for exhaust converters etc. ●

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Electricity generation from natural gas Recent developments in gas turbines and combined cycles offer a striking example of results quickly brought by technological innovation in the energy sector. These technologies, until recently still regarded as relatively marginal, are poised to play a leading role in the structure of power plant fleets. They are much less sensitive to scale effects than conventional power plants, for which the increase in size was a competitiveness factor. Factory-made, they come in modular form and are assembled on site within a much shorter time. The benefits are numerous: it is possible to stagger investments, thereby reducing financial costs; The footprint is smaller than that of conventional power plants; A large power unit is composed of several modules in parallel, thereby facilitating maintenance; the difference between centralized and decentralized production is reduced, which helps diversify the production sites and thus reduces network vulnerability. ● ● ● ●

Recent progress on ground machines is largely the result of a technology transfer from the aviation world. In fact, most jet engines used in aviation today are variations of the open cycle gas turbine. For 50 years, the tremendous growth experienced by the aviation market has helped fund major technology development programs on these engines, which led to the development of highly efficient and competitive gas turbines.

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11.4 TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION KEY TO ENERGY FUTURE As we have seen, the energy sector is currently facing many technological developments, which follow on from research undertaken for nearly 25 years in response to the first oil crisis and environmental constraints. These changes, which affect both energy production and use, are partly the result of progress in related areas, such as materials, automation, fluid mechanics and others, partly the result of the discovery and implementation of more efficient thermodynamic cycles, particularly with regard to combustion. Given the strategic nature of the energy sector, deeply intertwined with the entire world economy, states have quickly realized that they could not let the market act as sole regulator. Therefore it is completed in most countries by a national energy policy, which generally retains two main objectives: to increase supply (by the investment in production and diversification of supply sources) and to decrease demand (through greater energy efficiency and behavior modification). Technological innovation is an essential component of energy policy. Like prices, the performance improvements which it leads to also have the effect of increasing supply and decreasing demand. It therefore constitutes a direct alternative to price adjustments. We know that the technological cost structure of oil is such that its price may be set roughly equally between a floor value, which in fact corresponds substantially to the cost of production in the Middle East (a few dollars per barrel), and a cap value, determined by the cost of other competing energy sources. The difference between these values has been and remains very high (above 15 dollars per barrel of oil equivalent), which explains the high magnitude of past oil shocks. To reduce this differential, there is no alternative but to lower the cost of other energy sources. This is precisely what technological innovation can lead to. It allows the conversion of current production and energy use sectors and the emergence of new sectors, such as synthetic hydrocarbons, solar energy, nuclear fusion, enhanced oil recovery, or reduction of energy consumption of use equipment etc. In addition to its direct impact on the evolution of energy intensity, technological innovation has other advantages, among which are two major ones: Firstly, it is a very interesting alternative to the classical price adjustment, which potentially eventually allows us to limit the adverse effects of oil shocks, in addition, it is the only way to reduce the negative impact of energy consumption on the environment. Schematically, we can say that when prices rise, energy supply is growing, given that alternative sources previously uneconomic become competitive, while demand decreases, users reducing their consumption when they can. The market is thus the main classical mechanism of adjustment between supply and demand. It must however be noted that this mechanism works imperfectly when price changes are brutal, as demonstrated by the past oil shocks, with adverse effects that we know about on most economies (deterioration of the terms of trade, recession, unemployment). Conversely, the technology mechanism of adjustment generally has a positive impact on the economy as a whole, because it results in job creation to produce new technologies, increased productivity and therefore competitiveness, industrial development of high added value products etc. Technological innovation appears as the only way to help develop energy systems that have both the characteristics of durability, reasonable cost, low environmental damage and adaptation to an increased demand for goods and services, that is to say technology able to meet the long term challenges avoiding if possible the cyclical short term crises. Faced with uncertainties about the energy future of the planet, it is a major key to long-term energy transition. Already, as we have shown, significant R&D projects in the energy sector have begun to bear fruit, and new developments will emerge in the coming years. For example, the most ambitious energy program, the Program Vision 21 of the U.S. Department of Energy shows very high goals for 2015: 60% efficiency on HHV (higher heating value) in power generation from coal, and over 75% LHV (lower heating value) from natural gas, simultaneous production of electricity, heat (85–90% efficiency in cogeneration), and synfuels or hydrogen, modularity and flexibility etc.

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For this, the program identifies as one of its five priorities the development of advanced systems integration and systems analysis (see Chapter 22). Another area focuses on the key technologies to develop, many of which relate directly to gas turbines: separation membranes for oxygen and hydrogen, high temperature heat exchangers, flexible gasification, gas purification, advanced combustion systems, multi-fuel gas turbines, fuel cells, advanced development of fuels and chemicals, high temperature materials resistant to corrosive atmospheres, virtual demonstration and numerical modeling, advanced control and measuring progress, particularly in the environmental field, and advanced modularization and manufacturing. Other changes in our energy landscape may emerge soon, such as the development of electric vehicles, fuel cells or solar energy. To prepare for these changes, we must maintain a very open technology watch, and avoid locking ourselves into single sector approaches: the emergence of a new energy system is likely, as a result of possible energy substitutions, to concern many other sectors that appear yet well established. Thus, technological advances must be measured not only in terms of technical performance (efficiency, power, cost), but also increasingly taking into account the various external effects on which policy makers rely to make their decisions.

REFERENCES GIEC, http://www.unfccc.de/resource/convkp.html Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers, IPCC WGI Third Assessment Report, Geneva, 2001. John W. Mitchell, Energy engineering, J. Wiley, New York, 1983, ISBN 10 0471087726.

FURTHER READING J. C. Balaceanu. Développement Technologique et Prospective Energétique: les scénarios technologiques, Annales des Mines, Paris, janvier 1990. S. Boussena. Prix du pétrole et stratégies de l’OPEP, Revue de l’Energie, Paris, n 456, février 1994. CPDP. Bulletins du Comité Professionnel Du Pétrole, Paris. X. Boy de la Tour. Technologies pétrolières: les nouvelles frontières, Revue de l’Energie, Paris, n 456, février 1994. R. Gicquel. Introduction aux Problèmes Energétiques Globaux, Economica, Paris, 1992. R. Gicquel. Transition énergétique et innovation technologique: quelques développements récents concernant la production d’électricité à partir de gaz naturel, Colloque International “Les Energies du 21ème siècle”, UNESCO, Paris, 7–8 décembre 1995. A. Giraud. Géopolitique de l’énergie dans un monde en transition, Revue de l’Energie, Paris, n 456, février 1994. M. Hafner. Gaz Naturel et Electricité, Analyse technologique et économique de la génération d’électricité et du transport de gaz pour les pays du bassin méditerranéen, Thèse de Doctorat, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 1994. IFP. dossier Panorama 96, Pavillon Gabriel, Paris, 25 janvier 1996. Ph. Jaud. Faut-il piéger le gaz carbonique émis par les centrales thermiques?, Revue Epures, DRD EDF 1999, Paris. B. Leide. De la Réactivité Résiduelle des Gaz Brûlés dans la Turbine de Détente des Futures Turbines à Gaz, Thèse de Doctorat, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 1994. Mission interministérielle pour l’effet de serre: http://www.effet-de-serre.gouv.fr/index.cfm. 381

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12 Internal Combustion Turbomotors Abstract: Today, gas turbines are experiencing a very strong development in many applications: air transport, power generation, cogeneration, driving machines (compressors and pumps). Among the arguments in their favor include their small size, excellent power to weight ratio, their quick start, good performance and low emissions of pollutants. Two broad categories of gas turbines are generally distinguished: industrial gas turbines, heavy and robust, and aeroderivative gas turbines, much lighter and efficient but also more expensive. Indeed turbojets used in aviation today are in fact variations of the gas turbine open cycle. The aviation market has helped fund major technology development programs on these engines, which led to the development of highly efficient gas turbines. This chapter is mainly devoted to the analysis of gas turbine and turbojet component technologies and basic cycles. Advanced cycles based on gas turbines (combined cycles, cogeneration plants, oxycombustion cycles, etc.) are presented in Chapters 17 and 18 of Part 3 and 24 and 28 of Part 4. Keywords: compression, expansion, combustion, regeneration, gas turbine, shaft, nozzle, diffuser, ramjet, rocket engine.

12.1 12.1.1

GAS TURBINES Operating principles

In its simplest and most common form (Figure 12.1.1), a gas turbine (GT), also called combustion turbine, is composed of three elements: a compressor, usually centrifugal or axial, which is used to compress the ambient air at a pressure between 10 and 30 bar in modern machines; a combustion chamber in which fuel is injected under pressure, combusted with air previously compressed (the latter in large excess in order to limit the exhaust gases temperature at the turbine inlet); ●

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fuel Combustion chamber 3 1

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Compressor

Turbine

FIGURE 12.1.1 Sketch of a gas turbine ●

a turbine, usually axial, in which are expanded the high temperature gases exiting the combustion chamber. A significant proportion (60–70%) of the work recovered on the shaft of the turbine is used to drive the compressor.

In this form the gas turbine engine is a continuous stream internal combustion engine. Note that the gas turbine term comes from the working fluid state, which remains gaseous, and not the fuel used, which can be both gaseous and liquid (gas turbines typically use natural gas or light petroleum distillates). There are also closed cycle gas turbines, used for special applications, including nuclear, as we shall see below and in Chapter 29 of Part 4. Of course, then it is an external combustion engine. To achieve compression ratios r of 20 or 30, the compressor is multistage, with sometimes intermediate cooling to reduce the work consumed. Axial rotors are made of a stack of discs, either mounted on a central shaft, or drum assembled on their periphery. The materials used are aluminum or titanium alloys for the first stages and steel alloys and refractory alloys for last stages that can withstand temperatures up to 500 C. The combustion chamber is normally constructed of refractory alloy. Various types will be presented later. In open cycle gas turbines, the main technological constraints are at the first stages of the expansion turbine, through which flow the exhaust gas at high temperature. The parts most at risk are especially rotor blades, which are very difficult to cool and in addition particularly sensitive to abrasion. It is therefore important to use a very clean fuel (no particles and chemicals that may form acids), and limit the temperature depending on the mechanical characteristics of the blades. The materials used for turbine blades are refractory alloys based on nickel or cobalt, and manufacturers intend to make use of ceramics in the future. As the cycle efficiency is itself an increasing function of temperature, major technological developments have been devoted to the fabrication, first of efficient cooling systems of the blades, and second of materials resistant at high temperatures. For half a century, there has been a gradual increase (about 20 C per year) of the turbine inlet temperature, now reaching 1300 to 1500 C. Two broad categories of gas turbines are generally distinguished: industrial gas turbines, heavy and robust, but of average performance (efficiency between 28 and 38%), and gas turbines derived from aviation or “aeroderivative” much more efficient and light ( between 35 and 42%), but also more expensive. The capacities of the first range from tens of kW (microturbines) to several hundreds of MW, while those of aeroderivative machines are generally between a few hundred kW to tens of MW, corresponding to those of aircraft engines. We shall indeed see in section 12.2.2 that most jet engines used in aviation today are in fact variations of the gas turbine open cycle. The aviation market has helped fund major technological development programs on these engines, which led to the development of highly efficient gas turbines, which could supplant industrial gas turbines,

384

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

or allow hybrid turbine design of enhanced efficiencies and low cost, including components of existing jet engines for high pressure compressor and turbine sections, and industrial parts for lowpressure sections. Early gas turbines were manufactured at the beginning of the twentieth century, in France by the Société Anonyme des Turbomoteurs in Paris and in Switzerland by the Brown Boweri company in Neuchatel. The net work produced by these machines is equal to the difference between the useful work done by the turbine and the work required to compress the air. In the early achievements, it was very low, and it was not until the 1930s that industrial applications have really started to grow, thanks to the improved performance of compressors and turbines, mainly due to advances in the understanding of gas flows, which continue today with 3D modeling. For thirty five years, gas turbines have been experiencing a very strong development in many applications: air transport, power generation, cogeneration, driving machines (compressors and pumps), marine propulsion, where they make a growing breakthrough. Arguments in their favor include their small size, excellent power to weight ratio, good performance and low emissions of pollutants. Among other advantages of gas turbines, we can mention: their startup is very fast: while it takes 24 hours to start up some steam plants, a gas turbine reaches its rated speed in 15 to 20 minutes, and capacity can be modulated very rapidly between the full load and 20 to 30% of this value; auxiliary equipment is small and cheap, and there is no need of water for cooling the cycle, since the exhaust gases are released into the atmosphere. In addition, the construction time on site is reduced, because the machine is assembled in factory. ●

●

Investment costs range from 350 Euros/kW for machines between 1 and 10 MW to approximately 180 Euros/kW for units larger than 50 MW. The price per kW installed, however, is higher because of auxiliary equipment and infrastructure. For electricity generation, it varies between 300 and 450 Euros/kW. Their main drawback is the use of clean fuels, which is therefore generally expensive. Also note that their performance depends significantly on site conditions, and degrades when the outside temperature rises or when the pressure drops. 12.1.2

Examples of gas turbines

12.1.2.1 Industrial gas turbines Siemens gas turbine of Figure 12.1.2 is characterized by silo combustion chambers (multi-fuel, emission control, radiative protection of turbine blades). 12.1.2.2 Aeroderivative gas turbines Rolls Royce SM1C two shaft turbine (Figure 12.1.3) (marine propulsion) has a capacity of 20 MW, a compression ratio r 22 (5 11 stages of compression, 2 2 expansion). Its turbine inlet temperature is 740 C. The Alstom Power GT24/26 gas turbine of Figure 12.1.4 is a new generation of aero-derivative turbine, in the sense that, although developed using aviation techniques, there is no equivalent turbojet, given its high capacity (180/260 MW) and its combustion mode (sequential). Its characteristics are as follows: r 30 (22 stages of compression, 1 4 expansion), turbine inlet temperature 1255 C; 37.5%. The GT 24 has a rotation speed of 3,600 rpm to provide electricity at 60 Hz, while the GT 26 rotates at 3,000 rpm (50 Hz). Designed with equivalent mechanical stress in the blades, their capacities are respectively 180 and 260 MW, and their masses (with their bases) approximately 225 and 370 tons.

385

Main Conventional Cycles

2

5 4

6

3

1 1 compressor 2 combustion chamber 3 refractory coating 4 turbine 5 exhaust gas diffuser 6 alternator

FIGURE 12.1.2 Siemens gas turbine, Extract from Techniques de l’Ingénieur, Génie Energétique

FIGURE 12.1.3 Rolls Royce SM1C, Reproduced courtesy of Rolls-Royce plc

Figures 11.1.4 and 11.1.5 presented in Chapter 11 give an idea of the approximate size of a power plant based on this gas turbine: a base of 50 m by 70 m and a height of 25m. 12.1.3

Major technological constraints

12.1.3.1 Combustion chamber The combustion chamber of a gas turbine, especially those derived from aviation, must satisfy severe constraints: ensure complete combustion of fuel; reduce emissions of pollutants; ● ●

386

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

FIGURE 12.1.4 Alstom Power GT24/26, Documentation Alstom Power Flame Fuel Turbine

Compressed air

Primary zone

Secondary zone

Dilution zone

Cross-section of a gas turbine combustion chamber T (K) 2,500 2,000 1,500

Temperatures in a gas turbine combustion chamber

FIGURE 12.1.5 Temperatures in a combustion chamber

● ● ●

minimize pressure drop (which represents an increase in compression work); ensure good stability of the turbine inlet temperature; occupy as small a volume as possible while allowing proper cooling of the walls.

The diagram in Figure 12.1.5 shows a section of a flame tube combustion chamber, very commonly encountered in practice. The compressed air exiting the compressor enters on the left side. It splits into two streams, one that provides wall cooling, the other entering directly into the combustion chamber, where it serves as oxidizer to the fuel injected in the central part. Given the low excess air locally, the flame reaches a high temperature (up to 2,500 K) in the primary zone. Through holes at the periphery of the flame tube, the outside air is mixed with exhaust gases in the transitional zone, where temperature drops

387

Main Conventional Cycles

FLAME TUBE

COMBUSTION OUTER CASING

TURBINE NOZZLE GUIDE VANES

H.P. COMPRESSOR OUTLET GUIDE VANES

COMBUSTION INNER CASING

FUEL SPRAY NOZZLE

FUEL MANIFOLD COMPRESSOR CASING MOUNTING FLANGE

DILUTION AIR HOLES

TURBINE CASING MOUNTING FLANGE

FIGURE 12.1.6 Annular combustion chamber, Reproduced courtesy of Rolls-Royce plc

around 2,000 K, and in the dilution zone, where one seeks to achieve a gas flow temperature as stable as possible to avoid the risk of local or momentary overheating. In cylinder flame tube chambers, six to twelve tubes of this type are mounted in parallel around the axis of the gas turbine. They are interconnected in order to balance the pressures and enable propagation of the ignition. Two other types of chambers are available: silo chambers (see industrial turbine of Figure 12.1.2): in this case, chambers, separated from the axis, are much larger, allowing better control of combustion, including emission of pollutants (NOx); annular chambers (see Figures 12.1.4 and 12.1.6): the chamber has a single volume, annular, fuel being injected in several points. This arrangement yields a shorter flame and better combustion efficiency. ●

●

The efforts of manufacturers now focus on reducing emissions of pollutants, particularly nitrogen oxides. 12.1.3.2 First expansion stages In open cycle gas turbines, the major technological constraint is the maximum temperature that can withstand both the elements of the combustion chamber and the first turbine stages, which are subject to the flow of exhaust gases. The parts most at risk are especially rotor blades (Figure 12.1.7), which are very difficult to cool and particularly sensitive to abrasion. The problem is even more difficult to resolve due to the fact that that the shapes of the fixed nozzles and mobile blades of the turbines are very complex, especially in small units derived from aviation. To make the cooling, air is taken at different levels of the compressor, depending on the desired pressure for reinjection into the turbine (Figures 12.1.8 and 12.1.9).

388

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

DE LAVAL BULB ROOT (with locking screw)

FIR TREE ROOT (with locking plate)

FIR TREE ROOT (with shank seals)

B.M.W. HOLLOW BLADE (with retaining pins)

FIGURE 12.1.7 Various methods of attaching blades to turbine discs, Reproduced courtesy of Rolls-Royce plc

L.P. COMPRESSOR

BY-PASS DUCT

H.P. TURBINE LOCATION BEARINGS

H.P. COMPRESSOR

L.P. TURBINE BEARING

AIR INLET

L.P. COMPRESSOR FRONT BEARING

H.P. COMPRESSOR FRONT BEARING L.P. COMPRESSOR REAR BEARING

L.P. air

H.P. intermediate air

H.P. TURBINE BEARING

AIR TRANSFER PORTS

L.P. TURBINE AIR OUTLET

H.P. air

FIGURE 12.1.8 Blade cooling in a turbojet, Reproduced courtesy of Rolls-Royce plc

This air passes inside the blades, through a carefully designed set of baffles, and then is evacuated with the exhaust gases, either at the trailing edge, or by allowing some porosity through the wall. Figure 12.1.10 shows three types of configurations selected to enhance the cooling: cavity (1) and channel (2) blades, forced convection, porous and transpiration cooled blades (3). Figures 12.1.11 and 12.1.12 show another technique, using a more complex network of channels, the multiperforated blades. In aero-derivative gas turbines of the most powerful last generation, cooling of the blades is no more carried out by air circulation, but by water vaporization, which can benefit from the high heat transfer coefficients in a two-phase system. The analytical and numerical models that will be presented later in this chapter do not specifically take into account the cooling of the blades in the calculations of gas turbines. The interested reader will find explanations on how to do it in the thesis of H. Abdullah (1988) referenced at the end of the chapter.

389

Main Conventional Cycles

TURBINE BLADE

NOZZLE GUIDE VANE

H.P. cooling air L.P. cooling air PRE-SWIRL NOZZLES

1

2

FIGURE 12.1.9

FIGURE 12.1.10

Detail of turbine cooling, Reproduced courtesy of Rolls-Royce plc

Detail of blade cooling, Documentation Snecma

3

Section A-B

A

8

3

5 1

2

4

6

7 B

FIGURE 12.1.11

FIGURE 12.1.12

Detail of blade cooling, Documentation Snecma

Blade assembly, Documentation Alstom Power

12.1.4

Basic cycles

As we have seen (see Figure 12.1.1), a gas turbine consists of three components: a compressor, a combustion chamber and a turbine.

390

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

For the reasons stated in section 5.3.6 of Part 2, the compressor and turbine can be assumed to be adiabatic. As to the combustion chamber, at first approximation we can make the assumption that it is isobaric. . . Let us call c the compressor work, t the work done by the turbine, mc, mt the flow-rates passing . through them, mf that of fuel and Qcc the heat generated by combustion. The enthalpy balances of the three components give here: c = m c (h2 − h1 ) > 0 t = m t (h4 − h3 ) < 0 t h3 − m c h2 = m f LHV > 0 Qcc = m The cycle efficiency is written:

=

| t | − | c | f LHV m

This model based on the component enthalpy balances is very general and rigorous, but incomplete as models of fluids have not been selected. In what follows, we will show the very sensitive differences in results which are obtained depending on the assumptions made at that level. 12.1.4.1 Perfect gas cycle without irreversibilities The basic thermodynamic cycle used in gas turbines is the Brayton cycle. It is assumed that the air passing through the gas turbine is perfect and there is no irreversibility. Its plot in an entropy chart is given in Figure 12.1.13. Note that this representation has meaning because it is assumed here that the working fluid remains the same throughout the cycle. In a real gas turbine, the change in gas composition strictly prohibits plotting it on a single chart, although this is frequently done. In the open cycle, the compressor sucks air into the atmosphere and pressurizes it. At high pressure, heat is supplied by burning a fuel with air. The products of combustion at high temperature and high pressure are then expanded in a turbine to produce mechanical energy. A portion (approximately 60 to 70%) of the output is used to drive the compressor, usually mounted directly on the turbine shaft. The difference between the expansion work and compression work is equal to the useful work of the machine, which corresponds to about one third of the work done by the turbine. In the standard air Brayton cycle, we assume as a first approximation that the working fluid in the turbine is air, as in the compressor. In fact, this is not quite rigorous, first because the mass T 3

P2

2

P1 4

1 S

FIGURE 12.1.13 Theoretical open Brayton cycle

391

Main Conventional Cycles

Cold source

Hot source

1

2

4

3

Turbine

Compressor

FIGURE 12.1.14 Sketch of a closed cycle gas turbine

flow into the turbine is a little higher because of the mass-rate of fuel, and secondly because the thermodynamic properties of combustion products differ from those of air. But we can neglect this point as there is usually a large excess of air during combustion. In a closed cycle, the gas turbine exhausts are cooled at low temperature in a heat exchanger, before being recirculated to the compressor, whose output is then supplied to the high temperature heat exchanger, as direct combustion of the working fluid is no longer possible. The introduction of these two exchangers has the effect of increasing costs and lowering heat exchange effectiveness. However, it allows the average pressure of the cycle to be significantly increased, and thus its specific power. All things considered, it is justified only in special cases. Such a cycle is shown in the diagram in Figure 12.1.14. With the assumption of a constant flow-rate in the machine, the cycle efficiency is: η=

(h3 − h4 ) − (h2 − h1 ) h3 − h2

Air being assumed perfect, we have: h cpT Const., or h cp T. Moreover, on isentropes 1–2 and 3–4 of Figure 12.1.13, we have (equation (5.6.8) of Part 2): /(−1) ⎛ T3 ⎞⎟/(−1) P3 ⎛⎜ T2 ⎞⎟ P2 = ⎜⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = =⎜ ⎟ P1 P4 ⎜⎝ T1 ⎟⎟⎠ ⎝ T4 ⎟⎠

η = 1−

T1 − T4 T2 − T3

⎛ P2 ⎞⎟(1−) /

= 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠

(12.1.1)

1

We see that, assuming first that the fluid follows the perfect gas law, and secondly there is no irreversibility, the efficiency is an increasing function of the compression ratio.

392

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

12.1.4.2 Perfect gas cycle with irreversibilities In reality, we know that the compression and expansion do not follow an isentrope but are irreversible adiabatic (Figure 12.1.15). Even if we keep the assumption of perfect air, it is desirable to refine the model by taking into account irreversibilities. Isentropic formulation Taking into account the isentropic efficiencies of the compressor c (between 0.88 and 0.92), and of the turbine t (near 0.86), the cycle efficiency is given by equation 12.1.2.

t (h3 − h4 ) −

=

(h2 − h1 )

c

(12.1.2)

h3 − h2

Introducing ratios: θ= we get

T3 , T1

β=

γ −1 , γ

and

r=

P2 , P1

h2 h1 cpT1(r" 1) h3 h4 cpT3(1 r") h3 h4 cpT1(1 r") h3 h2 cp(T3 T2) ⎛ r" − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎟ h3 − h2 = cp T1 ⎜⎜⎜ − 1 − ⎜⎝

c ⎟⎟⎠

All calculations done, we get:

=

(r" − 1)( c t − r" ) r" (ηc ( − 1) + 1 − r" )

(12.1.3)

The graph in Figure 12.1.16 shows that the efficiency drops significantly as compared to the theoretical cycle, and there is an optimum compression ratio, which is an increasing function of the ratio of the inlet temperatures in the turbine and the compressor, and depends on the isentropic efficiencies of these devices and , ratio of heat capacities of the working fluid. Polytropic formulation This way of working is however not the most relevant, especially if one looks at the influence of compression ratio r on the performance of the machine, as isentropic compression and expansion efficiencies c and t are then a function of r. As has been shown in section 7.1.3.2 of Part 2, it is preferable to use a polytropic formulation, and this is all the more justified that compressors and turbines are most often multistage axial machines, whose polytropic efficiency is then substantially equal to the isentropic efficiency of a stage. Introducing ratios "c for the compressor and "t for the turbine: kc − 1 1 γ −1 = ⋅ ηpc γ kc γ −1 kt − 1 βt = = ηpt γ kt βc =

393

Main Conventional Cycles

0.4 θ 4.5

0.35

θ4 0.3

θ 3.5

T η

P2

3

0.25

0.2 2

θ3

2 4

0.15

4 P1

0.1

1

2

4

6

S

8

10

12

r

FIGURE 12.1.15

FIGURE 12.1.16

Actual open Brayton cycle

Efficiency of the open Brayton cycle

We get: ⎛ P2 ⎞⎟βc T2 = T1 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = T1rβc ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ 1

⎛ P1 ⎞⎟βt T4 = T3 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = T1θr−βt ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ 2

The efficiency of the Brayton cycle with irreversibilities is equal to: (T3 − T4 ) − (T2 − T1 ) T3 − T2 (1 − r−"t ) + 1 − r"c

= − r"c

=

(12.1.4)

The output power can be expressed in dimensionless form by dividing its value by the product cp(T3 T1) cpT1( 1). We get: W0 =

(1 − r−"t ) + 1 − r" c −1

(12.1.5)

From these two expressions it is possible to plot the chart of Figure 12.1.17, which shows for various values of and r, curves binding and W0. This chart shows that the compression ratio value leading to the maximum power output is not that which leads to the best efficiency. The maximum efficiency is obtained for compression ratios greater than those which result in maximum power, because for a given turbine inlet temperature, the temperature of exhaust gases is even lower than the compression ratio is high. As the upper curves are relatively flat, manufacturers generally prefer to optimize their engines for maximum power, even if the efficiency slightly drops.

394

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

45% r 20 r 15

θ 4.5

40% θ4

r 10

η

35%

30% r5

θ 3.5 25%

θ3

20%

15% 0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

W0

FIGURE 12.1.17 Efficiency and reduced power of a gas turbine

These curves also show that the maximum efficiency is an increasing function of . To obtain high efficiencies, it is thus necessary to increase as much as possible the turbine inlet temperature. Today, efficiencies above 40% are obtained with compression ratios equal to 30, and an installed capacity exceeding 220 MW. These values are increasingly getting closer to steam plant limits. 12.1.4.3 Modeling with Thermoptim In the analytical developments above, we have assumed that the machine was traversed by a constant flow of perfect air, when in reality the mass flow and gas composition vary, and their heat capacities depend on temperature. If we want to eliminate this assumption, the analytical calculations quickly become intractable. However, it is quite possible to model with good accuracy various gas turbine cycles with Thermoptim as discussed in the following sections. It is in this sense that the method proposed in this book complements the classical approach to obtain results much more accurate and believable. The interested reader can in particular study the sensitivity of flue gas composition to settings he chooses for the combustion chamber. In particular if he takes into account the dissociation of CO2, unburned gases (CO, H2) will appear in the fumes. The simple cycle is the subject of the third example given at the end of Part 2 (section 9.3). If he wants to know how to build step by step such a Thermoptim model, the reader may refer to this example or to the corresponding Getting Started guide downloadable from the portal1. Figure 12.1.18 shows the result of such modeling. This gas turbine has been designed with a compression ratio equal to 16 and a turbine inlet temperature equal to 1,150 C. By varying the pressure of the cycle, we get the chart in Figure 12.1.19 which gives the evolution of efficiency in terms of useful work. The maximum efficiency is obtained for a compression ratio of 27, and the maximum power for 11. It is also possible to model a closed cycle gas turbine. If the gas is perfect, the results provided by the software match those obtained analytically: the calculated efficiency is the same as that given by equation (12.1.4). The reader can verify that this is the case for a helium gas turbine operating between 2 and 18 bar (Figure 12.1.20). 1

http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/logiciels/thermoptim/documentation/exemples/turbine-gaz-simple

[CRC_ln_4]

395

Main Conventional Cycles

FIGURE 12.1.18 Synoptic view of an open cycle gas turbine 0.38

r 27

0.37 r 16

0.36 η

0.35 0.34 r 11

0.33 0.32 0.31 250

FIGURE 12.1.19 Efficiency and power of a gas turbine

FIGURE 12.1.20 Synoptic view of a closed cycle gas turbine

396

270

290 310 Useful work (kW)

330

350

12. INTERNAL COMBUSTION TURBOMOTORS

12.1.4.4 Energy and exergy balances From the open-cycle GT model developed with Thermoptim, it is easy to build the energy balance of the cycle by completing a table of type 12.1.1. The efficiency here is the ratio of the work provided by the cycle to the heat generated by combustion. To build up the exergy balance, we must begin by setting a temperature and pressure reference. We take here T0 288.15 K (15 C) and P0 1 bar, corresponding to the gas turbine air suction conditions. Table 12.1.2 can then be built up step by step, following the guidance of section 10.2.3 of Part 2 which is summarized below.

TABLE 12.1.1 GAS TURBINE ENTHALPY BALANCE Point

flow-rate (kg/s)

h (kJ/kg)

fuel

0.0183

21

air inlet

1

10

2

1

433

3

1.0183

1,299

4

1.0183

551

Process

(kW)

Q (kW)

h (kW)

compression

443

0

443

combustion

890

890

expansion

761

0

761

cycle

318

890

571

energy efficiency

35.77%

TABLE 12.1.2 GAS TURBINE EXERGY BALANCE Point

Flow-rate (kg/s)

h (kJ/kg)

s (kJ/kg/K)

fuel

0.0183

21

1.2

air inlet

1

10

0.13

47

2

1

433

0.26

355

3

1.01827

1,299

1.18

957

4

1.01827

551

1.3

175

compression

(kW)

Q (kW)

443

combustion expansion

324

890 761

mh (kW)

ms (kW/K)

443

0.14

890

0.94

761

0.12

exhaust cycle sigma(xq) sigma(tau) Exergy efficiency

xh_comb

614

comb_eff

69%

xq (kW)

mxh (kW)

T0 288.15 K 15 C

Exergy balance Process

xh (kJ/kg)

318

890

571

1

890

xhi (kW)

% loss

402

40

7%

614

276

47.8%

796

35

6.1%

226

226

39.1%

7

578

100.0%

890 0.00 35%

397

Main Conventional Cycles

For each component, Equation 10.2.3 is written: n

Δx hij = ∑ x qjk − mjΔx hj + j k=1

It can be simplified here because heat-exergies are all zero. On the other hand there is the problem of its extension to the case of the combustion chamber, which is resolved simply by replacing the heat-exergy by the fuel input exergy. The exergy literature indicates, according to authors, that the exergy of a fuel is close to its LHV or its HHV. These two values differ little eventually, and given the fact that we seek to establish an approximate balance, we will follow those who equate it with its LHV available in Thermoptim. The exergy balance of the combustion chamber is then easily built: per kg of air, the fuel releases an exergy equal to 890 kJ. The exergy change of the fluids in the chamber being equal to 614 kJ, the irreversibilities are equal to 276 kJ. The exergy efficiency of the chamber is equal to 69%, while its energy efficiency is 100% because it is adiabatic. If we took into account the pressure drop, the efficiency would be somewhat lower. In Table 12.2, losses are given as percentage of total irreversibilities. It shows that they are mainly concentrated in the combustion chamber and exhaust, and they are substantially equal in compressor and turbine (their polytropic efficiencies being equal