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6.3 Cooperating with Strangers

Whether you're dealing with a user sitting at the keyboard typing commands, or someone sending information across the network, you need to be careful about the data coming into your programs, since the other person may, either maliciously or accidentally, send you data that will do more harm than good. Perl provides a mechanism to isolate tainted data so that you won't use it to do something you didn't intend to do. For instance, if you mistakenly trust a tainted filename, you might end up appending an entry to your passwd file when you thought you were appending to a log file.

And if the data you get from a stranger happens to be a bit of program to execute, you need to be even more careful. Perl provides a method of dealing with that, too. But first we'll talk about ordinary tainted data.

6.3.1 Handling Insecure Data

Perl is designed to make it easy to program securely even when your program is being used by someone with fewer privileges than the program itself. That is, some programs need to grant some extra privileges to their users, without giving away other privileges that they didn't intend to give away. Setuid and setgid programs fall into this category, as do many network servers, and the programs the servers themselves run, such as CGI scripts. At a fundamental level, Perl is easy to program securely because it's straightforward and self-contained. Unlike most command-line shells, which are based on multiple mysterious substitution passes on each line of the script, Perl uses a more conventional evaluation scheme with fewer hidden snags. Additionally, because the language has more built-in functionality, it can rely less upon external (and possibly untrustworthy) programs to accomplish its purposes.

But beyond that, Perl automatically enables a special security-checking mechanism called taint mode whenever it detects its program running with differing real and effective user or group IDs.[ 6 ] You can also enable taint mode explicitly by using the -T command line switch. This is suggested for server programs and any program run on behalf of someone else, such as a CGI script.

[6] The setuid bit in UNIX permissions is mode 04000, and the setgid bit is 02000; either or both may be set to grant the user of the program some of the privileges of the owner (or owners) of the program. Other operating systems may confer special privileges on programs in other ways, but the principle is the same.

While in this mode, Perl takes special precautions called taint checks to prevent both obvious and subtle traps. Some of these checks are reasonably simple, such as verifying that path directories aren't writable by others; careful programmers have always used checks like these. Other checks, however, are best supported by the language itself, and it is these checks especially that contribute to making a setuid Perl program more secure than the corresponding C program.

The principle is simple: you may not use data derived from outside your program to affect something else outside your program - at least, not by accident. All command-line arguments, environment variables, and file input are marked as tainted. Tainted data may not be used directly or indirectly in any command that invokes a subshell, nor in any command that modifies files, directories, or processes. Any variable set within an expression that has previously referenced a tainted value becomes tainted itself, even if it is logically impossible for the tainted value to influence the variable. Because taintedness is associated with each scalar value, some elements of an array or hash might be tainted and others not.

The following code illustrates how tainting would work if you executed all these statements in order:

$arg = shift;               # $arg is tainted
$hid = "$arg, 'bar'";       # $hid is also tainted
$line = <>;                 # Tainted
$path = $ENV{PATH};         # Tainted, but see below
$mine = 'abc';              # Not tainted
$shout = `echo abc`;        # Tainted
$shout = `echo $shout`;     # Insecure
system "echo $arg";         # Insecure (uses sh)
system "/bin/echo", $arg;   # OK (doesn't use sh)
system "echo $mine";        # Insecure until PATH set
system "echo $hid";         # Insecure two ways
$path = $ENV{PATH};         # $path tainted
$ENV{PATH} = '/bin:/usr/bin'; 
$ENV{IFS} = "" if $ENV{IFS} ne "";
$path = $ENV{PATH};         # $path now NOT tainted
system "echo $mine";        # OK, is secure now!
system "echo $hid";         # Insecure via $hid still
open(OOF, "< $arg");        # OK (read-only file)
open(OOF, "> $arg");        # Insecure (trying to write)
open(OOF, "echo $arg|");    # Insecure via $arg, but...
open(OOF,"-|")
    or exec 'echo', $arg;   # Considered OK
$shout = `echo $arg`;       # Insecure via $arg
unlink $mine, $arg;         # Insecure via $arg
umask $arg;                 # Insecure via $arg
exec "echo $arg";           # Single arg to exec or system is insecure
exec "echo", $arg;          # Considered OK (doesn't use the shell)
exec "sh", '-c', $arg;      # Considered OK, but isn't really

If you try to do something insecure, you get a fatal error saying something like " Insecure dependency " or " Insecure $ENV{PATH} ". You can still write an insecure system or exec , but only by explicitly doing something like the last example. If you pass a LIST to system or exec , you are presumed to know what you're doing.

6.3.1.1 Detecting and laundering tainted data

To test whether a variable contains tainted data, you can use the following is_tainted() function.

sub is_tainted {
    not eval { 
        join("",@_), kill 0; 
        1;  
    };
}

This function makes use of the obscure fact that the kill function tests for taintedness even when no process IDs are supplied to send the signal to. More important, the function also depends on the fact that using tainted data anywhere within an expression renders the entire expression tainted. It would be inefficient for every operator to test every argument for taintedness. Instead, a slightly more efficient and conservative approach is used: if any tainted value has been accessed within the same expression, the whole expression is considered tainted.

But testing for taintedness only gets you so far. Usually you know perfectly well which variables contain tainted data - you just have to clear the data's taintedness. The only way to bypass the tainting mechanism is by referencing subpattern variables set by an earlier regular expression match. The presumption is that if you reference a substring using $1 , $2 , and so on, you knew what you were doing when you wrote the pattern, and wrote it to weed out anything dangerous. So you need to give it a bit of thought - don't just blindly untaint anything, or you defeat the entire mechanism. Also, it's better to verify that the variable has only good characters rather than checking whether it has any bad characters. That's because it's far too easy to miss bad characters that you never thought of.

For example, here's a test to make sure $addr contains nothing but "word" characters (alphabetics, numerics, and underscores), or a hyphen, an @ sign, or a dot.

if ($addr =~ /^([-\@\w.]+)$/) {     
    $addr = $1;                     # $addr now untainted
}
else {
    die "Bad data in $addr";        # log this somewhere
}

This is fairly secure since /\w+/ doesn't normally match shell metacharacters, nor are dot, hyphen, or "at" going to mean anything special to the shell. Had we used /(.+)/ instead, it would have been insecure because that pattern lets everything through. But Perl doesn't check for that. So when untainting, you must be exceedingly careful with your patterns. Laundering data using regular expressions is the only internal mechanism for untainting dirty data. (But see "Cleaning Up Your Path" later, about forking a child of lesser privilege.)

6.3.1.2 Cleaning up your path

When you run a program from within Perl, whether you're using the `...` , glob , system , exec , or open commands, Perl checks to make sure your PATH environment variable is secure. If you get the " Insecure $ENV{PATH} " message, you need to set $ENV{PATH} to a known value, and each directory in the path must be non-writable by anyone other than the directory's owner and group. You may be surprised to get this message even when the filename of your executable is absolute (that is, fully qualified from the root of your filesystem). True, when you supply an absolute filename, the PATH isn't used to locate the executable. However, Perl doesn't trust the program you're running not to turn right around and execute some other program using the insecure PATH. So it forces you to set a secure PATH anyway.

Perl has its own notion of which operations are dangerous, but it's still possible to get into trouble with other operations that don't care whether they use tainted values. Make judicious use of the file tests in dealing with any user-supplied filename. When possible, do your open operations and such after setting $> = $< . (Remember that under UNIX you have group IDs, too!) Perl doesn't prevent you from opening tainted filenames for reading, so be careful what you print out. The tainting mechanism is intended to prevent stupid mistakes, not to remove the need for thought.

You may recall that system never calls the shell when you pass it a list of arguments, but only when you pass it a string containing shell metacharacters. (The same applies to exec .) Since you can explicitly bypass the shell by passing a list of arguments, this form is not considered a dangerous operation. Unfortunately, the open , glob , and backtick functions provide no such alternate calling convention, so more subterfuge will be required.

Perl provides a reasonably safe way to open a file or pipe from within a setuid or setgid program: just create a child process with reduced privilege who does the dirty work for you. First, fork a child using the special open syntax that connects the parent and child by a pipe. Now the child resets its user and group IDs (and any other per-process attributes, like environment variables, umasks, current working directories) back to the originals or known safe values. Then the child process, which no longer has any special permissions, does the open or other system call. Finally, the child passes whatever data it managed to access back to the parent. Since the file or pipe was opened in the child while running under less privilege than the parent, the child is unlikely to be tricked into doing something it shouldn't.

For example, here's how you might emulate backticks in reasonable safety. Notice how the exec is not called with a string that the shell could expand. This is by far the best way to call something that might be subjected to shell escapes: just never call the shell at all. By the time we get to the exec , tainting is turned off, however, so be careful what you call and what you pass it.

use English;  
die unless defined($pid = open(KID, "-|"));
if ($pid) {           # parent
    while (<KID>) {
        # do something
    }
    close KID;
}
else {
    $EUID = $UID;
    $EGID = $GID;    # XXX: initgroups() not called
    $ENV{PATH} = "/bin:/usr/bin";
    exec 'myprog', 'arg1', 'arg2';
    die "can't exec myprog: $!";
}

A similar strategy would work for wildcard expansion via glob .

6.3.1.3 Security bugs

Beyond the obvious problems that stem from giving special privileges to interpreters as flexible and inscrutable as shells, many versions of UNIX have the additional difficulty that any setuid script is inherently insecure before it ever gets to the interpreter. That is, the problem is not the script itself, but a race condition in the way kernel invokes an interpreter mentioned on the #! line. (The bug doesn't exist on machines that don't recognize #! in the kernel.) Between the time the kernel opens the file to see which interpreter to run and the time the (now-setuid) interpreter starts up and reopens the file to interpret it, the file in question may have changed, especially if your system supports symbolic links.

Fortunately, sometimes this kernel "feature" can be disabled. Unfortunately, there are two ways to disable it. The system can outlaw scripts with the setuid bit set, which doesn't help much. Alternately, it can ignore the setuid bit on scripts. If the latter is true, Perl can emulate the setuid and setgid mechanism when it notices the (otherwise useless) setuid/gid bits on Perl scripts. It does this via a special executable called suidperl , which is automatically invoked for you if it's needed.

However, if the kernel setuid script feature isn't disabled, Perl will complain loudly that your setuid script is insecure. You'll need to either disable the kernel setuid script feature,[ 7 ] or put a C wrapper around the script. A C wrapper is just a compiled program that does nothing except call your Perl program. Compiled programs are not subject to the kernel bug that plagues setuid scripts.

[7] This may be difficult if your kernel vendor manifests the typical degree of deafness.

Here's a simple wrapper, written in C:

#define REAL_FILE "/path/to/script"
main(ac, av) 
    char **av;
{
    execv(REAL_FILE, av);
}

Compile this wrapper into a binary executable and then make it rather than your script setuid or setgid. Be sure to use an absolute filename, since C isn't smart enough to do taint checking on your PATH.

See the program wrapsuid in the eg directory of your Perl distribution for a convenient way to do this automatically for all your setuid Perl programs. It renames your setuid scripts to have a dot on the front, and then compiles a wrapper like the one above for each of them. It gives each wrapper the name of the script it replaces.

In recent years, some vendors have begun to supply systems free of this inherent security bug. On such systems, when the kernel passes the name of the setuid script to open to the interpreter, it no longer passes a filename subject to meddling, but instead passes /dev/fd/3 . This is a special file already opened on the script, so that there can be no race condition for evil scripts to exploit. On these systems, Perl should be compiled with -DSETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW . The Configure program that builds Perl tries to figure this out for itself, so you should never have to specify this yourself. Most modern releases of SysVr4 and BSD 4.4 use this approach to avoid the kernel race condition.

Prior to release 5.003 of Perl, a bug in the code of suidperl could introduce a security hole in systems compiled with strict POSIX compliance. If you must run an earlier version of suidperl , please see CERT advisory CA-96.12.

6.3.2 Handling Insecure Code

Taint checking is useful when you trust yourself to write honest code, but don't necessarily trust whoever's feeding you data not to try to trick you into doing something bad. Taint checking is the sort of security blanket that's useful for setuid programs and programs launched on someone else's behalf, like CGI programs.

It's quite another matter when you don't even trust the writer of the code you're running. What if you fetch an applet off the Net and it contains a virus, or a time bomb, or a Trojan horse? Taint checking is useless here, because the code itself may be tainted, while the data you're feeding it presumably is not. You're placing yourself in the position of someone who receives a mysterious device from a stranger, with a note that says, "Just hold this to your head and pull the trigger." Maybe you think it will dry your hair, but you might not think so for very long.

In this realm, prudence is synonymous with paranoia. What you want is a system in which you can impose a quarantine on suspicious code. The code can continue to exist, and even perform certain functions, but you don't let it wander around doing anything it feels like doing. In Perl, you can impose a kind of quarantine using the Safe module.

6.3.2.1 Safe

The Safe module allows the programmer to set up special compartments in which all system operations are trapped and namespace access is carefully controlled. The technical details of this module are explained in Chapter 7 . Here we'll take a more philosophical approach.

At the most basic level, a Safe object is like a safe, except the idea is to keep the bad people in, not out. In the UNIX world, there is a system call known as chroot (2) that can permanently consign a process to run only in a subdirectory of the directory structure, in its own private little hell, if you will. Once the process is put there, there is no way whatsoever for it to reach anything outside, because there's no way for it to name anything outside. A Safe object is a little like that, except that instead of being restricted to a subset of the directory structure, it's restricted to a subset of Perl's package structure, which is hierarchical just as the directory structure is. It suffices to give the Safe object its own "main package", so that it can't influence the rest of your program.

The other important thing about a Safe object is that it limits the operations available to the tainted code. The details of this aren't important here, but what is important is that this is under the control of your code. And since you can create multiple Safe objects in your program, you can confer various degrees of trust upon various chunks of code, depending on where you got them from. Or more importantly, on whom you got them from. This leads us to the notion of Penguin.

6.3.2.2 Penguin

If you're going to bestow more than the minimal amount of trust on the code you get from someone (and you have to, if you think about it), you must also trust the mechanism by which the trustworthy code is delivered to you. In the good old days, of course, we just ignored the problem, but these days if you do that you get infected by a virus. So we're moving toward the day in which most software will be delivered with an encrypted seal guaranteeing that it comes from where you think it comes from, and that it hasn't been tampered with in the meanwhile.

Penguin is a Perl module that allows you to send encrypted, digitally signed Perl code (termed "executable content" in Marketese) to a remote machine to be executed. At the other end, it lets you receive code and, depending on who signed it, execute it within the constraints of an arbitrarily secure Safe object. You'll note that we didn't say which end was the client and which end was the server. This was intentional, because it doesn't really matter.

Penguin thus enables you to perform Internet commerce safely, write mobile information-gathering agents, distribute "live content" web-browser helper applications, perform distributed load-balanced computation, update remote software, administer distant machines, propagate content-based information, build Internet-wide shared-data applications and network application builders, and so on. And it's completely non-proprietary.

As its author, Felix Gallo, puts it:

Penguin-as-a-concept grew from early thinking about agent-tcl, a language I made up during a heated discussion with the safe-tcl people. Tcl proved to be an inappropriate implementation language. Soon after I stopped trying, Sun's Java language arrived on the scene, purporting to solve many of the issues I had thought were important. However, although superior to tcl, Java is also an inappropriate and difficult implementation language. Hence Perl, hence Penguin.

Penguin, with its vastly simplified, superior, and innate methods of ensuring safety and security, may become a very interesting tool in the repertoires of the many thousands of Perl programmers already extant on the Internet. Once people discover the glass walls of Java and the inconsistencies and insecurities engendered in the other solutions, we may begin to live in interesting times.

Hmm, we seem to be slipping into a competitive frame of mind here. Ah, well. The next section should help with that.

As of this writing, Penguin is still developing fast enough that it is not yet included as part of the standard Perl distribution. That doesn't mean we don't like it. As usual, consult CPAN for the latest details.


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