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A.7 Chapter 8, Functions

  1. Here's one way to do it:

    
    
    
    
    sub card {
      my %card_map;
      @card_map{1..9} = qw(
        one two three four five six seven eight nine
      );
    
      
    
    my($num) = @_;
      if ($card_map{$num}) {
        $card_map{$num}; # return value
      } else {
        $num; # return value
      }
    }
    # driver routine:
    while (
    
    <>) {
      chomp;
      print "card of $_ is ", &card($_), "\n";
    }

    The &card subroutine (so named because it returns a cardinal name for a given value) begins by initializing a constant hash called %card_map . This array has values such that $card_map{6} is six ; consequently, the mapping is easy.

    The if statement determines if the value is in range by looking the number up in the hash - if there's a corresponding hash element, the test is true, so that array element is returned. If there's no corresponding element (such as when $num is 11 or -4 ), the value returned from the hash lookup is undef , so the else -branch of the if statement is executed, returning the original number. You can also replace that entire if statement with the single expression:

      $card_map{$num} || $num;

    If the value on the left of the || is true, it's the value for the entire expression, which then gets returned. If it's false (such as when $num is out of range), the right side of the || operator is evaluated, returning $num as the return value.

    The driver routine takes successive lines, chomp ing off their newlines, and hands them one at a time to the &card routine, printing the result.

  2. Here's one way to do it:

    sub card { ...; } # from previous problem
    print "Enter first number: ";
    chomp($first = <STDIN>);
    print "Enter second number: ";
    chomp($second = <STDIN>);
    $message = &card($first) 
    
    . " plus " .
      &card($second) . " equals " .
      &card($first+$second) . ".\n";
    print "\u$message";

    The first two print statements prompt for two numbers, with the immediately following statements reading the values into $first and $second .

    A string called $message is then built up by calling &card three times, once for each value, and once for the sum.

    After the message is constructed, its first character is uppercased by the case-shifting backslash operator \u . The message is then printed.

  3. Here's one way to do it:

    sub card {
      my %card_map;
      @card_map{0..9} = qw(
        zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
      );
    
      my($num) = @_;
      my($negative);
      if ($num < 0) {
        $negative = "negative ";
        $num = - $num;
      }
      if ($card_map{$num}) {
        $negative . $card_map{$num}; # return value
      } else {
        $negative . $num; # return value
      }
    }

    Here, we've given the %card_map array a name for 0.

    The first if statement inverts the sign of $num , and sets $negative to the word negative, if the number is found to be less than 0. After this if statement, the value of $num is always non-negative, but we will have an appropriate prefix string in $negative .

    The second if statement determines if the (now positive) $num is within the hash. If so, the resulting hash value is appended to the prefix within $negative , and returned. If not, the value within $negative is attached to the original number.

    That last if statement can be replaced with the expression:

      $negative . ($card_map{$num} || $num);


Previous: A.6 Chapter 7, Regular Expressions Learning Perl on Win32 Systems Next: A.8 Chapter 9, Miscellaneous Control Structures
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