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Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographical conventions are used in this book:


Used for CVS commands and their options, CVS configuration file keywords, filenames and directory names, for emphasis, and for the first use of technical terms.

Constant width

Used in code examples and to show the contents of files.

Constant width italic

Used in syntax descriptions to indicate user-defined items.

Constant width bold

Used for user input in examples that show both input and output.

[ ]

Square brackets enclose optional elements in syntax diagrams.

{ }

Braces enclose lists of elements from which you are required to make one choice.


Vertical bars separate elements in lists that are enclosed by square brackets ([...]) or braces ({...}).


Ellipses are used within syntax diagrams to indicate repetition. Ellipses are also used in code examples to indicate nonessential command output that has been eliminated for the sake of clarity and space.


In some syntax diagrams, (tab) is used to indicate a point at which you must type a tab character.

SSH, ssh

We use SSH (uppercase, regular text) as an acronym when referring to the Secure Shell protocol. We use ssh (lowercase, italic text) to refer to the Unix command often used to invoke an SSH program.

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