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Conventions Used in This Book

The following conventions are used in this book:


is used for file and directory names.

Constant width

is used for code examples.

Constant width bold

In some code examples, highlights the statements being discussed.

Constant width italic

In some code examples, indicates an element (e.g., a filename) that you supply.


In code examples, indicates PL/SQL keywords.


In code examples, indicates user-defined items such as variables, parameters, etc.


In code examples, enter exactly as shown.


In code examples, helps to show structure but is not required.


In code examples, a double hyphen begins a single-line comment, which extends to the end of a line.

/* and */

In code examples, these characters delimit a multiline comment, which can extend from one line to another.


In code examples and related discussions, a dot qualifies a reference by separating an object name from a component name. For example, dot notation is used to select fields in a record and to specify declarations within a package.

< >

In syntax descriptions, angle brackets enclose the name of a syntactic element.

[ ]

In syntax descriptions, square brackets enclose optional items.


In syntax descriptions, an ellipsis shows that statements or clauses irrelevant to the discussion were left out.

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