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0.4. Conventions

This book uses the following typographical conventions:


is used for the names of files, directories, hostnames, domain names, and to emphasize new terms when they are introduced.

Constant width

is used to show the contents of files or the output from commands. It is also used to represent commands, options, and keywords in text.

Constant width bold

is used in examples to show commands typed on the command line.

Constant width italic

is used in examples and text to show variables for which a context-specific substitution should be made. (The variable filename, for example, would be replaced by some actual filename.)

%, #

Commands that you would give interactively are shown using the default C shell prompt (%). If the command must be executed as root, it is shown using the default superuser prompt (#). Because the examples may include multiple systems on a network, the prompt may be preceded by the name of the system on which the command was given.

[ option ]

When showing command syntax, optional parts of the command are placed within brackets. For example, ls [ -l ] means that the -l option is not required.

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