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0.3. Conventions Used in This Book

The following is a list of the typographical conventions used in this book:


is used for machine names, hostnames, usernames, and IDs.


is used for file and directory names, program and command names, command-line options, email addresses and pathnames, site names, and new terms.

Constant Width

is used in examples to show the contents of files or the output from commands, to indicate environment variables and keywords that appear in code, and for Emacs commands.

Constant Italic

is used to indicate variable options, keywords, or text that the user is to replace with an actual value.

Constant Bold

is used in examples to show commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user.

  The bomb icon in the left margin is for Caution: you can make a mistake here that disables or damages your system or is hard to recover from.

The book icon indicates a reference to another part of this book or to another source of information. The citation string (or strings) underneath the book may be a number and key for a book, HOWTO article, or RFC listed in the Bibliography; a pointer to another chapter or appendix in this book; or a referral to a particular program's manual page.

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