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6.3. Common Features

The following table is a sampling of features that are common to bash, csh, and tcsh. Note that tcsh is an enhanced version of csh; therefore, tcsh includes all features of csh, plus some others.

Symbol/Command Meaning/Action
> Redirect output.
>> Append output to file.
< Redirect input.
<< ``Here'' document (redirect input).
| Pipe output.
& Run process in background.
; Separate commands on same line.
* Match any character(s) in filename.
? Match single character in filename.
!n Repeat command number n.
[ ] Match any characters enclosed.
( ) Execute in subshell.
` ` Substitute output of enclosed command.
" " Partial quote (allows variable and command expansion).
\ Quote following character.
$var Use value for variable.
$$ Process ID.
$0 Command name.
$n nth argument (0<n9).
$* All arguments.
# Begin comment.
bg Background execution.
break Break from loop statements.
cd Change directories.
continue Resume a program loop.
echo Display output.
eval Evaluate arguments.
exec Execute a new shell or other program.
fg Foreground execution.
jobs Show active jobs.
kill Terminate running jobs.
newgrp Change to a new group.
shift Shift positional parameters.
stop Suspend a background job.
suspend Suspend a foreground job.
umask Set or list permissions on files to be created.
unset Erase variable or function definitions.
wait Wait for a background job to finish.

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