home | O'Reilly's CD bookshelfs | FreeBSD | Linux | Cisco | Cisco Exam    

Java Fundamental Classes Reference

Previous Chapter 12
The java.lang Package
Next
 

Runtime

Name

Runtime

Synopsis

Class Name:

java.lang.Runtime

Superclass:

java.lang.Object

Immediate Subclasses:

None

Interfaces Implemented:

None

Availability:

JDK 1.0 or later

Description

The Runtime class provides access to various information about the environment in which a program is running. The Java run-time environment creates a single instance of this class that is associated with a program. The Runtime class does not have any public constructors, so a program cannot create its own instances of the class. A program must call the getRuntime() method to get a reference to the current Runtime object.

Information about operating system features is accessible through the System class.

Class Summary

public class java.lang.Runtime extends java.lang.Object {
    // Class Methods
    public static Runtime getRuntime();
    public static void runFinalizersOnExit(boolean value);  // New in 1.1
    // Instance Methods
    public Process exec(String command);
    public Process exec(String command, String envp[]);
    public Process exec(String cmdarray[]);
    public Process exec(String cmdarray[], String envp[]);
    public void exit(int status);
    public native long freeMemory();
    public native void gc();
    public InputStream 
           getLocalizedInputStream(InputStream in);      // Deprecated in 1.1
    public OutputStream 
           getLocalizedOutputStream(OutputStream out);   // Deprecated in 1.1
    public synchronized void load(String filename);
    public synchronized void loadLibrary(String libname);
    public native void runFinalization();
    public native long totalMemory();
    public native void traceInstructions(boolean on);
    public native void traceMethodCalls(boolean on);
}

Class Methods

getRuntime

public static Runtime getRuntime()

Returns

A reference to the current Runtime object.

Description

This method returns a reference to the current Runtime object. Because the other methods of the Runtime class are not static, a program must call this method first in order to get a reference to a Runtime object that can be used in calling the other methods.

runFinalizersOnExit

public static void runFinalizersOnExit(boolean value)

Availability

New as of JDK 1.1

Parameters

value

A boolean value that specifies whether or not finalization occurs on exit.

Throws

SecurityException

If the checkExit() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

Description

This method specifies whether or not the finalize() methods of all objects that have finalize() methods are run before the Java virtual machine exits. By default, the finalizers are not run on exit.

Instance Methods

exec

public Process exec(String command) throws IOException

Parameters

command

A string that contains the name of an external command and any arguments to be passed to it.

Returns

A Process object that controls the process started by this method.

Throws

IOException

If there is a problem finding or accessing the specified external command.

SecurityException

If the checkExec() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

Description

This method starts a new process to execute the given external command. The standard input, standard output, and standard error streams from the process are redirected to OutputStream and InputStream objects that are accessible through the Process object returned by this method.

Calling this method is equivalent to:

exec(command, null)

 public Process exec(String command, String[] envp) throws IOException 

Parameters

command

A string that contains the name of an external command and any arguments to be passed to it.

envp

An array of strings that specifies the values for the environment variables of the new process. Each String in the array should be of the form variableName =value. If envp is null, the values of the environment variables in the current process are copied to the new process.

Returns

A Process object that controls the process started by this method.

Throws

IOException

If there is a problem finding or accessing the specified external command.

SecurityException

If the checkExec() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

Description

This method starts a new process to execute the given external command. The standard input, standard output, and standard error streams from the process are redirected to OutputStream and InputStream objects that are accessible through the Process object returned by this method.

The method parses the command string into words that are separated by whitespace. It creates a String object for each word and places word String objects into an array. If that array is called commandArray, calling this method is equivalent to:

exec(commmandArray, envp)

 public Process exec(String[] commandArray) throws IOException 

Parameters

commandArray

An array of strings that contains separate strings for the name of an external command and any arguments to be passed to it. The first string in the array must be the command name.

Returns

A Process object that controls the process started by this method.

Throws

IOException

If there is a problem finding or accessing the specified external command.

SecurityException

If the checkExec() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

Description

This method starts a new process to execute the given external command. The standard input, standard output, and standard error streams from the process are redirected to OutputStream and InputStream objects that are accessible through the Process object returned by this method.

Calling this method is equivalent to:

exec(commandArray, null)

 public Process exec(String[] commandArray, String[] envp) throws IOException 

Parameters

commandArray

An array of strings that contains separate strings for the name of an external command and any arguments to be passed to it. The first string in the array must be the command name.

envp

An array of strings that specifies the values for the environment variables of the new process. Each String in the array should be of the form variableName =value. If envp is null, the values of the environment variables in the current process are copied to the new process.

Returns

A Process object that controls the process started by this method.

Throws

IOException

If there is a problem finding or accessing the specified external command.

SecurityException

If the checkExec() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

Description

This method starts a new process to execute the given external command. The standard input, standard output, and standard error streams from the process are redirected to OutputStream and InputStream objects that are accessible through the Process object returned by this method.

exit

public void exit(int status)

Parameters

status

The exit status code to use.

Throws

SecurityException

If the checkExit() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

Description

This method causes the Java virtual machine to exit with the given status code. By convention, a nonzero status code indicates abnormal termination. This method never returns.

freeMemory

public native long freeMemory()

Returns

An estimate of the number of free bytes in system memory.

Description

This method returns an estimate of the number of free bytes in system memory. The value returned by this method is always less than the value returned by totalMemory(). Additional memory may be freed by calling the gc() method.

gc

public native void gc()

Description

This method causes the Java virtual machine to run the garbage collector in the current thread.

The garbage collector finds objects that will never be used again because there are no live references to them. After it finds these objects, the garbage collector frees the storage occupied by these objects.

The garbage collector is normally run continuously in a thread with the lowest possible priority, so that it works intermittently to reclaim storage. The gc() method allows a program to invoke the garbage collector explicitly when necessary.

getLocalizedInputStream

public InputStream getLocalizedInputStream(InputStream in)

Availability

Deprecated as of JDK 1.1

Parameters

in

An InputStream object that is to be localized.

Returns

The localized InputStream.

Description

This method returns an InputStream object that converts characters from the local character set to Unicode. For example, if the InputStream uses an 8-bit character set with values less than 128 representing Cyrillic letters, this method maps those characters to the corresponding Unicode characters in the range '\u0400' to '\u04FF'.

This method is deprecated as of JDK 1.1. You should instead use the new InputStreamReader and BufferedReader classes to convert characters from the local character set to Unicode.

getLocalizedOutputStream

public OutputStream getLocalizedOutputStream(OutputStream out)

Availability

Deprecated as of JDK 1.1

Parameters

out

An OutputStream object that is to be localized.

Returns

The localized OutputStream.

Description

This method returns an OutputStream object that converts characters from Unicode to the local character set. For example, if the local character set is an 8-bit character set with values less than 128 representing Cyrillic letters, this method maps Unicode characters in the range '\u0400' to '\u04FF' to the appropriate characters in the local character set.

This method is deprecated as of JDK 1.1. You should instead use the new OutputStreamWriter and BufferedWriter classes to convert characters from Unicode to the local character set.

load

public synchronized void load(String filename)

Parameters

filename

A string that specifies the complete path of the file to be loaded.

Throws

SecurityException

If the checkLink() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

UnsatisfiedLinkError

If the method is unsuccessful in loading the specified dynamically linked library.

Description

This method loads the specified dynamically linked library.

It is often more convenient to call the load() method of the System class because it does not require getting a Runtime object.

loadLibrary

public synchronized void loadLibrary(String libname)

Parameters

libname

A string that specifies the name of a dynamically linked library.

Throws

SecurityException

If the checkLink() method of the SecurityManager throws a SecurityException.

UnsatisfiedLinkError

If the method is unsuccessful in loading the specified dynamically linked library.

Description

This method loads the specified dynamically linked library. It looks for the specified library in a platform-specific way.

It is often more convenient to call the loadLibrary() method of the System class because it does not require getting a Runtime object.

runFinalization

public native void runFinalization()

Description

This method causes the Java virtual machine to run the finalize() methods of any objects in the finalization queue in the current thread.

When the garbage collector discovers that there are no references to an object, it checks to see if the object has a finalize() method that has never been called. If the object has such a finalize() method, the object is placed in the finalization queue. While there is a reference to the object in the finalization queue, the object is no longer considered garbage-collectable.

Normally, the objects in the finalization queue are handled by a separate finalization thread that runs continuously at a very low priority. The finalization thread removes an object from the queue and calls its finalize() method. As long as the finalize() method does not generate a reference to the object, the object again becomes available for garbage collection.

Because the finalization thread runs at a very low priority, there may be a long delay from the time that an object is put on the finalization queue until the time that its finalize() method is called. The runFinalization() method allows a program to run the finalize() methods explicitly. This can be useful when there is a shortage of some resource that is released by a finalize() method.

totalMemory

public native long totalMemory()

Returns

The total number of bytes in system memory.

Description

This method returns the total number of bytes in system memory in the Java virtual machine. The total includes the number of bytes of memory being used by allocated objects, as well as the number of free bytes available for allocating additional objects. An estimate of the number of free bytes in system memory is available through the freeMemory() method.

traceInstructions

public native void traceInstructions(boolean on)

Parameters

on

A boolean value that specifies if instructions are to be traced. true if instructions are to be traced; otherwise false.

Description

This method controls whether or not the Java virtual machine outputs a detailed trace of each instruction that is executed. The boolean parameter causes tracing to be turned on or off. The tracing of instructions is only possible in a Java virtual machine that was compiled with the tracing option enabled. Production releases of the Java virtual machine are generally not compiled with tracing enabled.

traceMethodCalls

public native void traceMethodCalls(boolean on)

Parameters

on

A boolean value that specifies if method calls are to be traced. true if instructions are to be traced; otherwise false.

Description

This method controls whether or not the Java virtual machine outputs a detailed trace of each method that is invoked. The boolean parameter causes tracing to be turned on or off. The tracing of instructions is only possible in a Java virtual machine that was compiled with the tracing option enabled. Production releases of the Java virtual machine are generally not compiled with tracing enabled.

Inherited Methods

Method

Inherited From

Method

Inherited From

clone()

Object

equals(Object)

Object

finalize()

Object

getClass()

Object

hashCode()

Object

notify()

Object

notifyAll()

Object

toString()

Object

wait()

Object

wait(long)

Object

wait(long, int)

Object

   

See Also

IOException, Object, Process, SecurityException, SecurityManager, System, UnsatisfiedLinkError


Previous Home Next
Runnable Book Index RuntimeException

Java in a Nutshell Java Language Reference Java AWT Java Fundamental Classes Exploring Java






??????????????@Mail.ru