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I want to thank my family for their patience and assistance in this effort.
Kris, I love you, its as simple as that.
Eddie and Tyler, youre both fascinating and I learn more from each of you each day. I love you both very much.
I also need to thank:
While there are times where I dont know if I should thank him or kick him, I need to acknowledge Todd for making my life even more of a hectic event.
Thanks to all of the copy editors and technical editorsthere were a lot. A special note of thanks to Dave, who kept me on my toes and challenged me to the point of irritation, and Emily, who may have persuaded me to never go down to Australia. Its a better book because of all of the editors, and I am grateful for their insight and diligence. I also want to thank Julie, Linda R., Lance S., Dann, Neil, and Linda L. for their assistance.
Then, of course, there is the whole Production crewShannon M., Nila N., Tony J., Keith M., Kara S., Patrick P., Dave N., Alison M., and Laurie O. Without them, this book would be nothing but a bunch of files.
This book is intended to help you continue on your exciting new path toward obtaining your CCDP and CCIE certification. Before reading this book, it is important to have at least studied the Sybex CCNA Study Guide. You can take the tests in any order, but the CCNA exam should probably be your first test. It would also be beneficial to have read the Sybex ACRC Study Guide. Many questions in the CID exam build upon the CCNA and ACRC material. Weve done everything possible to make sure that you can pass the CID exam by reading this book and practicing with Cisco routers and switches. Note that compared to most other Cisco certifications, the CID exam is more theoretical. Practical experience will help you, especially in regard to Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10. Youll benefit from hands-on experience in the other chapters, but to a lesser degree.
Many readers may already be familiar with Cisco and what it does. However, the story of the companys creation and evolution is quite interesting.
In the early 1980s, Len and Sandy Bosack worked in different computer departments at Stanford University and started cisco Systems (notice the small c). They were having trouble getting their individual systems to communicate (like some married people), so they created a gateway server in their living room to make it easier for their disparate computers in two different departments to communicate using the IP protocol.
In 1984, Cisco Systems was founded with a small commercial gateway server product that changed networking forever. Some people think that the name was intended to be San Francisco Systems, but that the paper got ripped on the way to the incorporation lawyerswho knows? But in 1992, the company name was changed to Cisco Systems, Inc.
The first product it marketed was called the Advanced Gateway Server (AGS). Then came the Mid-Range Gateway Server (MGS), the Compact Gateway Server (CGS), the Integrated Gateway Server (IGS), and the AGS+. Cisco calls these the old alphabet soup products.
In 1993, Cisco came out with the then-amazing 4000 router, and later created the even more amazing 7000, 2000, and 3000 series routers. While the product line has grown beyond the technologies found in these platforms, the products still owe a substantial debt of gratitude to these early systems. Todays GSR product can forward millions more packets than the 7000, for example. Cisco Systems has since become an unrivaled worldwide leader in networking for the Internet. Its networking solutions can easily connect users who work from diverse devices on disparate networks. Cisco products make it simple for people to access and transfer information without regard to differences in time, place, or platform.
Cisco Systems big picture is that it provides end-to-end networking solutions that customers can use to build an efficient, unified information infrastructure of their own or to connect to someone elses. This is an important piece in the Internet/networking-industry puzzle because a common architecture that delivers consistent network services to all users is now a functional imperative. Because Cisco Systems offers such a broad range of networking and Internet services and capabilities, users needing regular access to their local network or the Internet can do so unhindered, making Ciscos wares indispensable. The company has also challenged the industry by acquiring and integrating other technologies into its own.
Cisco answers users need for access with a wide range of hardware products that are used to form information networks using the Cisco Internet Operating System (IOS) software. This software provides network services, paving the way for networked technical support and professional services to maintain and optimize all network operations.
Along with the Cisco IOS, one of the services Cisco created to help support the vast amount of hardware it has engineered is the Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert (CCIE) program, which was designed specifically to equip people to manage effectively the vast quantity of installed Cisco networks. The business plan is simple: If you want to sell more Cisco equipment and have more Cisco networks installed, you must ensure that the networks you installed run properly.
However, having a fabulous product line isnt all it takes to guarantee the huge success that Cisco enjoyslots of companies with great products are now defunct. If you have complicated products designed to solve complicated problems, you need knowledgeable people who are fully capable of installing, managing, and troubleshooting them. That part isnt easy, so Cisco began the CCIE program to equip people to support these complicated networks. This program, known colloquially as the Doctorate of Networking, has also been very successful, primarily due to its stringent standards. Cisco continuously monitors the program, changing it as it sees fit, to make sure that it remains pertinent and accurately reflects the demands of todays internetworking business environments.
Building upon the highly successful CCIE program, Cisco Career Certifications permit you to become certified at various levels of technical proficiency, spanning the disciplines of network design and support. So, whether youre beginning a career, changing careers, securing your present position, or seeking to refine and promote your position, this is the book for you!
Cisco has created new certifications that will help you get the coveted CCIE, as well as aid prospective employers in measuring skill levels. Before these new certifications, you took only one test and were then faced with the lab, which made it difficult to succeed. With these new certifications that offer a better approach to preparing for that almighty lab, Cisco has opened doors that few were allowed through before. So, what are these new certifications, and how do they help you get your CCIE?
The CCNA certification is the first in the new line of Cisco certifications, and it is a precursor to all current Cisco network support certifications. With the new certification programs, Cisco has created a type of stepping-stone approach to CCIE certification. Now, you can become a Cisco Certified Network Associate for the meager cost of the Sybex CCNA Study Guide, plus $100 for the test. And you dont have to stop thereyou can choose to continue with your studies and achieve a higher certification called the Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP). Someone with a CCNP has all the skills and knowledge required to attempt the CCIE lab. However, because no textbook can take the place of practical experience, well discuss what else you need to be ready for the CCIE lab shortly.
Why Become a CCNA?
Cisco has created the certification process, not unlike those of Microsoft or Novell, to give administrators a set of skills and to equip prospective employers with a way to measure skills or match certain criteria. Becoming a CCNA can be the initial step of a successful journey toward a new, highly rewarding, and sustainable career.
The CCNA program was created to provide a solid introduction not only to the Cisco Internet Operating System (IOS) and Cisco hardware, but to internetworking in general. This program can provide some help in understanding networking areas that are not exclusively Ciscos. At this point in the certification process, its not unrealistic to imagine that future network managerseven those without Cisco equipmentcould easily require Cisco certifications for their job applicants.
If you make it through the CCNA and are still interested in Cisco and internetworking, youre headed down a path to certain success.
To meet the CCNA certification skill level, you must be able to do the following:
How Do You Become a CCNA?
The first step is to pass one little test and poofyoure a CCNA! (Dont you wish it were that easy?) True, its just one test, but you still have to possess enough knowledge to understand (and read between the linestrust us) what the test writers are saying.
We cant say this enoughits critical that you have some hands-on experience with Cisco routers. If you can get hold of some 2500 routers, youre set. But in case you cant, weve worked hard to provide hundreds of configuration examples throughout the Sybex CCNA Study Guide book to help network administrators (or people who want to become network administrators) learn what they need to know to pass the CCNA exam.
One way to get the hands-on router experience youll need in the real world is to attend one of the seminars offered by GlobalNet System Solutions, Inc. Please check www.lammle.com for more information and free router giveaways every month! Cyberstate University also provides hands-on Cisco router courses over the Internet using the Sybex Cisco Certification series books. Go to www.cyberstateu.com for more information. In addition, Keystone Learning Systems (www.klscorp.com) offers the popular Cisco video certification series, featuring Todd Lammle.
For online access to Cisco equipment, readers should take a look at www.virtualrack.com.
It can also be helpful to take an Introduction to Cisco Router Configuration (ICRC) course at an authorized Cisco Education Center, but you should understand that this class doesnt meet all of the test objectives. If you decide to take the course, reading the Sybex CCNA Study Guide, in conjunction with the hands-on course, will give you the knowledge that you need for certification.
A Cisco router simulator that allows you to practice your routing skills for preparation of your Cisco exams is available at www.routersim.com.
For additional practice exams for all Cisco certification courses, please visit www.boson.com.
This Cisco certification has opened up many opportunities for the individual wishing to become Cisco-certified, but who is lacking the training, the expertise, or the bucks to pass the notorious and often-failed two-day Cisco torture lab. The new Cisco certification will truly provide exciting new opportunities for the CNE and MCSE who just dont know how to advance to a higher level.
So, youre thinking, Great, what do I do after I pass the CCNA exam? Well, if you want to become a CCIE in Routing and Switching (the most popular certification), understand that theres more than one path to that much-coveted CCIE certification. The first way is to continue studying and become a CCNP. That means four more testsand the CCNA certificationto you.
The CCNP program will prepare you to understand and comprehensively tackle the internetworking issues of today and beyondnot just those limited to the Cisco world. You will undergo an immense metamorphosis, vastly increasing your knowledge and skills through the process of obtaining these certifications.
Remember that you dont need to be a CCNP or even a CCNA to take the CCIE lab, but its extremely helpful if you already have these certifications.
What Are the CCNP Certification Skills?
Cisco demands a certain level of proficiency for its CCNP certification. In addition to those skills required for the CCNA, these skills include the following:
To meet the Cisco Certified Network Professional requirements, you must be able to perform the following:
How Do You Become a CCNP?
After becoming a CCNA, the four exams you must take to get your CCNP are as follows:
|If you hate tests, you can take fewer of them by signing up for the CCNA exam and the Support exam, and then taking just one more long exam called the Foundation R/S exam (640-509). Doing this also gives you your CCNPbut beware, its a really long test that fuses all the material listed previously into one exam. Good luck! However, by taking this exam, you get three tests for the price of two, which saves you $100 (if you pass). Some people think its easier to take the Foundation R/S exam because you can leverage the areas in which you score higher against the areas in which you score lower.|
|Remember that test objectives and tests can change at any time without notice. Always check the Cisco Web site for the most up-to-date information (www.cisco.com).|
Youve become a CCNP, and now youve fixed your sights on getting your CCIE in Routing and Switchingwhat do you do next? Cisco recommends that before you take the lab, you take test 640-025, Cisco Internetwork Design (CID), and the Cisco authorized course called Installing and Maintaining Cisco Routers (IMCR). By the way, no Prometric test for IMCR exists at the time of this writing, and Cisco recommends a minimum of two years of on-the-job experience before taking the CCIE lab. After jumping those hurdles, you then have to pass the CCIE-R/S Exam Qualification (exam 350-001) before taking the actual lab.
To become a CCIE, Cisco recommends the following:
The CCIE Skills
The CCIE Router and Switching exam includes the advanced technical skills that are required to maintain optimum network performance and reliability, as well as advanced skills in supporting diverse networks that use disparate technologies. CCIEs have no problems getting a job. These experts are basically inundated with offers to work for six-figure salaries! But thats because it isnt easy to attain the level of capability that is mandatory for Ciscos CCIE. For example, a CCIE will have the following skills down pat:
In addition to the Network Support certifications, Cisco has created another certification track for network designers. The two certifications within this track are the Cisco Certified Design Associate and Cisco Certified Design Professional certifications. If youre reaching for the CCIE stars, we highly recommend the CCNP and CCDP certifications before attempting the lab (or attempting to advance your career).
These certifications will give you the knowledge to design routed LAN, routed WAN, and switched LAN and ATM LANE networks.
To become a CCDA, you must pass the DCN (Designing Cisco Networks) test (640-441). To pass this test, you must understand how to do the following:
|The Sybex CCDA Study Guide is the most cost-effective way to study for and pass your CCDA exam.|
It is surprising that the Ciscos CCDP track has not garnered the response of the other certifications. It is also ironic, because many of the higher paying jobs in networking focus on design. In addition, the other certifications, including the CCIE, tend to focus more on laboratory scenarios and problem resolution, while the CCDP and CID exams look more at problem prevention. It is important to note that Cisco highly recommends the CID examination for people planning to take the CCIE written exam.
What Are the CCDP Certification Skills?
CCDP builds upon the concepts introduced at the CCDA level, but adds the following skills:
CCDPs must also demonstrate proficiency in the following:
How Do You Become a CCDP?
Attaining your CCDP certification is a fairly straightforward process, although Cisco provides two different testing options once a candidate passes the CCDA examination (640-441), which covers the basics of designing Cisco networks, and the CCNA (640-507). Applicants may then take a single Foundation Exam (640-509) or the three individual exams that the Foundation Exam replaces: Routing, Switching, and Remote Access (640-503, 640-504, and 640-505, respectively). The Foundation Exam will save you some money if you pass, but it is a much longer test that encompasses the material presented in the three other examinations. Note that the CCNP requires these same tests, except for the CCDA.
Following these two certifications and the noted exams, applicants must pass only the CID examination (640-025) to earn their CCDP. In the process, applicants will have earned three different certifications. Furthermore, many of the tests are applicable to the CCNP certification track.
This book covers everything you need to pass the CCDP: Cisco Internetwork Design exam. In concert with the objectives, the exam is designed to test your knowledge of theoretical network design criteria and the practical application of that material. Each chapter begins with a list of the CCDP: CID test objectives covered.
Chapter 1 provides an introduction to network design and presents the design models that are used in the industry, including the hierarchical model. The benefits and detriments of these models are discussed.
The tools used in network designs are introduced in Chapter 2. These include switches, routers, hubs, and repeaters.
Chapter 3 addresses the IP protocol and the many challenges that can confront the network designer, including variable-length subnet masks and IP address conservation.
The various IP routing protocols are presented in Chapter 4, including IGRP, EIGRP, and OSPF. This chapter is augmented with information on ODR and new routing techniques that are becoming important for the modern network designer.
Chapter 5 presents AppleTalk networking, including the benefits and detriments of the protocol. It is important to note that while the AppleTalk protocol is losing market share in production networks, it is still covered in the CID exam.
Chapter 6 focuses on Novell networking and the IPX protocol. Like AppleTalk, IPX provides the designer with many benefits. The protocol is also being slowly phased out in favor of IP, but, like AppleTalk, it is still part of the CID examination.
Windows networking and the NetBIOS protocol are presented in Chapter 7. This popular operating system requires knowledge of address and name management (DHCP, WINS, and DNS), in addition to an understanding of the protocols that can transport NetBIOS packets, including IPX, IP, and NetBEUI. The issue of broadcasts in desktop protocols is also covered in this chapter.
Chapter 8 presents the wide-area network (WAN) technologies, including SMDS, Frame Relay, and ATM. This presentation focuses on the characteristics of each technology.
Chapter 9 addresses the remote-access technologies, including asynchronous dial-up, ISDN, and X.25. In addition, this chapter adds to the Cisco objectives by including DSL and cable-modem technologies.
SNA networking and mainframes are covered in Chapter 10. This chapter introduces the ways to integrate SNA networks into modern, large-scale routed environments, using technologies including STUN, RSRB, DSLW+, and APPN.
Chapter 11 focuses on security as a component of network design. This includes the placement and use of firewalls and access lists in the network.
Chapter 12 summarizes the text and provides an overview of the network management.
Chapter 13 departs from the somewhat dated CID exam objectives and introduces a few of the more current issues and challenges facing modern network designers. This section covers IP multicast, VPN technology, and encryption.
Within each chapter there are a number of sidebars titled Network Design in the Real World. This material may either augment the main text or present additional information that can assist the network designer in applying the material. Each chapter ends with review questions that are specifically designed to help you retain the knowledge presented.
|Weve included an objective map on the inside front cover of this book that helps you find all the information relevant to each objective in this book. Keep in mind that all of the actual exam objectives covered in a particular chapter are listed at the beginning of that chapter.|
You may take the exams at any of the more than 800 Sylvan Prometric Authorized Testing Centers around the world. For the location of a testing center near you, call (800) 755-3926, or go to their Web site at www.2test.com. Outside of the United States and Canada, contact your local Sylvan Prometric Registration Center.
To register for a Cisco Certified Network Professional exam:
The CCDP CID test contains about 100 questions to be completed in 90 minutes. You must schedule a test at least 24 hours in advance (unlike the Novell or Microsoft exams), and you arent allowed to take more than one Cisco exam per day.
Unlike Microsoft or Novell tests, the exam has answer choices that are really similar in syntaxalthough some syntax is dead wrong, it is usually just subtly wrong. Some other syntax choices may be right, but theyre shown in the wrong order. Cisco does split hairs and is not at all averse to giving you classic trick questions.
Also, never forget that the right answer is the Cisco answer. In many cases, more than one appropriate answer is presented, but the correct answer is the one that Cisco recommends.
Here are some general tips for exam success:
After you complete an exam, youll get immediate, online notification of your pass or fail status, a printed Examination Score Report that indicates your pass or fail status, and your exam results by section. (The test administrator will give you the printed score report.) Test scores are automatically forwarded to Cisco within five working days after you take the test, so you dont need to send your score to them. If you pass the exam, youll receive confirmation from Cisco, typically within two to four weeks.
Appendix C lists a number of additional Web sites that can further assist you with research and test questions.
This book can provide a solid foundation for the serious effort of preparing for the Cisco Certified Network Professional CID (Cisco Internetwork Design) exam. To best benefit from this book, use the following study method:
To learn all the material covered in this book, youll have to apply yourself regularly and with discipline. Try to set aside the same time period every day to study, and select a comfortable and quiet place to do so. If you work hard, you will be surprised at how quickly you learn this material. All the best!
We worked hard to provide some really great tools to help you with your certification process. All of the following components should be loaded on your workstation when studying for the test.
Provided by EdgeTek Learning Systems, this test-preparation software prepares you to pass the Cisco Internetwork Design exam. To find more test-simulation software for all Cisco and NT exams, look for the exam link on www.lammle.com.
Two AG Group products appear on the CD that accompanies this book: the Windows demonstration software of NetSense and the freeware version of AGNetTools. With NetSense, you can perform expert analysis of peer-to-peer conversations in packets captured from EtherPeek or TokenPeek, both of which are available as demonstration software at www.aggroup.com. Youll find a link to their Web site on the CD interface. AGNetTools is an interface- and menu-driven IP tool compilation.
You can find out more information about AG Group and its products at www.aggroup.com.
To reach Robert Padjen, send him e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Robert provides consulting services to a wide variety of clients, including Charles Schwab and the California State Automobile Association.
You can reach Todd Lammle through GlobalNet Training Solutions, Inc. (www.lammle.com)his Training and Systems Integration Company in Coloradoor e-mail him at email@example.com.
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