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Figure 6.7 illustrates the IPX watchdog process. Figure 6.8 illustrates the SPX spoofing function. Note that watchdog spoofing was introduced in Cisco IOS version 9.1.9, and SPX spoofing was introduced in 11.0.

FIGURE 6.7  IPX watchdog

FIGURE 6.8  SPX spoofing


Novell’s IPX remains one of the easier networking protocols in terms of configuration and support. However, it is limited in scalability, and, like AppleTalk, it has lost significant market share because of the success of IP. In fact, with the release of NetWare 5, Novell changed the default networking protocol to IP. Most network designers will choose to follow this trend, where appropriate, as it may lead to a single protocol for the enterprise. However, many networks continue to use and deploy IPX, and an under-standing of this protocol is beneficial for both the exam and production networks.

This chapter presented the following:

  The Novell routing protocols, including:
  The Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
  Design techniques for NetBIOS over IPX
  IPX access lists
  The IP eXchange product
  Methods to increase the scalability of IPX, including:
  The maximum paths command to enable load balancing and faster convergence
  The use of IPX EIGRP and NLSP to improve the routing process
  The use of SAP filters and NetBIOS name filters
  The use of IPXWAN to improve routing metric accuracy on WAN interfaces

Review Questions

1.  Load balancing is available for IPX on Cisco routers with which of the following commands?
A.  ipx load-balance
B.  ipx maximum-paths
C.  ipx fast-cache all-interfaces
D.  Not available for IPX
2.  The network diameter is limited to which of the following when using IPX RIP?
A.  7 hops
B.  15 hops
C.  16 hops
D.  224 hops
3.  Cisco routers can support more than one IPX frame type on a major interface without the use of secondaries. True or false?
A.  True
B.  False
4.  Which of the following are true regarding IPX RIP?
A.  Supports update-based routing updates
B.  Provides for 15 hops
C.  Supports subnetting
D.  Sends updates every 60 seconds
5.  In order to limit the broadcasts inherent in NetBIOS, the designer should incorporate which of the following into the design?
A.  Select a naming convention that permits optimal filtering
B.  Configure an IPX WINS server on every network
C.  Avoid IPX and use IP only
D.  Provide no fewer than three equal-cost routes in the network
6.  True or false: Cisco routers, by default, permit only one IPX route per destination.
A.  True
B.  False
7.  The general rule of thumb regarding IPX limits the number of nodes per network to which of the following?
A.  100
B.  200
C.  300
D.  500
8.  Which command is needed to configure a Cisco router for multiple IPX route support?
A.  ipx load-balance
B.  ipx maximum-paths
C.  ipx fast-cache all-interfaces
D.  Not available for IPX
9.  IPX EIGRP requires which of the following?
A.  Cisco routers
B.  The same AS number for all routers in the domain
C.  Different AS numbers for all routers in the domain
D.  Point-to-point links
10.  Which of the following are true regarding the SAP process?
A.  SAPs provide alternative routes.
B.  SAPs are sent every 10 seconds.
C.  SAP traffic provides a mechanism for advertising network services.
D.  Due to their broadcast-intensive nature, SAPs can limit the overall scalability of the network.
11.  IPX type 20 traffic is responsible for which of the following?
12.  Why might a designer select IPX for a new network design?
A.  Ease of configuration and support for specific applications
B.  Permits the use of a single protocol for the Internet
C.  Scales to support over 20,000 routers and over 100,000 networks
D.  Permits routing table summarization with IPX RIP
13.  The designer wants to deploy the most scalable, standards-based, IPX routing protocol. Which of the following would you recommend?
14.  Which of the following was a benefit to the IP eXchange product?
A.  Slower processing
B.  Additional administration
C.  The use of a dedicated client on each workstation
D.  The use of a single IP address for each device in the network
15.  IPX watchdog spoof is deployed:
A.  At the workstation
B.  At the router interface facing the workstation
C.  At the router interface facing the server
D.  At the server
16.  The SPX spoof function is deployed:
A.  At the workstation
B.  At the router interface facing the workstation
C.  At the router interface facing the server
D.  At the server
17.  Which of the following is not true regarding NLSP?
A.  NLSP supports summarization.
B.  NLSP is a link-state protocol.
C.  NLSP is a distance-vector protocol.
D.  NLSP is not a replacement for IPX RIP.
18.  Why would a designer wish to use IPX watchdog spoofing and SPX spoofing?
A.  To prevent activation of DDR circuits
B.  To filter SAP broadcasts
C.  To make sure DDR circuits do not disconnect
D.  To encapsulate these packets across WAN links
19.  The delay for GNS queries on a serverless segment is (assume version 11.2 of the IOS for this question)?
A.  500 ms
B.  1 second
C.  0 ms
D.  Variable depending on the LAN media
20.  The router may be configured to:
A.  Respond to GNS queries in a round-robin fashion.
B.  Respond to GNS queries when there is a server on the local segment.
C.  Encapsulate GNS queries for transport to a central server.
D.  The router does not respond to GNS queries. This is a server function.

Answers to Review Questions

1.  B.
2.  B.
3.  B.
The administrator must use subinterfaces or secondaries.
4.  B, D.
5.  A.
6.  A.
7.  D.
8.  B.
9.  A, B.
10.  C, D.
11.  D.
12.  A.
13.  B.
This is one of the few times when the Cisco solution isn’t the requested one. IPX EIGRP is not an open standard and requires the use of all Cisco routers.
14.  D.
15.  C.
16.  B.
17.  C.
18.  A.
19.  C.
20.  A.

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